|King of Afghanistan|
|Reign||17 January 1929 – 16 October 1929|
|Coronation||17 January 1929|
|Full name||Habibullāh Kalakāni|
|Birthplace||Kalakan, Kabul Province|
|Died||1 November 1929(aged 39)|
|Place of death||Kabul, Kabul Province|
|Buried||Kabul, Kabul province, Kabul, Kabul province|
|Successor||Mohammed Nadir Ghadar|
|History of Afghanistan|
Habibullāh Kalakāni,(1890s – 1 November 1929), (Persian: حبیبالله کلکانی), was Emir of Afghanistan from January to October 1929 after deposing Amanullah Khan with the help of various Afghan tribes who opposed modernization of Afghanistan. After gaining power in Kabul, he named himself Habībullāh Khādem-e Dīn-e Rasūlallāh ("The servant of the religion of the messenger of God"). He was himself defeated and overthrown nine months later by Mohammed Nadir Khan.
Kalakani, a Kohistani Tajik, was born in the 1890s in the village of Kalakan, north of Kabul. His father Aminullah,  It is believed that he met an old Sufi man who told him that he would one day become an amir and then handed him an amulet to keep for good luck.
During his adolescence, Kalakani ventured out of his village and travelled to the city of Kabul where he joined the Afghan National Army. It is reported that he deserted the army with his rifle and fled to Peshawar in neighbouring British India (now Pakistan). He performed odd jobs there, including selling tea on the streets. He also spent 11 months in prison at Parachinar after breaking into a house. By 1924 Kalakani became a highway robber and a member of a rebel group in his village. To his Kohistani Tajik followers he became some what of a Robin Hood figure, stealing mostly from wealthy highway travellers. "To his opponents, he was regarded as a bandit and a common criminal."
King Amanullah had returned from Europe in 1928 and brought with him an increased desire to embrace many Western ideas, including social and cultural changes. His aim was to rapidly modernize the country. These ideas upset the ultra-conservative Shinwari tribe of eastern Afghanistan, who began calling for the banishment of Amanullah from Afghanistan. Habibullah Kalakni was a devout Muslim and part of conservative Afghan society. He and many of his followers were unhappy with Amir Amanullah's push to Westernize Afhgan culture. With additional support from fellow conservative Muslims from Kabul and nord those who want keep muslem culture alive, Habibullah Kalakni took advantage of the tribal revolt by the Shinwaris and others to move on the capital.
While the Afghan National Army was engulfed in severe battle in Laghman and Nangarhar, Kalakani and his Pateriot forces began to attack Kabul from the north. The revolt caught steam and right away the country was in civil war. Tribes from Waziristan had the southern areas of Kabul surrounded, and Kalakani's revolutionary forces were moving into the heart of Kabul from the north. At first he was repelled but after taking refuge in Paghman for several days he and his forces managed to take over Kabul.
In the middle of the night, on 14 January 1929, Amanullah Khan handed over his kingdom to his brother Inayatullah Khan and escaped from Kabul towards Kandahar in the south. Two days later, on 16 January 1929, Kalakani wrote a letter to King Inayatullah Khan to either surrender or prepare to fight. Inayatullah Khan's response was that he had never sought nor wished to be king and agreed to abdicate and proclaim Kalakani as the King on 17 January.
Kingship and overthrow
After he took over of the Arg (Presidential Palace) in Kabul, he discovered 750,000 British pounds and began to use that to pay the salaries of his soldiers. Kalakani's first order was to remove all the flowers from the presidential grounds and plant vegetables instead. He closed schools for women and all western education centres.
By September 1929, Amanullah Khan attempted to organize a new army with help from Indian British and recalled his top general, Mohammad Nadir, from Europe. General Nadir Khan's army quickly passed through west and southern Afghanistan. They had the advantage because they had received a thousand modern weapons from the Indian British, and the support of the other Posht tribe as many volunteers joined the army.
Nadir Khan with military and financial support from Indian British, was furnished with thousands of Pashtoon rebels from various parts of Pashtunistan, including southern Afghanistan. The suppoted Pashtoon rebels fast approached Kabul and began defeating the forces of Kalakani. By late October 1929, Kabul was surrounded by Nadir Khan's rebels. It included Shah Wali Khan, brother of Nadir Khan and brother-in-law of Amanullah. The two brothers recaptured the Arg and arrested Kalakani along with his followers.
Kalakani was executed by firing squad on 1 November 1929 along with his brother and ten other rebel leaders. The bodies were subsequently put on display, while already stiff, as is shown by the awkwardness of their positions. His place of burial is unconfirmed but it is probably his home village, Kalakan.
- "Habibullah Kalakani". Afghanistan Online. Retrieved 3 September 2006.
- Adamec, Ludwig W. (2011). Historical Dictionary of Afghanistan. Scarecrow Press. p. 183. ISBN 0-8108-7957-3. Retrieved 2012-08-28.
- Dupree, Louis: "Afghanistan", page 459. Princeton University Press, 1973
- Clements, Frank (2003). Conflict in Afghanistan: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 377. ISBN 1-8510-9402-4. Retrieved 2012-08-28.
- "Habibullah Kalakani". Afghanland.com. Retrieved 3 September 2006.
- Ansary, Tamim (2012). Games without rules : the often interrupted history of Afghanistan. New York : PublicAffairs. ISBN 9781610390941.
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|King of Afghanistan
17 January 1929 – 16 October 1929
Mohammed Nadir Shah