Habitat (video game)
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|Lucasfilm's Habitat, Qlink's Club Caribe, Fujitsu Habitat, WorldsAway, and others.|
|Developer(s)||Lucasfilm Games, Quantum Link, Fujitsu|
|Publisher(s)||Quantum Link, Fujitsu|
|Designer(s)||Chip Morningstar, Randy Farmer|
|Genre(s)||Massively multiplayer online role-playing game|
Habitat is a massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) developed by LucasArts. It is the first attempt at a large-scale commercial virtual community that was graphically based. The game was initially created in 1985 by Randy Farmer and Chip Morningstar, and made available as a beta test in 1986 by Quantum Link, an online service for the Commodore 64 computer and the corporate progenitor to America Online. Both Farmer and Morningstar were given a "First Penguin Award" at the 2001 Game Developers Choice Awards for their innovative work on Habitat. While not VR (virtual reality), as a "graphical MUD" it is considered a forerunner of modern MMORPGs, which are more similar to VR-style applications, and it was quite unlike other online communities of the time (i.e. MUDs and massively multiplayer onlines with text-based interfaces). The Habitat had a GUI and large userbase of consumer-oriented users, and those elements in particular have made the Habitat a much-cited project and acknowledged benchmark for the design of today's online communities that incorporate accelerated 3D computer graphics and immersive elements into their environments.
Habitat is "a multi-participant online virtual environment", a cyberspace. Each participant ("player") uses a home computer (Commodore 64) as an intelligent, interactive client, communicating via modem and telephone over a commercial packet-switching network to a centralized, mainframe host system. The client software provides the user interface, generating a real-time animated display of what is going on and translating input from the player into messages to the host. The host maintains the system's world model enforcing the rules and keeping each player's client informed about the constantly changing state of the universe.— Farmer 1993
Users in the virtual world were represented by onscreen avatars, meaning that individual users had a third-person perspective of themselves, making it rather like a videogame. The players in the same region (denoted by all objects and elements shown on a particular screen) could see, speak (through onscreen text output from the users), and interact with one another. Interestingly, Habitat was governed by its citizenry. The only off-limits portions were those concerning the underlying software constructs and physical components of the system. The users were responsible for laws and acceptable behavior within the Habitat. The authors of Habitat were greatly concerned with allowing the broadest range of interaction possible, since they felt that interaction, not technology or information, truly drove cyberspace. Avatars had to barter for resources within the Habitat, and could even be robbed or "killed" by other avatars. Initially, this led to chaos within the Habitat, which led to rules and regulations (and authority avatars) to maintain order.
Lucasfilm's Habitat ran from 1986 to 1988, after which it was closed down at the end of the pilot run. A sized-down incarnation but with vastly improved graphics (avatars became equipped with facial expressions, for example) was launched for general release as Club Caribe on Quantum Link in January 1988. Lucasfilm licensed the technology underlying Habitat and Club Caribe to Fujitsu in 1989, and an elaborated and evolved version launched in Japan as Fujitsu Habitat in 1990. Fujitsu later bought the technology outright, and an even more sophisticated system was relaunched on CompuServe in 1995 as WorldsAway. After spending millions and not recovering them, Fujitsu sought to either shut the worlds down or sell them off. Inworlds.com (who later became Avaterra, Inc) stepped up, bought the licensing rights and took over the reins. As of 2014 WorldsAway's flagship world known as the Dreamscape has closed down, but was operating as recently as August 2014. The only remaining licensees of the technology are a company called MetroWorlds, who are currently beta testing a new version of the WorldsAway software.
One challenge in producing games is to resist the "conceit that all things may be planned in advance and then directly implemented according to the plan's detailed specification". Morningstar and Farmer argues that this mentality only leads to failure as the potential capabilities and imagination of a game would remain confined within the small niche of developers. They generalized this well by pointing out that "even very imaginative people are limited in the range of variation that they can produce, especially if they are working in a virgin environment uninfluenced by the works and reactions of other designers".
With this outlook Morningstar and Farmer stated that a developer should consider providing a variety of possible experiences within the cyberspace, ranging from events with established rules and goals (i.e. hunts) to activities propelled by the user's own motivations (entrepreneur) to completely free-form, purely existential activities (socializing with other members). The best method to manage and maintain such an immense project, they've discovered, was to simply to let the people drive the direction of design and aid them in achieving their desires. In summary, the owners became the facilitators as much as designers and implementers.
Regardless, the authors note the importance of separation between the access levels of the designer and the operator. They classify the two coexisting virtualities as the "infrastructure level" (implementation of the cyberspace, or the "reality" of the world), which the creators should only control, and the "experiential level" (visual and interactive feature for users), which the operators are free to explore. The user not need to be aware of how data are encoded in the application. This naturally follows from the good programming practice of encapsulation.
An effort is currently underway to relaunch Habitat using emulation of both the Commodore 64 and the original Q-Link system that Habitat ran off of. The project is headed by Alex Handy, founder of The Museum of Art and Digital Entertainment (MADE), who received the game's source code from its original developers. In July 2016, the source code was uploaded by MADE to GitHub under MIT license for open review.
- Farmer, F. R. (1993). "Social Dimensions of Habitat's Citizenry." Virtual Realities: An Anthology of Industry and Culture, C. Loeffler, ed., Gijutsu Hyoron Sha, Tokyo, Japan
- "Habitat Anecdotes and other boastings" by F. Randall Farmer (Fall 1988), Electric Communities
- Morningstar, C. and F. R. Farmer (1990) "The Lessons of Lucasfilm's Habitat", The First International Conference on Cyberspace, Austin, TX, USA
- Robinett, W. (1994). "Interactivity and Individual Viewpoint in Shared Virtual Worlds: The Big Screen vs. Networked Personal Displays." Computer Graphics, 28(2), 127e
- Robert Rossney (June 1996). "Metaworlds" (4.06). Wired. Retrieved 2008-02-26.
- Castronova, Edward (2006). Synthetic Worlds: The Business and Culture of Online Games. University Of Chicago Press. p. 291. ISBN 0-226-09627-0.
[...] established Habitat as a result. This is described as a 2D graphical MUD [...]
- Lytel, David (Winter 1986). "Between Here and Interactivity". Hispanic Engineer & IT (Career Communications Group) 2 (5): 50–54. ISSN 1088-3452.
- GameSpot, "Classic Studio Postmortem: Lucasfilm Games", Chip Morningstar, 24 March 2014, accessed 03 April 2015
- "The Lessons of Lucasfilm's Habitat". stanford.edu. Retrieved 6 June 2016.
- Wardrip-Fruin, Noah and Nick Montfort, eds. The New Media Reader. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2003. ISBN 0-262-23227-8. "Lucasfilm's Habitat" pp. 663–677.
- "The Habitat Hackathon". The Museum of Art and Digital Entertainment. Retrieved 6 June 2016.
- "Bringing Habitat Back to Life". PasteMagazine. Retrieved 2016-02-22.
- Francis, Bryant (2016-07-06). "Source code for Lucasfilm Games' '80s MMO Habitat released". Gamasutra. Retrieved 2016-07-06.
- Lucasfilm Games' MMO 'Habitat' source code released by Brittany Vincent on Engadget.com (2016-07-07)
- History and screen shots of the original Habitat by Keith Elkin
- Playing Catch Up: Habitat's Chip Morningstar and Randy Farmer on Gamasutra by Alistair Wallis (October 12, 2006)
- VZN's guide to Club Caribe Screenshots and comparisons to the modern version of habitat, Vzones
- COMPUTE! magazine article about Habitat from COMPUTE! ISSUE 77 / OCTOBER 1986 / PAGE 32
- Enter The Online World of Lucasfilm RUN Magazine Issue 32