Hachijō grammar

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The Hachijō language shares much of its grammar with its sister language of Japanese—having both descended from varieties of Old Japanese—as well as with its more distant relatives in the Ryukyuan language family.[1] However, Hachijō grammar includes a substantial number of distinguishing features from modern Standard Japanese, both innovative and archaic.

Hachijō is head-final, left-branching, topic-prominent, often omits nouns that can be understood from context, and has default subject–object–verb word order. Nouns do not exhibit grammatical gender, nor do they usually indicate grammatical number.

Pronouns and demonstratives[edit]

Like Japanese, Hachijō distinguishes first and second person pronouns, and has proximal, mesial, distal, and interrogative demonstratives. Hachijō uses demonstrative pronouns in place of third-person pronouns.

Pronouns[edit]

The pronominal system of Hachijō has been partly inherited from Old Japanese and partly borrowed from Modern Japanese:[2]

Personal Pronouns
Singular Plural[a]
1st Person[b] ware[c] warera[c]
are[c] arera[c]
2nd Person unu unura ~ una ~ unara
omee omeera
omi omira
omaĭ omaĭra
nare[c] narera[c]
Interrogative: "who" dare[c] darera[c]
Interrogative: "what" ani
  1. ^ In the Uphill and Sueyoshi dialects, a different plural marker -Nsjee ~ -ĭsjee is preferred over the -ra listed here. Due to dialectal differences, it appears in Kashitate as [iɕaː], Nakanogō as [nɕaː], and Sueyoshi as [nɕeː].
  2. ^ Both ware and are are used as first-person pronouns across Hachijō, varying depending on dialect and speaker.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h The pronominal endings -re and -rera are sometimes contracted to and -ĭra.

The pronouns ware, are, unu, and dare often use irregular nominative/genitive forms with ga: waga, aga, uNga, and daga. The form uNga [uŋ.ɡa] can also be pronounced NNga [ŋ̍ː.ɡa].

Hachijō has a variety of nuances among many of its personal pronouns:

First-person pronouns[edit]

Unlike Japanese, both ware and are (and their variants) are considered ordinary and show no particular variations with regard to politeness, honorifics, or humility. Instead, they vary in usage based on the speaker, dialect, and context. For example, it is possible for both to appear in the same utterance:

arja waga esjaN topite ikaadaazjaN. (Sueyoshi dialect)

are=(w)a

me=TOP

wa=ga

me=GEN

e=sjaN

house=ORNT

topi-te

dash-PTCP

ik-a(r)-o

go-STAT-ATTR(NMLZ)

=da(r)-o=zjaN

=COP-ATTR=DECL

are=(w)a wa=ga e=sjaN topi-te ik-a(r)-o =da(r)-o=zjaN

me=TOP me=GEN house=ORNT dash-PTCP go-STAT-ATTR(NMLZ) =COP-ATTR=DECL

"I really dashed off towards my house, huh?"
が家へ駆けて行ったんだよね。[3]

Other variations include the contraction of -re to , and the contraction of -re-wa to -ra or -rja when combined with the topic marker wa. For example, uncontracted ware and warewa would be considered more feminine than contracted waĭ and wara in the Mitsune dialect, whereas in the Uphill dialects, ware and warewa would be the norm (with the contracted forms generally unused).

Second-person pronouns[edit]

Like in Japanese, it is most common to refer to an addressee by name rather than by using a pronoun. Nevertheless, several second-person pronouns do exist:

  • The pronoun omee is honorific, used for individuals of superior status. As the subject of a clause, omee is generally used with other honorific vocabulary such as the verbs ozjarowa ("to go, to come") and tamourowa ("to give").
  • The pronoun omi is polite, used for individuals whom the speaker wants to respect, but for whom the honorific omee would be excessively formal. Aside from a handful of polite verbs like wasowa ("to go, to come") and gouzirowa ("to see"), sentences with omi generally use ordinary vocabulary. The form omi is never seen without a particle.
  • The pronoun omaĭ is between omi and unu, used of those of equal or lower status. It is mildly informal or neutral, and it is often used in place of unu when people outside of the speaker's in-group are present. It is a comparatively new pronoun.
  • The pronoun unu is very informal or familiar, and it is used for family members, and close friends. However it can be somewhat rude or vulgar, depending on the dialect.
  • The pronoun nare is offensive and shows contempt, being used when fighting, arguing, scolding, etc.

The second-person pronouns omee, omi and omaĭ originate in borrowings of Japanese お前 omae "you." In modern Japanese, omae is familiar or derogatory, but it formerly had a respectful meaning, and it is in this respectful usage that it was borrowed into Hachijō.

The pronoun unu has cognates in Old and Middle Japanese 己 ono2 ~ unu "yourself, myself, oneself." Similarly, 汝 na ~ nare "you" is found in Old Japanese (including Eastern Old Japanese) and Early Middle Japanese.

Third-person pronouns[edit]

Hachijō has no dedicated third-person pronouns. When necessary, demonstratives—most often distal ones—are employed to indicate the equivalent of the third person. For example, when referring to people:

  • ure~uĭ and uĭcu are informal, used for people within one's in-group, as well as for people whom the speaker does not care about showing respect to.
  • The form uno hito (plural uno hitora) is polite, used for people outside of one's in-group. It comes from a compound of uno "that" and hito "person."
  • The form uno kata (plural uno katara) is honorific, used for referring to superiors. It comes from a compound of uno "that" and kata "person (honorific)."

Interrogative pronouns[edit]

The interrogative personal pronouns are dare "who" for human referents and ani "what" for non-human referents (cognate to Japanese 誰 dare "who" and 何 nani "what"). The pronoun ani is often contracted to aN- when consonant-initial particles are adjoined to it.

Hachijō dare is related to the Old Japanese pronoun ta ~ tare "who," but it is unclear whether the change of initial t to d was borrowed from Japanese or was an independent parallel innovation.

Hachijō ani derives directly from Eastern Old Japanese *ani "what," which is attested indirectly in Eastern Old Japanese compounds like aze "why" and ado2 "whatever" (contrast the Western Old Japanese forms naze and nado2, whence Modern Japanese なぜ naze "why" and など nado "et cetera").[4] There are also a handful of other Hachijō interrogatives historically derived from compounds with ani, such as ada "how," aNde "why," and aNsei "why."

To form indeterminate pronouns from interrogatives, the suffix -ka is added. In contrast to Japanese, this -ka is added after any case suffix, not before, e.g., Hachijō anjoka (ani=o=ka) vs. Japanese 何かを nani-ka o, both "something (accusative case)."

Demonstratives[edit]

A series of demonstratives similar to modern Japanese's ko-so-a-do series (proximal-mesial-distal-interrogative) also exists in Hachijō:[5]

Proximal (ko-) Mesial (so-) Distal (u-)[a] Interrogative (do-) Japanese Equivalent
Nominal (sg.) -re[b]
"this, that"
kore sore ure dore ~れ -re
Nominal (pl.) -rera[b][c]
"these, those"
korera sorera urera ~ ura dorera ~れら -rera
Person (sg.) -ĭcu
"this person, that person"
koĭcu soĭcu uĭcu doĭcu ~いつ -itsu
Person (pl.) -ĭcura[c]
"these people, those people"
koĭcura soĭcura uĭcura doĭcura ~いつら -itsura
Determiner -no
"this ~, that ~"
kono sono uno dono ~の -no
Location -ko
"here, there"
koko sono uku doko ~こ -ko
Direction -Qci/-QcjaN
"hither, thither"
koQci, koQcjaN soQci, soQcjaN uQci, uQcjaN
aQci, aQcjaN
doQci, doQcjaN ~っち、~ちら(に) -cchi, -chira (ni)
Direction -gata
"hither, thither"
kogata sogata ugata dogata ~っち、~ちら -cchi, -chira
Amount, Extent -odo
"this much, that much"[6]
koudo, koQdo, koroudo soudo, soQdo, soroudo uudo, uQdo, uroudo doudo, doQdo, doroudo
ikura
~れほど -rehodo
Manner, Extent -go͡oN[d]
"in this way, in that way"
kogo͡oN sogo͡oN ugo͡oN dogo͡oN
adaN[e]
~う、~んなに -u, -nnani
Type -go͡oNdoo[d][f]
"this kind of, that kind of"
kogo͡oNdoo sogo͡oNdoo ugo͡oNdoo dogo͡oNdoo
adaNdoo[e]
~んな -nna
  1. ^ In the Kashitate dialect, distal demonstratives are formed with o- rather than u-.
  2. ^ a b Just as with personal pronouns, these -re and -rera can contract to and -ĭra. The form -rera can also become -rara.
  3. ^ a b Plurality is only distinguished for humans; all nonhuman antecedents use singular pronouns regardless of their number.
  4. ^ a b This -go͡oN is shortened from -gooni "in a ~ way, in a ~ manner," a bound morpheme which is perhaps a contraction from a form related to Early Middle Japanese ~が様に ga yaũ ni, akin to Modern Japanese ~のように no yō ni.[7]
  5. ^ a b The form adaN is a compound of ada "how, in what way" and the dative -N.
  6. ^ This -doo is the attributive form of the copular verb dara "to be."

Particles[edit]

Like Japanese, Hachijō makes extensive use of grammatical particles, which indicate a variety of meanings and grammatical functions. Most parts of speech can use some particles, but the majority of particles are used with nominals (nouns and pronouns). Hachijō's noun-marking particles are classified similarly to their Japanese counterparts into the following categories:

  • Enumerating particles (並べ助詞, narabe-joshi), which mark items in lists.[8]
  • Case particles (格助詞, kaku-joshi), which mark the grammatical cases of nominials. These are further divided into:[9]
    • Standalone cases (連用格, ren'yō-kaku), which indicate self-contained phrases such as the subject or object of a sentence.[10]
    • Adjoining cases (連体格, rentai-kaku), which indicate phrases that are semantically linked to another part of the sentence, e.g., to express possession.[11]
  • Prominence particles (取り立て助詞, toritate-joshi), a broad category that is further divided into:[12]
    • Topic-focus particles (係り助詞, kakari-joshi), which emphasize, restrict, or otherwise indicate a kind of topic or focus related to the words they mark.[13]
    • Adverbial particles (副助詞, fuku-joshi), which turn words into adverbs of degree, extent, etc.[14]

When multiple particles are used on the same noun, they are generally found in the order Adverbial → Case → Topic-Focus.

Enumerating particles[edit]

Enumerating particles (並べ助詞, narabe-joshi, enum) are few in number, and they are used as conjunctions to join nominals into lists. The main particles of this type are to, ni, toka, da, and ja.

Both to and ni are used for making exhaustive lists, and are used more or less the same as in Japanese. The more usual way to form an exhaustive list is by using to, which is generally placed after every element of a list except the last (where it is optional):

(1)
サトイモサツマイモを煮ておけ。

imoto

imo=to

taro=ENUM

kaNmou

kaNmo=o

sweet.potato=ACC

nitoke.

ni-t(e)-ok-e

boil-PTCP-put-IMP

imoto kaNmou nitoke.

imo=to kaNmo=o ni-t(e)-ok-e

taro=ENUM sweet.potato=ACC boil-PTCP-put-IMP

"Boil a taro and a sweet potato."[15]

(2)
イヌサルキジに引かせて帰って来て

inumeto

inume=to

dog=ENUM

sarumeto

sarume=to

monkey=ENUM

kizimeN

kizime=ni

pheasant=DAT

hikeete

hik-a(s)e-te

pull-CAUS-PTCP

keete

keer-te

go.home-PTCP

kite

ki-te

come-PTCP

inumeto sarumeto kizimeN hikeete keete kite

inume=to sarume=to kizime=ni hik-a(s)e-te keer-te ki-te

dog=ENUM monkey=ENUM pheasant=DAT pull-CAUS-PTCP go.home-PTCP come-PTCP

"Having the dog, and the monkey, and the pheasant pull it, and then coming back home..."[15]

The enumerating particle ni, on the other hand, is used in two main ways; the first use of ni emphasizes that the speaker is recalling the elements of the list, in which emphasized elements of the list are marked by ni and other elements left unmarked:

(3)
紅、白粉、櫛、かんざし、重ねの晴れ着、雪駄の草履、筥迫、鏡、扇、しごき

bene,

bene,

rouge,

osiroini,

osiroĭ=ni,

face.powder=ENUM,

kusi,

kusi,

comb,

kaNzasi,

kaNzasi,

hair.ornament,

kasaneno

kasane=no

layer=GEN

madarani,

madara=ni,

fine.clothes=ENUM,

seQtano

seQta=no

leather.soled.sandal=GEN

zjouri,

zjouri,

sandal,

hakoseko,

hakoseko,

decorative.pouch,

kagamini,

kagami=ni,

mirror=ENUM,

ougini,

ougi=ni,

hand.fan=ENUM,

sigoki...

sigoki

waistband

bene, osiroini, kusi, kaNzasi, kasaneno madarani, seQtano zjouri, hakoseko, kagamini, ougini, sigoki...

bene, osiroĭ=ni, kusi, kaNzasi, kasane=no madara=ni, seQta=no zjouri, hakoseko, kagami=ni, ougi=ni, sigoki

rouge, face.powder=ENUM, comb, hair.ornament, layer=GEN fine.clothes=ENUM, leather.soled.sandal=GEN sandal, decorative.pouch, mirror=ENUM, hand.fan=ENUM, waistband

"rouge, and face powder, a comb, a hair ornament, and a fine layered dress, leather-soled sandals, a decorative pouch, and a mirror, and a hand fan, a waistband..."[16]

The second use of ni is found in binomial expressions such as mesini okazuおかず "rice and a side dish".[16] Unlike the case particle N~ni, the enumerating particle ni is not reduced to N after light syllables.

The particles toka, da, and ja, on the other hand, are used for making inexhaustive lists:

(4)
日傭取りとか何とかの人

hijootoritoka

hijootori=toka

day.laboring=ENUM

aNtokano

an(i)=toka=no

what=ENUM=GEN

hito

hito

person

hijootoritoka aNtokano hito

hijootori=toka an(i)=toka=no hito

day.laboring=ENUM what=ENUM=GEN person

"A person who (does) day labor and whatever else"[16]

(5)
、手鍬、草かきと言って、揃えなくちゃだよ。

magamadaa,

magama=da,

sickle=ENUM,

tegagadaa,

tegaga=da,

hoe=ENUM,

kusakakidaateQte

kusakaki=da

grass.cutter=ENUM

soreizunjadoozja

=tew-te

=QUOT.say-PTCP

jou.

sorei-zu=nja

gather-NEG.INF=DAT.TOP

 

=da(r)-o=zja

=COP-ATTR=DECL

 

jou

DM

magamadaa, tegagadaa, kusakakidaateQte soreizunjadoozja jou.

magama=da, tegaga=da, kusakaki=da =tew-te sorei-zu=nja =da(r)-o=zja jou

sickle=ENUM, hoe=ENUM, grass.cutter=ENUM =QUOT.say-PTCP gather-NEG.INF=DAT.TOP =COP-ATTR=DECL DM

"When it comes to sickles, and hoes, and grass-cutters, and such, you've got to have them all."[17] Mismatch in the number of words between lines: 5 word(s) in line 1, 7 word(s) in line 2, 7 word(s) in line 3 (help);

(6)
何か落ちれば

hasija

hasi=ja

chopstick=ENUM

aniQka

ani=ka

what=INDET

otereba

ote-reba

fall-PROV

hasija aniQka otereba

hasi=ja ani=ka ote-reba

chopstick=ENUM what=INDET fall-PROV

"If a chopstick or something falls..."[17]

Case Particles[edit]

The majority of case particles (格助詞, kaku-joshi) in Hachijō indicate standalone cases (連用格, ren'yō-kaku). The most common standalone case particles are:

Particle Japanese Cognate Explanation and Examples
ga ga Both particles of these particles mark the nominative case (nom), often used to indicate the subject of a clause.
The particle ga is more common than no, but the choice between ga and no is influenced by the subject's animacy (human & proper nouns vs. other nouns) and the type of predicate in the clause. Generally, ga is universally appropriate:

waga

wa=ga

me=NOM

学問嫌いで

gakumoNgireede...

gakumoNgiree=de

learning.hating=COP.PTCP

学問嫌いで

waga gakumoNgireede...

wa=ga gakumoNgiree=de

me=NOM learning.hating=COP.PTCP

"I hate(d) school, and..."[18]

However, inanimate subjects (that is, non-human and non-proper noun subjects) have the option of using no when used with a verb or verbal adjective predicate, especially (but not necessarily) when the predicate is subordinate:

あいつこそ

uika

uĭ=ka

that.person=FOC

asino

asi=no

foot=NOM

速い。

hajake.

haja-ke.

fast-ADJ.EXCL

あいつこそ 足 速い。

uika asino hajake.

uĭ=ka asi=no haja-ke.

that.person=FOC foot=NOM fast-ADJ.EXCL

"That person, for sure, is quick-footed."[19]

(1)
宿と言ってね、宿あったんだよ。

jadoteQte

jado=tew-te

house=QUOT.say-PTCP

noo

nou

DM

jadono

jado=no

house=NOM

aroadoazja.

ar-a(r)-o=da(r)-o=zja

be-STAT-ATTR(NMLZ)=COP-ATTR=DECL.

(Nakanogō dialect)

 

 

jadoteQte noo jadono aroadoazja.

jado=tew-te nou jado=no ar-a(r)-o=da(r)-o=zja

house=QUOT.say-PTCP DM house=NOM be-STAT-ATTR(NMLZ)=COP-ATTR=DECL.

"(He) said (there was) a house, you see, and there was one!"[19]

家は舅親建ててくれて

iiwa

e=o=wa

house=ACC=TOP

sjuutoojano

sjuutouja=no

father.in.law=NOM

tatete

tate-te

build-PTCP

kete

ke-te

give-PTCP

(Sueyoshi dialect)

 

 

iiwa sjuutoojano tatete kete

e=o=wa sjuutouja=no tate-te ke-te

house=ACC=TOP father.in.law=NOM build-PTCP give-PTCP

"This house, my father-in-law built for me, and..."[19]

However, when a predicate is of the form nominal+copula, the subject of its clause generally does not use no.

(Both ga and no also serve as markers for the genitive case—see below in the "adjoining cases" table for more details.)

no no
o~jo o Marks the accusative case (acc), usually used to indicate the direct object of a clause. Due to fusing morphophonemically with its host noun, this particle has several allomorphs, and it has been leveled to jo after non-light syllables (see the section on particle fusion for more details on the various forms of this particle). For an example of direct object use:
(1)
聞きながら、これ食べなさい/つまみなさい。

kikoutei

kik-ou-tei

listen-VOL-SIMUL

korei

kore=o

this=ACC

cumitate

cumitate

snack.on.INF

jare.

jar-e

do(HON)-IMP

kikoutei korei cumitate jare.

kik-ou-tei kore=o cumitate jar-e

listen-VOL-SIMUL this=ACC snack.on.INF do(HON)-IMP

"While you're listening, snack on this."[20]

Like Japanese を wo, it can also be used perlatively, indicating a place through which an action takes place:

(1)
鳥が空飛んでいるよ。

toricubosaga

toricubosa=ga

bird=NOM

teNneijo

teNnei=jo

sky=ACC

makimiQte

mak-i-mik-te

fly-INF-walk-PTCP

arowa.

ar-o=wa

be-ATTR=DECL

toricubosaga teNneijo makimiQte arowa.

toricubosa=ga teNnei=jo mak-i-mik-te ar-o=wa

bird=NOM sky=ACC fly-INF-walk-PTCP be-ATTR=DECL

"Birds are flying around through the sky."[21]

However, contrary to Japanese を wo, Hachijō o~jo is also used with non-verbal and stative predicates like hosikja "to want" (a verbal adjective) and sukidara "to like" (an adjectival noun) to indicate the object of desire, affection, etc.:

(1)
歌や太鼓好きなので

utaja

uta=ja

song=ENUM

teekou

teeko=o

drum=ACC

sukidoode

suki=da(r)-o=de

liking=COP-ATTR(NMLZ)=COP.PTCP

utaja teekou sukidoode

uta=ja teeko=o suki=da(r)-o=de

song=ENUM drum=ACC liking=COP-ATTR(NMLZ)=COP.PTCP

"I like songs and drums, so..."[22]

It can also be used in some situations where Japanese uses the dative-locative に ni instead, such as when marking a person to whom something is said:

(1)
「集まって」と言って

hitou

hito=o

person=ACC

acumaQtouteQte

acumar-tou=tew-te

gather-REQ=QUOT.say-PTCP

hitou acumaQtouteQte

hito=o acumar-tou=tew-te

person=ACC gather-REQ=QUOT.say-PTCP

"telling the person 'Group up!' ..."[21]

Finally, o~jo can attach to nouns in order to show mirativity:

(1)
まぁ、きれいな花!

ai,

wow

deecike

deeci-ke

pretty-ADJ.ATTR

hanoo!

hana=o

flower=ACC

ai, deecike hanoo!

aĭ deeci-ke hana=o

wow pretty-ADJ.ATTR flower=ACC

"My, what a pretty flower!"[23]

(1)

わぁ、

ai,

wow

速い!

hajasoo!

haja-sa=o

fast-ADJ.NMLZ=ACC

わぁ、 速い!

ai, hajasoo!

aĭ haja-sa=o

wow fast-ADJ.NMLZ=ACC

"Wow, how fast!"[23]

This mirative function of o~jo can be used with nominalized attributive forms of verbs. When used without a stative suffix, it expresses surprise at the continuation of an action, and when with a stative suffix, it expresses surprise at the resulting state of an action:

(1)

まぁ、

baa,

baa

oh.my

この人、

kora

kor(e=w)a

this.person=TOP

飲んでる!

nomou!

nom-o=o

drink-ATTR(NMLZ)=ACC

(変化の進行)

 

 

 

まぁ、 この人、 飲んでる!

baa, kora nomou!

baa kor(e=w)a nom-o=o

oh.my this.person=TOP drink-ATTR(NMLZ)=ACC

"Oh my, this person is drinking!" (continuing state)[23]

(1)

もう、

haa,

haa

geez

乾いてる!

kookarou!

kook-ar-o=o

dry-STAT-ATTR(NMLZ)=ACC

(洗濯物が)(変化の結果の状態)

 

 

 

もう、 乾いてる!

haa, kookarou!

haa kook-ar-o=o

geez dry-STAT-ATTR(NMLZ)=ACC

"Geez, (the laundry) is already dry?!" (resulting state)[24]

Mirative o~jo can also be used with the infinitive form, also expressing surprise at a resulting state (similar to using it with the stative & nominalized attributive). This emphasizes the intensity of the action that led to the state:

(1)
まあ、私へたに書いてる!

ai,

wow

aga

a=ga

me=NOM

hetaN

heta=N

unskillful=DAT

kakjo!

kak-i=o

write-INF(NMLZ)=ACC

ai, aga hetaN kakjo!

aĭ a=ga heta=N kak-i=o

wow me=NOM unskillful=DAT write-INF(NMLZ)=ACC

"Wow, I wrote that really badly!"[25]

N~ni ni Marks the dative (dat), used for indicating the recipient of an action, the destination of an action, or the location of a state. In passive sentences, it instead marks the agent of an action. Generally, the form N is usually found after light syllables, whereas ni is usually seen after heavy syllables, though there are exceptions (such as in the second example below). This particle overlaps in usage with the allative i~jii and lative gee.
私の隣に住んでいたオホヨおばさん[26]

waga

wa=ga

me=GEN

tonariN

tonari=N

next.door=DAT

suNde

sum-te

reside-PTCP

aroo

ar-a(r)-o

be-STAT-ATTR

ohojo-obasaN

ohojo-oba-saN

Ohoyo-aunt-HON

waga tonariN suNde aroo ohojo-obasaN

wa=ga tonari=N sum-te ar-a(r)-o ohojo-oba-saN

me=GEN next.door=DAT reside-PTCP be-STAT-ATTR Ohoyo-aunt-HON

"Ms. Ohoyo, the older woman who used to live next to me"

この兄は私二つ年上だ。[26]

kono

kono

this.ATTR

aseiwa

asei=wa

older.brother=TOP

wareni

ware=ni

me=DAT

hutacu

hutacu

two.things

anedaraa

ane

senior

 

=dar-(o=w)a

=COP-ATTR=DECL

kono aseiwa wareni hutacu anedaraa

kono asei=wa ware=ni hutacu ane =dar-(o=w)a

this.ATTR older.brother=TOP me=DAT two.things senior =COP-ATTR=DECL

"This older brother is two years older than me." Mismatch in the number of words between lines: 5 word(s) in line 1, 6 word(s) in line 2, 6 word(s) in line 3 (help);

私は母叱られた。[27]

ara

ar(e=w)a

me=TOP

hooni

hoo=ni

mother=DAT

waikjuuretara

waĭkjuw-are-tar-(o=w)a

scold-PASS-STAT-ATTR=DECL

ara hooni waikjuuretara

ar(e=w)a hoo=ni waĭkjuw-are-tar-(o=w)a

me=TOP mother=DAT scold-PASS-STAT-ATTR=DECL

"I was scolded by my mother."

それが決められない。[27]

areN

are=N

me=DAT

soiga

soĭ=ga

that=NOM

kimerareisi

kime-rare-isi

decide-PASS-DUB

areN soiga kimerareisi

are=N soĭ=ga kime-rare-isi

me=DAT that=NOM decide-PASS-DUB

"That can't be decided by me."

When the dative ni is followed by the topic-marking particle wa, they often coalesce into nja:

(に)は松の木が一本も無くて[28]

manja

ma=nja

now=DAT.TOP

macuno

macu=no

pine=GEN

kiwa

ki=wa

tree=TOP

iQpoNmo

iQpoN=mo

one=even

nakute

na-kute

not-ADJ.PTCP

manja macuno kiwa iQpoNmo nakute

ma=nja macu=no ki=wa iQpoN=mo na-kute

now=DAT.TOP pine=GEN tree=TOP one=even not-ADJ.PTCP

"Now, there isn't even one pine tree left, and..."

今朝(に)は6時に起きた。[28]

toNmetenja

toNmete=nja

morning=DAT.TOP

rokuziN

roku-zi=N

six-o'clock=DAT

okitara.

oki-tar-(o=w)a

awaken-STAT-ATTR=DECL

toNmetenja rokuziN okitara.

toNmete=nja roku-zi=N oki-tar-(o=w)a

morning=DAT.TOP six-o'clock=DAT awaken-STAT-ATTR=DECL

"This morning, I woke up at 6 o'clock."

This case marker is cognate or identical with the infinitive form ni of the copula dara.

i~jii e Marks the allative (all), used for indicating motion toward a place or the purpose for which an action is done. Etymologically from the same source as Japanese へ e, but after phonemically fusing with its host noun and undergoing historical sound shifts, it was leveled to i in most cases and thence became jii after non-light syllables (see the section on particle fusion for more details on the various forms of this particle). Overlaps in usage with the dative N~ni and lative gee.
おばあさんは川洗濯に行ったそうだが[29]

baasamawa

baa-sama=wa

grandma-HON=TOP

kooii

koo=jii

river=ALL

seNtakuN

seNtaku=N

laundry=DAT

ikaraQteiga

ik-ar-ar-(u)

go-STAT-STAT-FIN

 

=tew-o=ga

=QUOT.say-ATTR=but

baasamawa kooii seNtakuN ikaraQteiga

baa-sama=wa koo=jii seNtaku=N ik-ar-ar-(u) =tew-o=ga

grandma-HON=TOP river=ALL laundry=DAT go-STAT-STAT-FIN =QUOT.say-ATTR=but

"I hear that Grandma went to the river to do laundry, but..." Mismatch in the number of words between lines: 4 word(s) in line 1, 5 word(s) in line 2, 5 word(s) in line 3 (help);

後ろ下がれ。[29]

siQtei

siQte=i

back=ALL

sikero

sike-ro

withdraw-IMP

siQtei sikero

siQte=i sike-ro

back=ALL withdraw-IMP

"Step back!"

Hachijō sometimes prefers i~jii to mark the infinitive of purpose, rather than using the dative N~ni:

今日は草取り行くが…[29]

keiwa

kei=wa

today=TOP

kusatorii

kusator-i=i

cut.grass-INF=ALL

ikoga

ik-o=ga

go-ATTR=but

keiwa kusatorii ikoga

kei=wa kusator-i=i ik-o=ga

today=TOP cut.grass-INF=ALL go-ATTR=but

"I will/would go in order to cut the grass today, but..."

gee (?) がり gari Marks the lative case (lat), used for indicating the intended direction or destination of an action.
Overlaps in usage with the dative N~ni and allative i~jii.
その縄板をしいて、乗って揺れるんだよ。[30]

sono

sono

that.ATTR

noogee

noo=gee

rope=LAT

itoo

ita=o

board=ACC

suQtotei,

suk-totei

lay-ANT

noQte

nor-te

ride-PTCP

jurerodara

jur-e-ro

swing-POT-ATTR(NMLZ)

 

=dar-(o=w)a

=COP-ATTR=DECL

sono noogee itoo suQtotei, noQte jurerodara

sono noo=gee ita=o suk-totei nor-te jur-e-ro =dar-(o=w)a

that.ATTR rope=LAT board=ACC lay-ANT ride-PTCP swing-POT-ATTR(NMLZ) =COP-ATTR=DECL

"After laying a board on that rope, you can ride it and swing." Mismatch in the number of words between lines: 6 word(s) in line 1, 7 word(s) in line 2, 7 word(s) in line 3 (help);

この管糸を通して[30]

kono

kono

this.ATTR

kudagee

kuda=gee

pipe=LAT

itou

ito=o

thread=ACC

touii

tous-(te)

put.through-PTCP

kono kudagee itou touii

kono kuda=gee ito=o tous-(te)

this.ATTR pipe=LAT thread=ACC put.through-PTCP

"putting a thread through this pipe..."

Comparisons have been drawn between Hachijō gee, dialectal mainland Japanese gai~gee~gyaa, and Okinawan Nkai—all of allative or directive meaning—tentatively connecting them with the Old Japanese directive suffix ~がり -gari.[31][32]

sjaN さまに sama ni Marks the orientative case (ornt), indicating a direction facing which an action is performed or a state exists. In the Sueyoshi dialect, this particle can instead take the form sima.
カニは横歩く。[33]

garimewa

garime=wa

crab=TOP

jokosjaN

joko=sjaN

side=ORNT

eemowa

eem-o=wa

walk-ATTR=DECL

garimewa jokosjaN eemowa

garime=wa joko=sjaN eem-o=wa

crab=TOP side=ORNT walk-ATTR=DECL

"Crabs walk sideways."

回せば[3]

migisjaN

migi=sjaN

right=ORNT

mawaseba

mawas-eba

turn-PROV

migisjaN mawaseba

migi=sjaN mawas-eba

right=ORNT turn-PROV

"if/when you turn it to the right..."

私が我が家駆けて行ったんだよね。[3]

arja

are=wa

me=TOP

waga

wa=ga

me=GEN

esjaN

e=sjaN

house=ORNT

topite

topi-te

dash-PTCP

ikaadaazjaN

ik-a(r)-o

go-STAT-ATTR(NMLZ)

 

=da(r)-o=zja-N

=COP-ATTR=DECL-Q

(Sueyoshi dialect)

 

 

arja waga esjaN topite ikaadaazjaN

are=wa wa=ga e=sjaN topi-te ik-a(r)-o =da(r)-o=zja-N

me=TOP me=GEN house=ORNT dash-PTCP go-STAT-ATTR(NMLZ) =COP-ATTR=DECL-Q

"I really dashed off towards my house, huh?" Mismatch in the number of words between lines: 5 word(s) in line 1, 6 word(s) in line 2, 6 word(s) in line 3 (help);

[3]

jamasima

jama=sima

fields=ORNT

(Sueyoshi dialect)

 

 

jamasima

jama=sima

fields=ORNT

"towards the fields"

de de Marks the locative-instrumental case (loc), used to indicate the location or situation in which an action is done, or an instrument with which an action is performed.
柄杓水を飲むな。[34]

sjakude

sjaku=de

ladle=LOC

mizuu

mizu=o

water=ACC

nomuna

nom-una

drink-PROH

sjakude mizuu nomuna

sjaku=de mizu=o nom-una

ladle=LOC water=ACC drink-PROH

"Don't drink water with a ladle."

倉の出入口お父さんをぶっ殺して[34]

kurano

kura=no

storehouse=GEN

toboude

tobou=de

entrance=LOC

otoQcaNjo

otoQcaN=jo

father.HON=ACC

buQkoreite

buQ-koros-te

INTS-kill-PTCP

kurano toboude otoQcaNjo buQkoreite

kura=no tobou=de otoQcaN=jo buQ-koros-te

storehouse=GEN entrance=LOC father.HON=ACC INTS-kill-PTCP

"slaughtering his father at the entrance of the storehouse..."

病気血の色が変わったそうだ。[34]

bjoukide

bjouki=de

illness=LOC

cino

ci=no

blood=GEN

iroga

iro=ga

color=NOM

kooraQteija

koor-ar-(u)

change-STAT-FIN

 

=tew-o=wa

=QUOT.say-ATTR=DECL

bjoukide cino iroga kooraQteija

bjouki=de ci=no iro=ga koor-ar-(u) =tew-o=wa

illness=LOC blood=GEN color=NOM change-STAT-FIN =QUOT.say-ATTR=DECL

"I hear that his blood changed color when he was sick." Mismatch in the number of words between lines: 4 word(s) in line 1, 5 word(s) in line 2, 5 word(s) in line 3 (help);

This case marker is cognate or identical with the participle form de of the copula dara.

to to Marks the comitative case com, used to indicate together with whom or what an action is performed, or to indicate the object of comparisons or contrasts in state. Related or identical to the enumerating particle to, but distinct from the quotative particle to and the suffix -to used in certain conditional statements.
どうもおまえとは飲めない。[34]

adaN

adaN

however

nareto

nare=to

you(OFNS)=COM

nomeisi

nom-e-isi

drink-POT-DUB

adaN nareto nomeisi

adaN nare=to nom-e-isi

however you(OFNS)=COM drink-POT-DUB

"There's no way I could ever drink with you."

これ違うのを持って来い。[35]

koito

koĭ=to

this=COM

cigoujo

cigaw-o=jo

differ-ATTR(NMLZ)=ACC

moQte

mot-te

hold-PTCP

ko

ko

come.IMP

koito cigoujo moQte ko

koĭ=to cigaw-o=jo mot-te ko

this=COM differ-ATTR(NMLZ)=ACC hold-PTCP come.IMP

"Bring one that's different from this one."

kara~kaa から kara Marks the ablative case (abl), used to indicate motion away from a place, or a time after which an action progresses. When following the participle form of a verb, it always expresses the meaning "after." The form kaa is a variant with r-elision.
井戸から汲んで[36]

judokara

judo=kara

well=ABL

kuQde

kum-te

draw.water-PTCP

(Nakanogō dialect)

 

 

judokara kuQde

judo=kara kum-te

well=ABL draw.water-PTCP

"Drawing water from a well..."

これはモモから生まれたから。[36]

kora

kor(e=w)a

this=TOP

momokaa

momo=kaa

peach=ABL

umaretoote

um-are-ta(r)-o=(N)te

give.birth-PASS-STAT-ATTR=because

kora momokaa umaretoote

kor(e=w)a momo=kaa um-are-ta(r)-o=(N)te

this=TOP peach=ABL give.birth-PASS-STAT-ATTR=because

"This was because he was born from a peach."

倉の下から臼を転がし出して[36]

kuraN

kura=n(o)

storehouse=GEN

sitakara

sita=kara

underneath=ABL

usuu

usu=o

millstone=ACC

hiQkorogasi-deete

hiQ-korogas-i-das-te

INTS-roll-INF-take.out-PTCP

kuraN sitakara usuu hiQkorogasi-deete

kura=n(o) sita=kara usu=o hiQ-korogas-i-das-te

storehouse=GEN underneath=ABL millstone=ACC INTS-roll-INF-take.out-PTCP

"rolling a millstone out from under the storehouse..."

jori~jei より yori Marks the comparative case (cmpr), indicating a noun that is inferior in a comparison or that is being compared against. The form jei, now old-fashioned, is a variant with r-elision.
あなたのほうが詳しいよ、私より[37]

omeega

omee=ga

you(HON)=GEN

hou

hou

part

kuwasikja,

kuwasi-ke=(w)a

knowledgeable-ADJ.ATTR=DECL

waijori

waĭ=jori

me=CMPR

omeega hou kuwasikja, waijori

omee=ga hou kuwasi-ke=(w)a waĭ=jori

you(HON)=GEN part knowledgeable-ADJ.ATTR=DECL me=CMPR

"You're more knowledgeable—more than me."

今年のサツマイモは去年より少ない。[37]

koNdaNno

koNdaN=no

this.year=GEN

kaNmowa

kaNmo=wa

sweet.potato=TOP

kjoneNjei

kjoneN=jei

last.year=CMPR

kosidara

kosi

few

 

=dar-(o=w)a

=COP-ATTR=DECL

koNdaNno kaNmowa kjoneNjei kosidara

koNdaN=no kaNmo=wa kjoneN=jei kosi =dar-(o=w)a

this.year=GEN sweet.potato=TOP last.year=CMPR few =COP-ATTR=DECL

"There are fewer sweet potatoes this year compared to last year." Mismatch in the number of words between lines: 4 word(s) in line 1, 5 word(s) in line 2, 5 word(s) in line 3 (help);

This particle can also be used like to to indicate an object of contrast:

これ別を持って来い。[37]

koijei

koĭ=jei

this.one=CMPR

becjo

becu=o

different=ACC

moQte

mot-te

hold-PTCP

ko

ko

come.IMP

koijei becjo moQte ko

koĭ=jei becu=o mot-te ko

this.one=CMPR different=ACC hold-PTCP come.IMP

"Bring one that's different from this one."

made まで made Marks the terminative case (term), used to indicate an action or state's progression up until a place or time.
八重根まで行っても[38]

jeenemade

jeene=made

Yaene=TERM

iQtemo

ik-te=mo

go-PTCP=even

jeenemade iQtemo

jeene=made ik-te=mo

Yaene=TERM go-PTCP=even

"Despite going as far as Yaene..."

あなたはここからあそこまでなさってね。[38]

omeewa

omee=wa

you(HON)=TOP

koQkaa

kok(o)=kaa

here=ABL

ukumade

uku=made

there=TERM

sijare

s-i-jar-e

do-INF-HON-IMP

omeewa koQkaa ukumade sijare

omee=wa kok(o)=kaa uku=made s-i-jar-e

you(HON)=TOP here=ABL there=TERM do-INF-HON-IMP

"Please do it from here to over there."

madeN~madeni までに madeni Marks a deadline before which an action takes place or is expected to take place (glossed as "by" below). Etymologically a combination of the terminative case made and the dative case N~ni.
12時までに[37]

zjuunizimadeN

zjuuni-zi=madeN

twelve-o'clock=by

zjuunizimadeN

zjuuni-zi=madeN

twelve-o'clock=by

"by twelve o'clock"

gara~gaa (?) がり gari Marks a noun whose portion, function, or location is being considered (glossed as "portion" in the examples below). The form gaa is a variant with r-elision, and the forms nogara~nogaa (combined with the genitive no) are also seen.
(反物)一尺分、(糸)三匁だよ。[37]

iQsjakugara

iQsjaku=gara

one.shaku=portion

saNmoNmedaraa

saN-moNme

three-monme

 

=dar-(o=w)a

=COP-ATTR=DECL

(Nakanogō dialect)

 

 

iQsjakugara saNmoNmedaraa

iQsjaku=gara saN-moNme =dar-(o=w)a

one.shaku=portion three-monme =COP-ATTR=DECL

"For one shaku (of fabric), it's three momme (of thread)." Mismatch in the number of words between lines: 2 word(s) in line 1, 3 word(s) in line 2, 3 word(s) in line 3 (help);

(魚を)綺麗にして売る人のもとへ持って行って[11]

diaciku

deeci-ku

clean-ADJ.INF

site

si-te

do-PTCP

uro

ur-o

sell-ATTR

hitonogaa

hito=no=gaa

person=GEN=portion

moQte

mot-te

hold-PTCP

iQte

ik-te

go-PTCP

(Nakanogō dialect)

 

 

diaciku site uro hitonogaa moQte iQte

deeci-ku si-te ur-o hito=no=gaa mot-te ik-te

clean-ADJ.INF do-PTCP sell-ATTR person=GEN=portion hold-PTCP go-PTCP

"Cleaning up (the fish) and bringing it to a seller..."

継子の分は三粒粥を炊いて[11]

mamakonogaawa

mamako=no=gaa=wa

stepchild=GEN=portion=TOP

miQcubugeejo

miQcubugee=jo

three.grain.gruel=ACC

nitoQtei

ni-t(e)-ok-te

boil-PTCP-put-PTCP

mamakonogaawa miQcubugeejo nitoQtei

mamako=no=gaa=wa miQcubugee=jo ni-t(e)-ok-te

stepchild=GEN=portion=TOP three.grain.gruel=ACC boil-PTCP-put-PTCP

"boiling three grains' worth of rice gruel for the stepchild's portion..."

Kaneda (2001) notes that gara is unlikely to be a true case-marking particle, but as it occupies a similar spot in the particle hierarchy, it is tentatively included with them. He also notes that gara probably has some relationship with the Old Japanese directive suffix ~がり -gari.

The smaller class of adjoining case (連体格, rentai-kaku) particles is largely based around the genitive case (marked by ga or no) and compounds thereof:

Particle Japanese Cognate Explanation and Examples
ga ga Both particles mark the genitive case (gen), used to indicate possession and similar relationships. Generally, humans use ga, while non-humans use no; The major exceptions are that long-dead historical figures and ancestors can optionally use no, and individualized animals such as pets tend to use ga instead of no. The particle no is also preferred when another particle comes between no and the nominal, such as in the compounds karano and madeno (listed below).
おまえ腰を見ろ。[18]

narega

nare=ga

you(OFNS)=GEN

kosjo

kosi=o

lower.back=ACC

miro

mi-ro

look-IMP

narega kosjo miro

nare=ga kosi=o mi-ro

you(OFNS)=GEN lower.back=ACC look-IMP

"Look at your lower back."

サダイチ家でも[18]

sadaiciga

sadaici=ga

Sadaichi=GEN

edemo

e

house

 

=de=mo

=COP.PTCP=even

sadaiciga edemo

sadaici=ga e =de=mo

Sadaichi=GEN house =COP.PTCP=even

"Despite it being Sadaichi's house..." Mismatch in the number of words between lines: 2 word(s) in line 1, 3 word(s) in line 2, 3 word(s) in line 3 (help);

袋の底無いので[19]

hukurono

hukuro=no

bag=GEN

sokoga

soko=ga

bottom=NOM

naQkede

na-ke

not-ADJ.ATTR(NMLZ)

 

=de

=COP.PTCP

hukurono sokoga naQkede

hukuro=no soko=ga na-ke =de

bag=GEN bottom=NOM not-ADJ.ATTR(NMLZ) =COP.PTCP

"Because the bag has no bottom..." Mismatch in the number of words between lines: 3 word(s) in line 1, 4 word(s) in line 2, 4 word(s) in line 3 (help);

Though it is not common, the genitive no can occasionally be reduced to N:

下から臼を転がし出して[36]

kuraN

kura=n(o)

storehouse=GEN

sitakara

sita=kara

underneath=ABL

usuu

usu=o

millstone=ACC

hiQkorogasi-deete

hiQ-korogas-i-das-te

INTS-roll-INF-take.out-PTCP

kuraN sitakara usuu hiQkorogasi-deete

kura=n(o) sita=kara usu=o hiQ-korogas-i-das-te

storehouse=GEN underneath=ABL millstone=ACC INTS-roll-INF-take.out-PTCP

"rolling a millstone out from under the storehouse..."

Ga is usually preferred over no in the phrase -ga hou (Japanese ~のほう no hou), used to mark something that is superior in a comparison; the hou in this phrase also usually takes no case marker of its own:

あそこのほうはもう少し遠い畑だ。[39]

ukuga

uku=ga

there=GEN

hou

hou

part

maciQto

maciQto

somewhat

toujamadara

tou-jama

far-field

 

=dar-(o=w)a

=COP-ATTR=DECL

ukuga hou maciQto toujamadara

uku=ga hou maciQto tou-jama =dar-(o=w)a

there=GEN part somewhat far-field =COP-ATTR=DECL

"That place over there is a field that is a little more distant." Mismatch in the number of words between lines: 4 word(s) in line 1, 5 word(s) in line 2, 5 word(s) in line 3 (help);

Lastly, the genitive does not necessarily require a noun to follow it, if it can be inferred from context:

あの猫をこの猫に飲まれた。[40]

uno

uno

that.ATTR

neQkomegoo

neQkome=ga=∅=o

cat=GEN=∅=ACC

kono

kono

this.ATTR

neQkomeN

neQkome=N

cat=DAT

nomaretara

nom-are-tar-(o=w)a

drink-PASS-STAT-ATTR=DECL

uno neQkomegoo kono neQkomeN nomaretara

uno neQkome=ga=∅=o kono neQkome=N nom-are-tar-(o=w)a

that.ATTR cat=GEN=∅=ACC this.ATTR cat=DAT drink-PASS-STAT-ATTR=DECL

"This cat drank that cat's (drink)."

no no
karano~kaano からの kara no A combination of the ablative kara~kaa and the genitive no. Means roughly "which is from" or "who is from."
東京からの[11]

kunikarano

kuni=kara=no

mainland=ABL=GEN

kjaku

kjaku

guest

kunikarano kjaku

kuni=kara=no kjaku

mainland=ABL=GEN guest

"a guest from Tokyo"

3時からの宴会[11]

saNzikaano

saN-zi=kaa=no

three-o'clock=ABL=GEN

nigijaka

nigijaka

party

saNzikaano nigijaka

saN-zi=kaa=no nigijaka

three-o'clock=ABL=GEN party

"the party that starts at 3 o'clock"

madeno までの made no A combination of the terminative made and the genitive no. Means roughly "which is until."
出発までの時間[11]

dehunemadeno

de-hune=made=no

go.out.INF-ship=TERM=GEN

ito

ito

timespan

dehunemadeno ito

de-hune=made=no ito

go.out.INF-ship=TERM=GEN timespan

"the time until the boat's departure"

夕方までの宴会[11]

kuregatamadeno

kuregata=made=no

evening=TERM=GEN

nigijaka

nigijaka

party

kuregatamadeno nigijaka

kuregata=made=no nigijaka

evening=TERM=GEN party

"the party that lasts until the evening"

Prominence Particles[edit]

The first type of prominence particles (取り立て助詞, toritate-joshi) are known as topic-focus particles (係り助詞, kakari-joshi), which introduce either a topic or focus component of a sentence. The particles wa, mo, sika, made, and see do not affect the conjugation of a sentence's verb, while the focus particles ka & koo and the interrogative particle ka do affect it.

Particle Japanese Cognate Explanation and Examples
wa wa (top) Introduces a contrastive topic or new information, often translatable as "as for ~" or "when it comes to ~."
mo mo Introduces an inclusive topic or something related to previously established information, often translatable as "~ also" or "~ too."

When following the participle form of a verb or adjective, mo can be translated with a meaning like "even though" or "even if." The form demo, a compound with the participle de of the copula dara, is a specialized use of this particle.

sika しか shika Used with negative sentences to indicate a sole exception, often translatable as "nothing but ~" or "except ~."
made まで made The same as the terminative case particle made listed previously, but used with a topic-focus meaning. Used to emphasize that even the marked element is to be included despite expectation, often translatable as "even ~."
see さえ sae Shows a similar but stronger type of emphasis as made, again often translatable as "even ~."

Finally, the following three particles affect the inflection of the subsequent verb:

Particle Japanese Cognate Explanation and Examples
ka (?) こそは koso wa (foc) Generally equivalent in use to Classical Japanese こそ koso. Marks a noun as a focused element in the sentence, often translatable as "it is ~ that" or "~ is that which." Requires the main verb of the sentence to be in its exclamatory form rather than a declarative form. To make such sentences tag questions or to add emphasis, the sentence-final particle ga can be added after the verb. Examples can be found in the section on exclamatory kakari-musubi. Sample sentences from NINJAL (1950) show this particle used both in combination with and interchangeably with koso~koo.[41]

Kaneda (2001) hypothesizes that this ka originally comes from an extreme contraction of koso wa.[42]

koo (?) こそは+は koso wa + wa (foc) A contraction of the focus particle ka and the topic-marking wa. Marks a noun as a focused element in the sentence, often translatable as "it is ~ that" or "~ is that which." Requires the main verb of the sentence to use the focalizing extension -naw- in its exclamatory form -nee. To make such sentences tag questions or to add emphasis, the sentence-final particle goo (a contraction of ga and wa) can be added after the verb. Examples can be found in the section on focalized exclamatory kakari-musubi below.[41]

Kaneda (2001) hypothesizes that ka originally comes from an extreme contraction of koso wa, meaning that etymologically, koo (itself from ka-wa) would contain wa twice.[42]

ka ka (q) Although questions in Hachijō can often be expressed without being marked by an interrogative particle, this particle ka serves to explicitly mark questions, particularly yes–no questions. The forms kaa and kaĭ can also be seen in cases where this particle is sentence-final. Details on the usage of this particle can be found in the section on interrogative sentences.

Adverbial particles (副助詞, fuku-joshi) express adverbs of degree, extent, etc.

Particle Japanese Cognate Explanation and Examples
guree ぐらい gurai Expresses that a stated amount or measurement is approximate:
三寸ぐらいに切ってあったかねえ。[43]

saNzuNgureeni

saNzuN=guree=ni

three.sun=about=DAT

kirete

kire-te

be.cut-PTCP

aQtaka

ar-ta=ka

be-JPST=Q

noo

noo

QT

saNzuNgureeni kirete aQtaka noo

saNzuN=guree=ni kire-te ar-ta=ka noo

three.sun=about=DAT be.cut-PTCP be-JPST=Q QT

"I think it might've been cut into roughly 3-sun-long pieces."

It can also be used to indicate something of lowly status:

ぐらいには教えてもいいだろう。[43]

aregureenja

are=guree=nja

me=about=DAT.TOP

oseitemo

osei-te=mo

teach-PTCP=even

jokaNnouzja

jo-kar-(u)-naw-o=zja

good-ADJ-FIN-CNJEC-ATTR=DECL

aregureenja oseitemo jokaNnouzja

are=guree=nja osei-te=mo jo-kar-(u)-naw-o=zja

me=about=DAT.TOP teach-PTCP=even good-ADJ-FIN-CNJEC-ATTR=DECL

"You could at least tell the likes of me."

(In the previous example, areNguree (are=N=guree, me=dat=about) would also be acceptable in place of aregureenja.)

dake だけ dake Expresses that the marked word is unique or exclusive:
私はね、足だけは達者だ。[44]

warja

ware=wa

me=TOP

no,

no

DM

asidakewa

asi=dake=wa

leg=only=TOP

taQsjada

taQsja=da

robust=COP.JPRS

warja no, asidakewa taQsjada

ware=wa no asi=dake=wa taQsja=da

me=TOP DM leg=only=TOP robust=COP.JPRS

"My legs are only thing about me that's strong."

When combined with the demonstratives kore, sore, ure, or dore, this particle instead indicates the extent of an action:

よくあれほど書けたなと思って、私も驚いて[45]

joku

jo-ku

good-ADJ.INF

uidake

uĭ=dake

that=extent

kaketaNnouto

kak-e-tar-(u)-naw-u=to

write-POT-STAT-FIN-FOCLZ-FIN=QUOT

moQte

(o)mow-te

think-PTCP

waimo

waĭ=mo

me=also

sobeite

sobei-te

be.surprised-PTCP

joku uidake kaketaNnouto moQte waimo sobeite

jo-ku uĭ=dake kak-e-tar-(u)-naw-u=to (o)mow-te waĭ=mo sobei-te

good-ADJ.INF that=extent write-POT-STAT-FIN-FOCLZ-FIN=QUOT think-PTCP me=also be.surprised-PTCP

"Even I was surprised, wondering how was I able to write that much, and..."

In older speech, koudake "to this extent" and doudake "to what extent" can also be seen. These are believed to be contracted from earlier forms *ko(re)-hodo-dake and *do(re)-hodo-dake.[46]

baQkari ~ baQkaĭ 許り bakari Expresses the current limit, current extent, etc. of something:
あいつは図体ばかり大きくなって、まだ子供っぽくてダメだ。[46]

ura

ur(e=w)a

that.person=TOP

gakeebaQkai

gakee=baQkaĭ

body=just

bouku

bou-ku

big-ADJ.INF

naQte

nar-te

become-PTCP

maada

maada

still

cigocigosite

cigocigo=si-te

childishness=do-PTCP

damedara

dame=dar-(o=w)a

no.good=COP-ATTR=DECL

ura gakeebaQkai bouku naQte maada cigocigosite damedara

ur(e=w)a gakee=baQkaĭ bou-ku nar-te maada cigocigo=si-te dame=dar-(o=w)a

that.person=TOP body=just big-ADJ.INF become-PTCP still childishness=do-PTCP no.good=COP-ATTR=DECL

"He's grown up in appearance only; he's still childish, so he's no good."

よってたかって私をばかりせめるよ。[46]

horikotonaQtotei

horikotonaQtotei

in.a.crowd

wareibaQkai

ware=o=baQkaĭ

me=ACC=just

semerowa

seme-ro=wa

assail-ATTR=DECL

horikotonaQtotei wareibaQkai semerowa

horikotonaQtotei ware=o=baQkaĭ seme-ro=wa

in.a.crowd me=ACC=just assail-ATTR=DECL

"They all gang up together on just me."

畑で昔はね、春山節ばかりコソ歌ったよね。[47]

jamade

jama=de

field=LOC

mukasiwa

mukasi=wa

long.ago=TOP

noo

nou

DM

harujamapusibaQkarikoa

haru-jama-pusi=baQkari=koo

spring-mountain-melody=just=FOC

utoaNnee

utaw-ar-(u)-naw-e

sing-STAT-FIN-FOCLZ-EXCL

noo

nou

DM

(Nakanogō dialect)

 

 

jamade mukasiwa noo harujamapusibaQkarikoa utoaNnee noo

jama=de mukasi=wa nou haru-jama-pusi=baQkari=koo utaw-ar-(u)-naw-e nou

field=LOC long.ago=TOP DM spring-mountain-melody=just=FOC sing-STAT-FIN-FOCLZ-EXCL DM

"In the old days, the only thing we sang in the fields was 'Spring Mountain Melody,' you know."

あなたがね、百姓をするのも容易じゃないよ、毎日毎日天気だと畑ばかりでね。[6]

omiga

omi=ga

you(POL)=NOM

noo

nou

DM

hjakusjoojo

hjakusjou=jo

peasant=ACC

sjomo

sj-o=mo

do-ATTR(NMLZ)=also

jooizja

joui=de=(w)a

simple=COP.PTCP=TOP

naQkja.

na-ke=(w)a

not-ADJ.ATTR=DECL

mainici hinici

maĭnici-hinici

every.day-date

teNkidato

teNki=da=to

weather=COP.JPRS=if

jamabaQkaride

jama=baQkari=de

field=just=COP.PTCP

naa

naa

DM

(Sueyoshi dialect)

 

 

omiga noo hjakusjoojo sjomo jooizja naQkja. {mainici hinici} teNkidato jamabaQkaride naa

omi=ga nou hjakusjou=jo sj-o=mo joui=de=(w)a na-ke=(w)a maĭnici-hinici teNki=da=to jama=baQkari=de naa

you(POL)=NOM DM peasant=ACC do-ATTR(NMLZ)=also simple=COP.PTCP=TOP not-ADJ.ATTR=DECL every.day-date weather=COP.JPRS=if field=just=COP.PTCP DM

"It's not easy to be a lowly farmer, you know. If it's (hot and sunny) weather day in and day out, all (that there is) is the fields."

hodo hodo Expresses an adverb of degree or extent in comparison to the marked word:
あの人ほどは飲まないよ。[6]

unohitohodowa

uno-hito=hodo=wa

that.ATTR-person=extent=TOP

nomiNnaka

nom-i-Nnak-(o=w)a

drink-INF-NEG-ATTR=DECL

unohitohodowa nomiNnaka

uno-hito=hodo=wa nom-i-Nnak-(o=w)a

that.ATTR-person=extent=TOP drink-INF-NEG-ATTR=DECL

"I won't/don't drink as much as that person."

This particle hodo has specialized forms when combined with demonstratives, and these forms depend on dialect. The major variants are koudosoudouudo, koQdosoQdouQdo, and koroudosoroudouroudo.[6]

(椿油の)二番(搾り)がこのくらい。[6]

nibaNga

nibaN=ga

second.one=NOM

koraodo

koroudo

this.extent

(Aogashima dialect)

 

 

nibaNga koraodo

nibaN=ga koroudo

second.one=NOM this.extent

"The second (squeezing of tea seed oil) (is) about this much."

Nsee ~ Ncjee Broadens the meaning of a noun phrase to include other examples of the same thing or similar things. The form -Ncjee is found in the Sueyoshi dialect. Following the restriction on superheavy syllables, this suffix becomes -see ~ -cjee following a heavy syllable. Cognate with the plural suffix -Nsjee ~ -isjee used for pronouns in the Uphill Dialects and Sueyoshi.

Particle Fusion[edit]

Some particles, particularly o~jo, i~jii, and N~ni, regularly undergo fusion with their host word:[48]

Bare Form With o~jo (を) With i~jii (へ) With N~ni (に)
a-final ...a ...oo ...ee ...aN
i-final ...i ...jo[a] ...ii ...iN
u-final ...u ...uu ...ii ...uN
e-final ...e ...ei ...ei ...eN
o-final ...o ...ou ...ei ...oN
long vowel-final ...VV ...VVjo ...VVjii[b] ...VVni[c]
N-final ...N ...Njo ...Njii[b] ...Nni
  1. ^ In the Aogashima and Sueyoshi dialects, the sequence ...i + -o yields ...ii rather than ...jo.[20]
  2. ^ a b In the Aogashima dialect, these cases of jii [iː] instead become rii [ɾiː].[49]
  3. ^ In rare and fossilized situations, a long vowel followed by the N~ni particle can instead become a shortened long vowel followed by N. For example, the ending -gooni "in ~ way, in ~ manner" found after demonstratives can be shortened to -go͡oN.[50]

In summary, words ending in light syllables undergo fusion with underlying *o, *i, and *N; whereas words ending in non-light syllables use the static longer forms jo, jii (Aogashima dialect rii), and ni.

In some older texts, the topic-marking particle wa (corresponding to Japanese は wa) can also be seen contracting with host nominals it follows (for example, ...ci + wa...cja), but most such contractions with wa have fallen out of use in the present day.[26] Surviving exceptions generally involve the pronominal ending -re (see below) contracting with wa to make -ra or -rja, or the combination of wa with other particles like -ni-wa-nja.

Verbals[edit]

Verbal chains[edit]

All Hachijō verbals (verbs and verbal adjectives) make use of a variety of suffixes to indicate the verb's grammatical and semantic function. Suffixes attach to a phonological base form called the stem, occasionally triggering minor allophony; this combination of a stem and various suffixes creates a verb chain, which is one polymorphemic word. Verbal suffixes can be broadly classified into derivations, endings, auxiliaries, extensions, and postfixes:

Verb derivations attach to the stem and create a longer verb stem to which further suffixes can attach. They can combine with each other, in the order (Stem →) Causative → Passive or Potential → Stative → Retrospective or Past Subjunctive.

Verbal endings are always mandatory, with each verb using one. Endings generally end verb chains, but there are certain suffixes (auxiliaries and extensions) that can restart the verb chain. Depending on the exact function of the ending, the resulting verb can be finite or non-finite.

Verbal auxiliaries are verbs or verblike forms that attach to the infinitive, forming serial verb constructions. Being verbals, they themselves take endings of their own, restarting the verb chain. Verbal extensions are similar to auxiliaries, but attaching to the final form (or a Japanese-style tense) instead.

Verbal postfixes are like auxiliaries and verbal extensions in that they attach verb endings to extend the verb chain, but are also like verbal endings in that they conclude a verb chain.


Derivations Endings Auxiliaries[a] Extensions[b] Postfixes
  • Causative -ase-
  • Passive -are-
  • Potential -e-
  • Stative -ar- ~ -tar-
  • Retrospective -ci
  • Past Subjunctive -oositar- ~ -isitar- ~ -roositar-
  • attributive form -o ~ -ro
  • final form -u ~ -ru
  • infinitive -i
  • negative infinitive -izu ~ -azu ~ -zu
  • conditional gerund -aba ~ -ba
  • imperative form -e ~ -ro
  • exclamatory form -e ~ -re
  • provisional gerund -eba ~ -reba
  • concessive gerund -edou ~ -redou
  • dubitative -oosi ~ -isi ~ -roosi
  • optative -oosunou ~ -isunou ~ -roosunou
  • intentional gerund -oosjaate ~ -isjaate ~ -roosjaate
  • volitional form -ou ~ -rou
  • participle -te
  • requisitional form -tou
  • anterior gerund -toQtei ~ -totei
  • futile-hypothetical gerund -jaatei ~ -rjaatei
  • Japanese-style present -u ~ -ru
  • Japanese-style past -ta and -taQta
  • Japanese-style representative gerund -tari
  • New-Type negative -Nnak-
  • Old-Type negative -Nzjar-
  • -genar- "seems to"
  • honorific -jar-
  • humble -itas-
  • non-intentional -imadow-[c]
  • lexical auxiliaries (-mik-, -das-, etc.)
  • conjectural -naw-
  • focalizing -naw-
  • suppositional -rasi-kja
Attaching to the final form:
  • prohibitive -na
  • jussive -beki
  • Japanese-style negative presumptive -mee

Attaching to the infinitive:

  • simultaneous gerund -gacu ~ -gacura
  • simultaneous gerund -nagara

Attaching to the volitional form:

  • simultaneous gerund -tei

Attaching to a Japanese-style tense:

  • Japanese-style present presumptive -darou
  • Japanese-style past presumptive -rou
  1. ^ Attach to infinitives.
  2. ^ Attach to final forms.
  3. ^ Only attaches to negative infinitive -zu, making -ziimadow-.

While most suffixes follow the above categories and combination rules, there are exceptions, such as nomiziisi "won't not drink," which contains two endings in a row: the negative infinitive -izu and the dubitative -isi.

Lastly, there are several particles that can attach to certain verb forms, usually the attributive, infinitive, or participle. These are considered to be clitics that attach themselves to verb chains, not part of the chain themselves:

  • declarative particles -wa, -zja
  • question particles -ka, -kaN, -ĭ, etc.
  • conjunctional particles -Nte, -karanja, -ni, -de, -ga, -to, etc.
  • case particles -i, -ni, -kara, -o, etc.

Conjugation classes[edit]

Due to sound changes and other historical developments, the conjugation patterns found in Eastern Old Japanese have separated into several more distinct patterns in Hachijō. The following list of conjugation classes is derived from Kaneda (2001):[51]

Class 1.1A Verbs — Strong Consonant-Stem, Participle Qte
Consonant-stem verbs whose stem ends in a light syllable followed by k, t, r, or a strong w. It also includes the verb jowa "to say," whose stem is nominally *iw- but becomes j- when followed by a vowel. Class 1.1A verbs with stems in w all have only a single short syllable before the w; other w-stem verbs are of Class 1.1A'.
Examples: kakowa "write," katowa "win," torowa "take," kawowa "buy," macikowa "curse," jowowa "get drunk," butowa "hit," jowa "say."
Class 1.1A-uw Verbs — Strong uw-Stem, Participle Qte
Consonant-stem verbs whose stem ends in u followed by a mostly-strong w. They differ from Class 1.1A w-stem verbs only in the attributive and final forms (and derived forms), where uw-o and uw-u contract to uu. Like w-stem Class 1.1A verbs, this class consists of verbs that have only a single syllable before the w. Kaneda classifies these verbs as a special subclass of 1.1A' verbs (subclass 1.1A'a), but they are separated here for clarity.
Examples: nuuwa "sew," kuuwa "eat," suuwa "suck," juuwa "tie up."
Class 1.1A' Verbs — Weak w-Stem, Participle Qte
Consonant-stem verbs whose stem ends in a light syllable followed by a weak w. They can be subclassified into 1.1A'b (stem-final uw-), 1.1A'c (stem-final ow-), and 1.1A'd (stem-final aw-). For some speakers, particularly in Downhill dialects, verbs that once followed this conjugation have been partly or completely converted to Class 1.1B by treating the stative stem (with -ar-) as a new base stem.[52]
Examples: (b) huruuwa "shake," sukuuwa "scoop"; (c) omouwa "think," irouwa "bully"; (d) cukouwa "use," warouwa "laugh," juwouwa "celebrate," -nouwa "(conjectural suffix)."
Class 1.1B Verbs — Strong Consonant-Stem, Participle te
Consonant-stem verbs whose stem ends in a heavy syllable followed by k, t, or r.
Examples: kourowa "freeze," keerowa "go home," koorowa "change," kookowa "dry," cjoorowa "touch."
Class 1.1C Verbs — Semi-Strong r-Stem, Participle Qte
Consonant-stem verbs created from the stative suffix -ar- or another combination with the existence verb ar-, like the copula dara (from de + arowa). Non-verbal adjectives such as heta "unskilled, crude" also can be said to follow this conjugation, as they use the copula dara in order to describe nouns, e.g., hetadoo sito "an unskilled person." Kaneda classifies these verbs as a special class of 1.1A verbs, but they are separated here for clarity.
Examples: dara "be (copula)," oora "be, exist," -(t)ara "(stative suffix)," -Nzjara "(Old-Type negative)."
Class 1.2A Verbs — Strong Consonant-Stem, Participle Nde
Consonant-stem verbs whose stem ends in a light syllable followed by m, b, g, or n.
Examples: kamowa "eat," nomowa "drink," jemowa "smile," asubowa "play," marubowa "die," ojogowa "swim," kasjagowa "slant," cinowa "die."
Class 1.2B Verbs — Strong Consonant-Stem, Participle de
Consonant-stem verbs whose stem ends in a heavy syllable followed by m, b, or g.
Examples: houmowa "contain," eemowa "walk," soogowa "clamor."
Class 1.3A Verbs — Weak s-Stem, Short-Euphonic
Consonant-stem verbs whose stem ends in a light syllable followed by a weak s; this s becomes a coalescing i in certain inflections. For some speakers, particularly in Uphill dialects, verbs that once followed this conjugation are now conjugated as class 1.3B partly or completely instead.
Examples: dasowa "take out," watasowa "send across," modosowa "put back," nabusowa "hide."
Class 1.3A' Verbs — Weak s-Stem, Long-Euphonic
Consonant-stem verbs whose stem ends in a heavy syllable followed by a weak s; this s becomes (non-coalescing) ii in certain inflections. For some speakers, particularly in Uphill dialects, verbs that once followed this conjugation are now conjugated as class 1.3B partly or completely instead.
Examples: tousowa "put through," keesowa "give back," mousowa "say," moosowa "spin."
Class 1.3B Verbs — Strong s-Stem (Non-Euphonic)
Consonant-stem verbs whose stem ends in a light syllable followed by a strong s. It is unclear whether these verbs derive from regularization of Class 1.3A and 1.3A' verbs by eliminating their euphony, or if they never had euphony to begin with.
Examples: hesowa "push," kesowa "erase," kasowa "lend," josowa "quit."
Class 2 Verbs — Vowel-Stem
Vowel-stem verbs. They can be subclassified into Class 2a (ending in i-), Class 2b (ending in e-), Class 2c (ending in ee-), and Class 2d (ending in ei-).
Examples: kirowa "wear," jerowa "insert," keerowa "mix," jamerowa "suffer," meirowa "burn," oseirowa "teach," irowa "sit."
Class 3 Verbs — Irregular
Irregular verbs, which share a mix of features from Classes 1 and 2, as well as other irregularities.
Examples: sjowa "do," (de)kurowa "come."
Verbal Adjectives (VA)
One of the two types of adjectives in Hachijō. Verbal adjectives follow an idiosyncratic conjugation pattern that is supplemented with forms in -kar- (conjugated as Class 1.1C).
Examples: boukja "big," sjokja "known," hajakja "fast," toukja "far," takakja "high," nagakja "long."
New-Type Negative[53]
A hybrid between the Class 1.1C and verbal adjective classes that is used to conjugate the New-Type Negative auxiliary verb. It has a highly variable stem form of -Nnak- ~ -Nnar- ~ -Nnakar-; how it inflects will be noted in the following subsections. It is used in the Downhill Dialects instead of the Old-Type Negative, which instead consists of the regular Class 1.1C auxiliary -Nzjara.
Sole example: -Nnaka "(New-Type negative)."

A table summarizing some of the basic forms of each conjugation class is shown below:

Class Example Attributive Declarative Infinitive Negative Participle Stative Conditional Exclamatory Final[a]
1.1A kak- "write" kako kakowa kaki kakiNnaka kaQte kakar- kakaba kake kaku-
kat- "win" kato katowa kaci kaciNnaka kaQte katar- kataba kate kacu-
tor- "take" toro torowa tori toriNnaka toQte torar- toraba tore toru-
kaw- "buy" kawo kawowa ka(w)i[b] ka(w)iNnaka[b] kaQte kawar- kawaba kawe kau-[b]
iw- "say" jo jowa i(i) iNnaka, iinaka iQte jar- jaba je ju-
[c] -tew- "(reportative)" -tei[d] -teija[e] -teQte
1.1A-uw
(1.1A'a)
nuw- "sew" nuu nuuwa nu(w)i[b] nu(w)iNnaka[b] nuQte nuwar- nuwaba nuwe nuu-
1.1A'b[f] huruw- "shake" huruu huruuwa hurii huriinaka huruQte huruur-[f] huruuba hurii huruu-
1.1A'c[f] omow- "think" omou omouwa omei omeinaka omoQte omoor-[f] omooba omei omou-
1.1A'd[f] waraw- "laugh" warou warouwa waree wareenaka waraQte waroor-[f] warooba waree warou-
1.1B kook- "dry" kooko kookowa kooki kookiNnaka koote kookar- kookaba kooke kooku-
keer- "go home" keero keerowa keeri keeriNnaka keete keerar- keeraba keere keeru-
1.1C dar- "(copula)" doo dara dari
daĭ[g]
*daNnaka[h] daQte[i] darar- da(r)aba dare
daĭ[j]
*daru-[k]
1.2A nom- "drink" nomo nomowa nomi nomiNnaka noNde nomar- nomaba nome nomu-
asub- "play" asubo asubowa asubi asubiNnaka asuNde asubar- asubaba asube asubu-
ojog- "swim" ojogo ojogowa ojogi ojogiNnaka ojoNde ojogar- ojogaba ojoge ojogu-
cin- "die" cino cinowa cini ciniNnaka ciNde cinar- cinaba cine cinu-
1.2B eem- "walk" eemo eemowa eemi eemiNnaka eede eemar- eemaba eeme eemu-
soog- "clamor" soogo soogowa soogi soogiNnaka soode soogar- soogaba sooge soogu-
1.3A das- "take out" daso dasowa dasi dasiNnaka dasite
dee(te)[l]
dasitar-
deetar-
dasaba dase dasu-
modos- "put back" modoso modosowa modosi modosiNnaka modosite
modei(te)[l]
modositar-
modeitar-
modosaba modose modosu-
nabus- "hide (tr.)" nabuso nabusowa nabusi
nabii
nabusiNnaka nabusite
nabii(te)[l]
nabusitar-
nabiitar-
nabusaba nabuse nabusu-
tames- "attempt" tameso tamesowa tamesi tamesiNnaka tamesite
tamee(te)[l][m]
tamesitar-
tameetar-[m]
tamesaba tamese tamesu-
1.3A' tous- "put through" touso tousowa tousi tousiNnaka tousite
touii(te)[l]
tousitar-
touiitar-
tousaba touse tousu-
kees- "give back" keeso keesowa keesi keesiNnaka keesite
keeii(te)[l]
keesitar-
keeiitar-
keesaba keese keesu-
1.3B hes- "push" heso hesowa hesi hesiNnaka hesite hesitar- hesaba hese hesu-
2a ki- "wear" kiro kirowa ki kiNnaka kite kitar- kiba kire ki(ru)-[n]
2b je- "insert" jero jerowa je jeNnaka jete jetar- jeba jere je(ru)-[n]
2c kee- "mix" keero keerowa kee keenaka keete keetar- keeba keere kee(ru)-[n]
2d mei- "burn" meiro meirowa mei meinaka meite meitar- meiba meire mei(ru)-[n]
3 s(j)- "do" sjo[o] sjowa[o] si siNnaka site sitar- saba se, sje su-
k(o)- "come" kuro kurowa ki kiNnaka kite kitar- koba kure ku(ru)-[n]
VA sjo- "known"[p] sjo-ke sjo-kja sjo-ku (sjo-ku nakja)[q] sjo-kute sjo-karar- sjo-kaba
sjo-ka(r)aba[r]
sjo-ke(re)[s] sjo-ke-[t]
*sjo-karu-[k]
New Neg. -Nn(ak)- -Nnoo
-Nnako[u]
-Nnaka -zu -zuto -Nn(ak)arar- -Nn(ak)a(r)aba -Nn(ak)are *-Nnaru-[k]
  1. ^ The final form (旧終止形, kyū-shūshikei) given here should not be confused with the Japanese-style present tense, which occasionally takes different forms.
  2. ^ a b c d e The w in Class 1.1A and 1.1A-uw w-stem verbs is sometimes dropped in pronunciation before i, and always before u, but it the i and u remain distinctly in their own syllable, not combining with the preceding syllable.
  3. ^ This form is a situational contraction of the quotative particle -te followed by the Class 1.A verb iw- "to say," but it is highly defective and conjugates irregularly.
  4. ^ Only usable when followed by the copular participle de or the particle -(N)te "because."
  5. ^ This form is -teiwa in the Aogashima dialect.
  6. ^ a b c d e f In some dialects, especially the Downhill dialects of Mitsune and Ōkagō, Class 1.1A' verbs have been partly or fully converted into Class 1.1A r-stem verbs by treating the stative stem as a new root stem.[52] In such cases, the stative thus requires another addition of -ar- to the (new) stem.
  7. ^ The Class 1.1C copula dara sometimes uses the infinitive ni, but the regular dari ~ daĭ is also used in certain situations.
  8. ^ The copula dara does not use the regular negative paradigms, instead using the phrase zja nakja (←*dewa nakja) with the verbal adjective nakja "not." In addition, due to the order in which suffixes attach to verbs, the stative -(t)ar- never precedes the negative -Nnaka, instead combining as -Nn(ak)ar-ar-.
  9. ^ The Class 1.1C copula dara usually uses the participle de in place of daQte.
  10. ^ In the Class 1.1C exclamatory form, -re can contract to only when followed by the concessive gerund-forming suffix -dou.
  11. ^ a b c The final forms of 1.1C verbs and the New-Type Negative generally reduce the syllable *ru to Q, N, or coalescing u depending on the attached suffix or particle. For example, the particle -to "if" usually uses u, the focalizing and conjectural suffixes -naw- use N, and the reportative -teija uses Q.
  12. ^ a b c d e f In these forms with an elided s, the te of the participle is optional. Dropping it is a characteristic of the Downhill dialects.[54]
  13. ^ a b In this verb, which is the only Class 1.3A verb ending in -es-, *tame(s)i- irregularly becomes tamee-, not the expected **tamei-.
  14. ^ a b c d e Class 2 verbs and kurowa "to come" can sometimes include -ru in their final forms. Where it is optional, the forms lacking -ru are typical of older speech, and the forms with them, of newer speech.
  15. ^ a b The older forms so (attributive) and sowa (declarative) are also attested.[55]
  16. ^ A small number of monomoraic-stem verbal adjectives like jokja "good" and nakja "not" tend to geminate the initial k on many adjectival forms: joQkja, joQke, etc. The forms without gemination are older.[56]
  17. ^ Negative verbal adjectives are formed phrasally with the infinitive -ku followed by the verbal adjective nakja (stem na-) "nonexistent."
  18. ^ The form -kaba reflects Eastern Old Japanese -kaba (EOJ *-ke-aba-kaba),[57] whereas -ka(r)aba uses the Class 1.1C stem -kar- (*-kar-aba-ka(r)aba).
  19. ^ The form -ke is used in isolation (in exclamatory kakari-musubi), whereas -kere is used for forming the provisional and concessive gerunds. As neither reflects the Eastern Old Japanese form -ka,[58] these may be borrowed from Japanese.
  20. ^ This form is only used before the conditional -to.
  21. ^ The form -Nnako is old-fashioned.

Verbal Affixes[edit]

Attributive -o[edit]

The attributive form (連体形, rentaikei, attr) is made by adding the suffix -o to the stems of Class 1 verbs, -ro to those of Class 2, and -ke to verbal adjectives'. For irregular verbs, sjowa becomes sjo, and kurowa becomes kuro. This form descends from the Eastern Old Japanese attributive form -o1 ~ *-uro1.

On its own, the attributive serves a similar function to an English relative clause, for defining or classifying nominals:

(1)
今日来た手紙[59]

kei

kei

today

kitoo

ki-ta(r)-o

come-STAT-ATTR

tegami

tegami

letter

kei kitoo tegami

kei ki-ta(r)-o tegami

today come-STAT-ATTR letter

"the letter which came today"

(2)
繭を煮ているとき[60]

meejo

mee=jo

cocoon=ACC

niro

ni-ro

boil-ATTR

toki

toki

time

meejo niro toki

mee=jo ni-ro toki

cocoon=ACC boil-ATTR time

"(at) the time when I was boiling cocoons"

Unlike in Modern Japanese, clauses in Hachijō also can be nominalized directly using the attributive form of a verb (glossed as attr(nmlz)). When nominalized in this way, the clause becomes a noun meaning "the act of ~ing", "the fact of ~ happening", "one who ~s", "that which is ~ed," etc., depending on context. Compare these near-identical constructions in Hachijō and Japanese, where Japanese requires the nominalization particle の no, but Hachijō does not:

(3)
hukurono sokoga naQkede

袋の

hukuro=no

fukuro=no

bag=GEN

底が

soko=ga

soko=ga

bottom=NOM

na-ke

na-i

not-ADJ.ATTR

 

no

(NMLZ)

=de

=de

=COP.PTCP

袋の 底が 無

hukuro=no soko=ga na-ke {} =de

fukuro=no soko=ga na-i no =de

bag=GEN bottom=NOM not-ADJ.ATTR (NMLZ) =COP.PTCP

"Because the bag has no bottom..."[19]

(4)
utaja teekou sukidoode

歌や

uta=ja

uta=ya

song=ENUM

太鼓が

teeko=o

taiko=ga

drum=ACC/NOM

好き

suki

suki

liking

=da(r)-o

na

=COP-ATTR

 

no

(NMLZ)

=de

=de

=COP.PTCP

歌や 太鼓が 好き

uta=ja teeko=o suki =da(r)-o {} =de

uta=ya taiko=ga suki na no =de

song=ENUM drum=ACC/NOM liking =COP-ATTR (NMLZ) =COP.PTCP

"I like songs and drums, so..."[22]

This function of the attributive was also a feature of Japanese up until the early modern period, during which の no became used as a nominalization particle.[61][62]

See also the section on mermaid constructions, which make ample use of the attributive form.

Declarative Particles -wa and -zja[edit]

The default form of the declarative (断定, dantei, decl) in Hachijō is formed by adding the declarative particle -wa to the attributive form (連体形, rentaikei) of verbs. For a slightly assertive or emphatic statement, the particle -zja can replace -wa. The particles wa and zja come from Old Japanese は pa and にては nite pa → dewa, respectively. The wa-declarative form serves as the dictionary form of verbals.

Originally, these particles followed the Old Japanese attributive in its nominalized form, creating a topicalized nominal;[63] in Hachijō, they have become markers of independent clauses, almost completely supplanting the original final form in this particular use:[64]

(1)
カニは横に歩く。

garimewa

garime=wa

crab=TOP

jokosjaN

joko=sjaN

side=ORNT

eemowa.

eem-o=wa

walk-ATTR=DECL

garimewa jokosjaN eemowa.

garime=wa joko=sjaN eem-o=wa

crab=TOP side=ORNT walk-ATTR=DECL

"Crabs walk sideways."[33]

(2)
鳥が空を飛んでいる

toricubosaga

toricubosa=ga

bird=NOM

teNneijo

teNnei=jo

sky=ACC

makimiQte

mak-i-mik-te

fly-INF-walk-PTCP

arowa.

ar-o=wa

be-ATTR=DECL

toricubosaga teNneijo makimiQte arowa.

toricubosa=ga teNnei=jo mak-i-mik-te ar-o=wa

bird=NOM sky=ACC fly-INF-walk-PTCP be-ATTR=DECL

"Birds are flying around through the sky."[21]

(3)
あの人が飲むから、私も欲しくなるんだ

uiga

uĭ=ga

that.person=NOM

nomunou

nom-u-naw-u

drink-FIN-FOCLZ-JPRS

aimo

aĭ=mo

me=also

hosiku

hosi-ku

wanting-INF

narodoozja.

nar-o=da(r)-o=zja

become-ATTR(NMLZ)=COP-ATTR=DECL

uiga nomunou aimo hosiku narodoozja.

uĭ=ga nom-u-naw-u aĭ=mo hosi-ku nar-o=da(r)-o=zja

that.person=NOM drink-FIN-FOCLZ-JPRS me=also wanting-INF become-ATTR(NMLZ)=COP-ATTR=DECL

"That person will drink, so I will want some, too."[65]

With verbal adjectives, the attributive -ke merges with -wa to become -kja:

(4)
あなたのほうが詳しいよ、私より。

omeega

omee=ga

you(HON)=GEN

hou

hou

part

kuwasikja,

kuwasi-ke=(w)a

well.informed-ADJ.ATTR=DECL

waijori.

waĭ=jori

me=CMPR

omeega hou kuwasikja, waijori.

omee=ga hou kuwasi-ke=(w)a waĭ=jori

you(HON)=GEN part well.informed-ADJ.ATTR=DECL me=CMPR

"You're better informed—more than me."[37]

Verbs of Class 1.1C also merge their attributive with -wa, contracting -owa irregularly to -a. For instance, the copula dara has the attributive form *dar-odoo, but this is blocked by the addition of -wa, as -owa contracts to -a instead, viz., *dar-o-wadara.

(5)
実が生ったよ

miga

mi=ga

fruit=NOM

narara.

nar-ar-(o=w)a

grow-STAT-ATTR=DECL

miga narara.

mi=ga nar-ar-(o=w)a

fruit=NOM grow-STAT-ATTR=DECL

"Fruit has grown."[66]

(6)
私は母に叱られ

ara

ar(e=w)a

me=TOP

hooni

hoo=ni

mother=DAT

waikjuuretara.

waĭkjuw-are-tar-(o=w)a

scold-PASS-STAT-ATTR=DECL

ara hooni waikjuuretara.

ar(e=w)a hoo=ni waĭkjuw-are-tar-(o=w)a

me=TOP mother=DAT scold-PASS-STAT-ATTR=DECL

"I was scolded by my mother."[27]

A similar variation can be seen in the New Negative, which has the attributive form *-Nnako-Nnoo but a declarative form *-Nnakowa-Nnaka.

(7)
免許が無くて、運転できない

meNkjoga

meNkjo=ga

license=NOM

naQkeNte

na-ke=Nte

not-ADJ.ATTR=because

uNteN

uNteN

driving

sareNnaka.

s-are-Nnak-(o=w)a

do-PASS.INF-NEG-ATTR=DECL

meNkjoga naQkeNte uNteN sareNnaka.

meNkjo=ga na-ke=Nte uNteN s-are-Nnak-(o=w)a

license=NOM not-ADJ.ATTR=because driving do-PASS.INF-NEG-ATTR=DECL

"Since you don't have a license, you can't drive." (possible state)[67]

(8)
カラスに取られて手には入れられないよ

karasumeN

karasume=N

crow=DAT

torarete

tor-are-te

take-PASS-PTCP

tedoreNnaka.

tedor-e-Nnak-(o=w)a

obtain-POT.INF-NEG-ATTR=DECL

karasumeN torarete tedoreNnaka.

karasume=N tor-are-te tedor-e-Nnak-(o=w)a

crow=DAT take-PASS-PTCP obtain-POT.INF-NEG-ATTR=DECL

"It was taken by crows, so you're not going to be able to get it."[40]

The declarative particle zja has no special contracted forms, always attaching directly to the attributive, e.g., nomozja "drinks," doozja "is." It has also been noted to take the form -zjaN in the Sueyoshi dialect.

Other particles used with the attributive[edit]

Because of its nominalization function, the attributive form can be followed by any particle that can follow a noun, such as case particles. However, in addition, there are several other particles can also attach particularly to the attributive forms of verbals:

Particle Japanese Cognate Meaning
-go͡oN "let's" (?) ~が様に ga yō ni Creates a cohortative predicate, suggesting that the speaker and listener do something together.[68]
-ga "but, yet" ~が ga Marks the verb as contrasting with the following clause. In many cases, the following clause is left implicit.[69]
-Nte "because" ~によって ni yotte Marks the verb as a reason or cause; the following clause is its result or consequence.[70]
-karanja "now that" ~からには kara ni wa A combination of the ablative -kara, dative -ni, and topic marker -wa. Marks the verb as an action that has completed, and as a result of its completion, the speaker is commanding or advising the listener to do something. This form always follows a verb with the stative, and it is followed by a verb with a commanding or hortative meaning.[71]

The clitic -Nte is a shortened form of -joNte, itself an extreme contraction and metathesis of -ni joQte, related to Japanese ~によって ni yotte "due to, by means of."[69] This clitic has significant variance between dialects when it occurs after long vowels, shown here on ikowa "to go" as an example:[72]

Dialect After iko "goes" After ikoo "went"
Mitsune ikoNte [ikonte] ikoote [ikoːte]
Ōkagō ikoNte [ikonte] ikoote [ikoːte]
Kashitate ikoĭte [ikoite] ikoaite [ikoɐite][a]
Nakanogō ikoNte [ikonte] ikoaNte [ikoɐnte][b]
Sueyoshi ikoNte [ikonte] ikaaNte [ikaːnte][b]
Aogashima[73] ikoNte [ikonte] ikoote ~ ikaote [ikoːte ~ ikɔute]
Minami Daitō[74] ikoNte [ikonte] ikoote [ikoːte]
  1. ^ Whether this is a case of a superheavy triphthong [i.koɐi.te] or separate syllables [i.koɐ.i.te] is not clear.
  2. ^ a b Whether this is a case of a superheavy syllable [i.koɐn.te ~ i.kaːn.te] or a syllabic N [i.koɐ.n̩.te ~ i.kaː.n̩.te] is not clear.

Some speakers of the Nakanogō and Kashitate dialects were also noted to have used the older form -joNte [jonte] after both long and short vowels as late as 1950.[72]

Infinitive -i[edit]

The infinitive (連用形, ren'yōkei, lit. "connective-use form," inf) is made by adding the suffix -i to the stems of Class 1 verbs, nothing to those of Class 2, and -ku to verbal adjectives'. For irregular verbs, sjowa becomes si, and kurowa becomes ki. This form descends from the Old Japanese infinitive -i1. Negative verbs also have a suppletive infinitive form where the whole negative auxiliary -Nnaka or -Nzjara is replaced by -zu, from Old Japanese -zu-ni su (possibly reborrowed through Japanese).

This is a non-finite form used similarly to Japanese's infinitive: to link several verbs in a clause, for serial verb constructions, attaching auxiliary verbs, as a method of nominalizing verbs, etc.

Infinitive as an Independent Predicate[edit]

Certain independent predicates can make use of the infinitive form instead of an ordinary finite predicate.

Simple infinitive predicates can be used to refer to actions in the immediate past, or to indicate that the speaker is speaking to themself, or both:

(1)
それで、全部入っ!(ボールがゲートに)[75]

soide

soĭ=de

that=LOC

zeNbu

zeNbu

everything

heeri!

heer-i

enter-INF

soide zeNbu heeri!

soĭ=de zeNbu heer-i

that=LOC everything enter-INF

"And with that, all (of the balls) have entered (in the gate)." (immediate past)

(2)
ああ、終わっ[76]

aa

aa

ah

owari!

owar-i

end-INF

aa owari!

aa owar-i

ah end-INF

"Ah, it's over!" (immediate past)

(3)
私は悲しいテレビを見ると、すぐ泣けてくる。[77]

ara

ar(e=w)a

me=TOP

kanasike

kanasi-ke

sad-ADJ.ATTR

terebjo

terebi=o

television=ACC

miruto,

mi-ru=to

see-JPRS=if

sugu

sugu

soon

benarare.

benar-are

cry-PASS.INF

ara kanasike terebjo miruto, sugu benarare.

ar(e=w)a kanasi-ke terebi=o mi-ru=to sugu benar-are

me=TOP sad-ADJ.ATTR television=ACC see-JPRS=if soon cry-PASS.INF

"Whenever I watch a sad television show, I quickly start crying." (speaking to self)

(4)
あいつはいつも変なことを言う。[78]

ura

ur(e=w)a

that.person=TOP

icumo

icu=mo

when=also

heNdoo

heN=da(r)-o

strange=COP-ATTR

kotou

koto=o

thing=ACC

ii.

iw-i

say-INF

ura icumo heNdoo kotou ii.

ur(e=w)a icu=mo heN=da(r)-o koto=o iw-i

that.person=TOP when=also strange=COP-ATTR thing=ACC say-INF

"That person always says strange things." (speaking to self)

(5)
まったく、尻尾の切れたトカゲのようにすぐ戻っ[76]

aasike

aasike

INTERJ

obakirekeebjouno

oba-kire-keebjou=no

tail-cut-lizard=GEN

goN

go͡oN

way

sugu

sugu

soon

hiNmodori.

hiQ-modor-i

INTS-return-INF

aasike obakirekeebjouno goN sugu hiNmodori.

aasike oba-kire-keebjou=no go͡oN sugu hiQ-modor-i

INTERJ tail-cut-lizard=GEN way soon INTS-return-INF

"Honestly, it came back just like a lizard's tail does when cut off." (immediate past & speaking to self)

In a reduplicated form with -mo "also, even," specifically of the form nomimo nomi (for nomowa "to drink"), infinitive predicates are used to assert of the truth of the speaker's statement. This kind of statement is used without regard to time:

(6)
もちろん来るとも[79]

dekimo

dek-i=mo

come-INF=also

deki.

dek-i

come-INF

dekimo deki.

dek-i=mo dek-i

come-INF=also come-INF

"(I) will certainly come." (future reference)

(7)
あるとも。たくさんあるよ。[79]

arimo

ar-i=mo

be-INF=also

ari.

ar-i

be-INF

siQkari

siQkari

greatly

arozja.

ar-o=zja

be-ATTR=DECL

(Nakanogō dialect)

 

 

arimo ari. siQkari arozja.

ar-i=mo ar-i siQkari ar-o=zja

be-INF=also be-INF greatly be-ATTR=DECL

"Of course there are (some). There are a lot!" (present reference)

(8)
確かに)いびきをかいていたよ。[79]

igoroo

igoro=o

snoring=ACC

sikimo

sik-i=mo

spread(?)-INF=also

siki.

sik-i

spread(?)-INF

(Nakanogō dialect)

 

 

igoroo sikimo siki.

igoro=o sik-i=mo sik-i

snoring=ACC spread(?)-INF=also spread(?)-INF

"It's true; I used to snore." (past reference)

(9)
今も飲んでる?/(もちろん)飲んでるよ。[80]

maNmo

ma=N=mo

now=DAT=even

noNde

nom-te

drink-PTCP

aroka?

ar-o=ka

be-ATTR=Q

/

/

/

noNde

nom-te

drink-PTCP

arimo

ar-i=mo

be-INF=also

ari.

ar-i

be-INF

maNmo noNde aroka? / noNde arimo ari.

ma=N=mo nom-te ar-o=ka / nom-te ar-i=mo ar-i

now=DAT=even drink-PTCP be-ATTR=Q / drink-PTCP be-INF=also be-INF

"Do you still drink? / Of course I drink." (general reference)

Another use of an infinitive predicate can be found in certain types of questions, as discussed in a section below.

Infinitive-Derived Expressions[edit]

A number of auxiliary verbs can be used with the infinitive, all of which are derived from grammaticalized verbs:

Auxiliary Class Independent Cognate Example
-mikowa 1.1A mikowa "to walk" nomimikowa "does things like drinking"
-hazimerowa 2b hazimerowa "to start" nomihazimerowa "starts to drink"
-dasowa 1.3A dasowa "to send out" nomidasowa "starts to drink"
-dousowa
-tousowa
1.3A' tousowa "to put through" nomidousowa "completely finishes drinking"
-cuzukerowa 2b cuzukerowa "to continue" nomicuzukerowa "continues to drink"
-kirowa 1.1A kirowa "to cut" nomikirowa "completely finishes drinking"
-genara 1.1C -ge "seeming" + nar- "(copula)"[a] nomigenara "seems to drink"
-jarowa 1.1A jarowa "to give" (honorific) nomijarowa "(an esteemed person) drinks"
-itasowa 1.3A[81] itasowa "to do (humble)" nomiitasowa "(I) humbly drink"
  1. ^ Either fossilized from earlier Hachijō or borrowed from Middle Japanese なり nar-.

The negative verbal auxiliaries -Nnaka and -Nzjara, discussed in a later subsection, are also attached to the infinitive.

Similarly, there are a number of derived adjectives or adjective-like expressions built on the infinitive form:

Auxiliary Class Independent Cognate Example
-takja VA itakja "painful"[a] nomitakja "wants to drink"[83]
-soudara 1.1C そう -sō[b] + dara "(copula)" nomisoudara "seems to drink"[84]
-siNdara 1.1C siN "(etymology unknown)" + dara "(copula)" nomisiNdara "is welcome to drink, is allowed to drink"[85]
-tedara 1.1C te "hand" + dara "(copula)" nomitedara "is someone who can drink"[86]
  1. ^ Or calqued from Japanese ~たい -tai, from 痛い ita-i "painful,"[82] the cognate to itakja.
  2. ^ Borrowed from Japanese.

And several conjunctional forms as well:

  • reduplicated (e.g., nominomi) — Indicates that an action is iterative. Used by itself, it serves as an adverbial phrase indicating that the iterative action was performed simultaneously with another, whereas when used with sjowa "to do" (e.g., nominomi sjowa), it simply indicates repeated action. Reduplicated verbs do not undergo vowel coalescence, e.g., okoriokori "happening again and again," not **okorjokori.
  • -nagara ~ -nagaa — Indicates that an action is performed simultaneously with another, e.g. nominagara "while drinking." This formation is synonymous with the simultaneous gerund in -outei. Cognate with Japanese ~ながら -nagara.[87]
  • -gacu ~ -gacura — Indicates that an action is performed simultaneously with another, often coincidentally or through the exact same action, e.g. nomigacu "while one happens to be drinking." This form is limited to verbs that involve agency on the subject's part, and is also not usually used with motion verbs without an implicit endpoint (e.g., eemowa "walk," hasirowa "run"), intransitive bodily activities or functions (e.g. tatowa "stand"), or transitive verbs where an action is performed only once to one object (e.g., sasagowa "put on one's head"). Related to Japanese ~がてら -gatera.[88]
  • -i (allative) or -ni (dative) — Indicates the purpose for which another action was performed, e.g. nomii or nomini "in order to drink." Using the allative -i is the more common than the dative -ni for this purpose, but both can be found.[89]

Negative Infinitive -zu[edit]

The negative infinitive (neg.inf) can be made in two different ways. The first way is by simply appending -zu to the regular infinitive form, e.g., nomizu "not drinking" (but is treated here as its own suffix). The second way is by adding -azu to the stems of Class 1 verbs, and -zu to those of Class 2. In this latter way, for irregular verbs, sjowa becomes sazu, sjazu, or sezu;[90] and kurowa becomes kozu.

The negative infinitive is used in many of the same situations that the regular infinitive is used word-finally (that is, without any suffixes). However, there are some specialized constructions used with -zu:

  • -zuN ~ -zuni (-zu-ni, neg.inf-dat), which acts as an adverbial phrase meaning "without ~ing," e.g., nomazuN "without drinking." It can also be used with a similar meaning to a negative participle.
  • -zunja (-zu-nja, neg.inf-dat.top), which acts as an adjectival noun and expresses necessity, e.g., nomazunjadara "must drink, have to drink." This form likely originally meant "if one does not ~," to be followed by a phrase such as damedara "it would not be good," but only the copula dara has remained.[91] Compare Japanese ~なきゃ -nakya, ~なくちゃ -nakucha, and ~ないと -nai to, which literally mean "if one does not," but can express a necessitative meaning even without a following clause.

In addition, there are a handful of derived forms from -zu:

  • Negative Participle -zuto (neg.ptcp), used for conjunctive constructions with the particle -mo "even," e.g., nomazutomo "even not drinking, even if he doesn't drink."[92] In general, this competes as the negative participle with -Nsjade and the dative-marked -zuN ~ -zuni.
  • Negative Dubitative -ziisi (-zu-isi, neg.inf-dub), used as a kind of double negative to show what is not doubted, etc. (e.g., nomiziisi "won't not drink").[93] This competes with the regularly-formed -Nnakaroosi and Nzjaroosi, formed from the negative auxiliaries -Nnaka and -Nzjara.
  • Non-Intentional -ziimadouwa (-zu-imadow-, neg.inf-try), a derived Class 1.1A'c verb that expresses a lack of trying to do something, or seeming not to do something, e.g., nomaziimadouwa "doesn't try to drink." This appears to be a compound involving the verb 惑う madouwa "to get lost, to be perplexed."[94]

Participle -te[edit]

The participle (中止形, chūshikei, lit. "interrupting form," ptcp) is made by adding the suffix -te or -de to the stems of Class 1 (with some allomorphy), -te to those of Class 2, and -kute to verbal adjectives'. For irregular verbs, sjowa becomes site, and kurowa becomes kite. This grammatical form and its cognates across the Japonic languages are known by many names, including "participle," "gerund," "continuative," "subordinating," and simply "te-form"; the term "participle" will be used here. This form descends from the Old Japanese subordinating suffix -te, which was historically added to the infinitive but has gained a great degree of allomorphy due to historical sound changes, so it is treated as its own suffix here.

The participle is a non-finite form that serves a coordinating or subordinating role in sentences, indicating the realization (at the very least, the beginning) of the marked action. Therefore, the clause following a participle must necessarily refer to either the same time or a later time:

(1)
いつか夏が来川でドジョウを掬いたいなあ。[95]

icuka

icu=ka

when=INDET

nacuga

nacu=ga

summer=NOM

kite

ki-te

come-PTCP

koode

koo=de

river=LOC

zjoNzjoumei

zjoNzjoume=o

loach=ACC

sukuuroosiga.

sukuw-ar-oosi=ga

scoop-STAT-DUB=but

icuka nacuga kite koode zjoNzjoumei sukuuroosiga.

icu=ka nacu=ga ki-te koo=de zjoNzjoume=o sukuw-ar-oosi=ga

when=INDET summer=NOM come-PTCP river=LOC loach=ACC scoop-STAT-DUB=but

"Sometime, when summer comes, I'd like to scoop up loaches at the river."

(2)
さっき畑から帰るときに雨に降られ大変だったよ。[96]

haNzume

haNzume

just.now

jamakaa

jama=kaa

field=ABL

keero

keer-o

return-ATTR

tokiN

toki=N

time=DAT

ameni

ame=ni

rain=DAT

hurarete

hur-are-te

fall-PASS-PTCP

taiheNdarara.

taĭheN=dar-ar-(o=w)a

awful=COP-STAT-ATTR=DECL

haNzume jamakaa keero tokiN ameni hurarete taiheNdarara.

haNzume jama=kaa keer-o toki=N ame=ni hur-are-te taĭheN=dar-ar-(o=w)a

just.now field=ABL return-ATTR time=DAT rain=DAT fall-PASS-PTCP awful=COP-STAT-ATTR=DECL

"Just now, when I was returning from the fields, I got rained on, and it was awful."

(3)
ウチワの風に扇がれ、伝票が飛んでいった。[40]

uciwano

uciwa=no

uchiwa=GEN

kazeN

kaze=N

wind=DAT

aworarete

awor-are-te

fan-PASS-PTCP

deNpjouga

deNpjou=ga

payment.slip=NOM

hiNmakara.

hiQ-mak-ar-(o=w)a

INTS-fly-STAT-ATTR=DECL

uciwano kazeN aworarete deNpjouga hiNmakara.

uciwa=no kaze=N awor-are-te deNpjou=ga hiQ-mak-ar-(o=w)a

uchiwa=GEN wind=DAT fan-PASS-PTCP payment.slip=NOM INTS-fly-STAT-ATTR=DECL

"When fanned by the wind of the uchiwa, the payment slips flew away."

Due to the temporal ordering implied by the participle, it can be used to imply a causal relationship:

(4)
(水が)冷たくてどうもこれで浴びられない。[97]

hjaQkokute

hjaQko-kute

cold-ADJ.PTCP

adaN

adaN

however

koide

koĭ=de

this.thing=LOC

abiroosi.

abi-roosi

bathe-DUB

hjaQkokute adaN koide abiroosi.

hjaQko-kute adaN koĭ=de abi-roosi

cold-ADJ.PTCP however this.thing=LOC bathe-DUB

"(This water) is cold, so there's no way I'd bathe in it."

(5)
カラスに取られ手には入れられないよ。[40]

karasumeN

karasume=N

crow=DAT

torarete

tor-are-te

take-PASS-PTCP

tedoreNnaka.

tedor-e-Nnak-(o=w)a

obtain-POT.INF-NEG-ATTR=DECL

karasumeN torarete tedoreNnaka.

karasume=N tor-are-te tedor-e-Nnak-(o=w)a

crow=DAT take-PASS-PTCP obtain-POT.INF-NEG-ATTR=DECL

"It was taken by crows, so you're not going to be able to get it."

(6)
袋の底が無いの[19]

hukurono

hukuro=no

bag=GEN

sokoga

soko=ga

bottom=NOM

naQkede

na-ke=de

not-ADJ.ATTR(NMLZ)=COP.PTCP

hukurono sokoga naQkede

hukuro=no soko=ga na-ke=de

bag=GEN bottom=NOM not-ADJ.ATTR(NMLZ)=COP.PTCP

"Because the bag has no bottom..."

Lastly, the participle can also be used to mark mirativity or emphasis in verbs of sensation or emotion:[98]

(7)
ああ、心臓がドキドキしている![99]

wow

siNzouga

siNzou=ga

heart=NOM

dokidokisite!

dokidoki=si-te

thumping=do-PTCP

oĩ siNzouga dokidokisite!

oĩ siNzou=ga dokidoki=si-te

wow heart=NOM thumping=do-PTCP

"Oh my, my heart is pounding!"

(8)
ああ、痺れが切れ(てき)た![100]

wow

sjuuburiga

sjuuburi=ga

numbness=NOM

kirete!

kire-te

be.cut-PTCP

oĩ sjuuburiga kirete!

oĩ sjuuburi=ga kire-te

wow numbness=NOM be.cut-PTCP

"Ah, (it) has gone numb!"

(9)
ああ、腹が立つ![101]

wow

kimeiga

kimo-e=ga

liver-area=NOM

meite

mei-te

burn-PTCP

meite!

mei-te

burn-PTCP

oĩ kimeiga meite meite!

oĩ kimo-e=ga mei-te mei-te

wow liver-area=NOM burn-PTCP burn-PTCP

"Ugh, I'm so pissed off!"

Participle-Derived Expressions[edit]

The participle has a few specialized uses when combined with certain particles:

Combination Japanese Cognate Particles Used Example
-tewa
-cja
~ては -te wa
~ちゃ -cha
topic -wa noNdewa ~ noNzja "if one drinks"
-tekara ~ては -te kara ablative -kara noNdekara "after drinking"
-temo ~ても -te mo -mo "also, even" noNdemo "even if one drinks, even drinking"

Several verbs are also used in common constructions with the participle:

Auxiliary Class Independent Cognate Example
-te arowa 1.1A~1.1C arowa "to be" noNde arowa "is drinking, has drunk"[a]
-te ikowa 1.1A ikowa "to go" noNde ikowa "goes drinking, drinks away, etc."
-te kurowa
-te dekurowa
3 (de)kurowa "to come" noNde kurowa "comes drinking, starts to drink, etc."
-te simouwa 1.1A'd simouwa "to finish doing" noNde simouwa "drinks completely, accidentally drinks"
-te mirowa 2a mirowa "to see" noNde mirowa "tries to drink"
-te miserowa 2b miserowa "to show" noNde miserowa "proves that (he) can drink"
-te miNnaka
-te miNzjara
New Neg.
1.1C
mirowa "to see" + Negative noNde miNnaka "has never drunk"
-tokowa
-te okowa
1.1A okowa "to put" noNdokowa "drinks (for a later purpose)"
  1. ^ Unlike Modern Japanese ~てある -te aru, which has a passive perfect meaning, Hachijō -te arowa expresses a progressive or stative meaning close to Japanese ~ている -te iru.

Anterior -toQtei[edit]

The anterior gerund (先行形, senkōkei, ant) can be made by replacing the -te or -de of the participle with -totei ~ -toQtei or -dotei ~ -doQtei, respectively. The form -toQtei ~ doQtei is older, and is now generally used after verbs without euphonic participles (mostly Class 2 and 3 verbs, as well as verbal adjectives), whereas -totei ~ -dotei is used with other verbs (like Class 1 verbs). The copula dara has the anterior gerund doQtei.

There are two likely candidates for this form's etymology:[102]

  • participle -te + participle oQte of or- "to be" + accusative -o (in mirative usage)
  • participle -te + participle oQte of ok- "to put" + accusative -o (in mirative usage)

This form denotes an action that occurs strictly before another action that occurs in the following clause. It is similar but not exactly equivalent to the construction -tekara ~ -dekara, using the participle -te ~ -de and the ablative -kara.

(1)
その縄に板をしいて、乗って揺れるんだよ。[30]

sono

sono

that.ATTR

noogee

noo=gee

rope=LAT

itoo

ita=o

board=ACC

suQtotei,

suk-totei

lay-ANT

noQte

nor-te

ride-PTCP

jurerodara.

jur-e-ro=dar-(o=w)a

swing-POT-ATTR(NMLZ)=COP-ATTR=DECL

sono noogee itoo suQtotei, noQte jurerodara.

sono noo=gee ita=o suk-totei nor-te jur-e-ro=dar-(o=w)a

that.ATTR rope=LAT board=ACC lay-ANT ride-PTCP swing-POT-ATTR(NMLZ)=COP-ATTR=DECL

"After laying a board on that rope, you can ride it and swing."

Requisitional -tou[edit]

The requisitional form (依頼, irai, req) form can be made by replacing the -te or -de of the participle with -tou or -dou, respectively. This suffix is often thought to etymologically derive from the participle -te followed by the accusative -o, but as that would have been expected to yield **-tei rather than -tou, this form's ultimate origin is unclear; it likely derives from a more complex contraction.[103]

The requisitional is used for asking favors and requests of others. Like the imperative, it can be softened by adding mii afterward:

(1)
車へ積ん[104]

kurumee

kuruma=i

car=ALL

cuNdou.

cum-tou

load-REQ

kurumee cuNdou.

kuruma=i cum-tou

car=ALL load-REQ

"(Please) load it into the car."

(2)
熊ちゃん、お茶を注いでね[104]

kumacjaN

kuma-cjaN

bear-DIM

ocjoo

ocja=o

tea=ACC

cuNdou

cug-tou

pour-REQ

mii.

mii

please

kumacjaN ocjoo cuNdou mii.

kuma-cjaN ocja=o cug-tou mii

bear-DIM tea=ACC pour-REQ please

"Little bear, please pour the tea."

Imperative -e ~ -ro[edit]

The imperative form (命令形, meireikei, imp) is made by adding the suffix -e to the stems of Class 1 verbs, and -ro to those of Class 2. For irregular verbs, sjowa becomes se or sje, and kurowa becomes ko. These forms descend from the Eastern Old Japanese imperative forms -e(1) ~ ro2.

The imperative is used for commands, and can be softened by adding mii afterward:

(1)
それを綺麗に(一気に)飲[104]

sorei

sore=o

that.thing=ACC

deeciku

deeci-ku

clean-ADJ.INF

hiQkakero.

hiQkake-ro

drink-IMP

sorei deeciku hiQkakero.

sore=o deeci-ku hiQkake-ro

that.thing=ACC clean-ADJ.INF drink-IMP

"Drink that cleanly (in one gulp)."

(2)
ここへ来なさい[105]

kokei

koko=i

here=ALL

ko

ko

come.IMP

mii.

mii

please

kokei ko mii.

koko=i ko mii

here=ALL come.IMP please

"(Please) come this way."

(3)
いらっしゃいま/ようこそ!

ozjarijare!

ozjar-i-jar-e

come(HON)-INF-HON-IMP

ozjarijare!

ozjar-i-jar-e

come(HON)-INF-HON-IMP

"Welcome!" or "Please come in!"

The imperative can also be used to warn others about imminent events that would have a negative effect on them:

(4)
ほら、それを逃がしちゃうよ[106]

maN

ma=N

now=DAT

nou

nou

DM

sorei

sore=o

that=ACC

nigase!

nigas-e

let.escape-IMP

maN nou sorei nigase!

ma=N nou sore=o nigas-e

now=DAT DM that=ACC let.escape-IMP

"Look, you're gonna let it get away!"

For negative imperatives, the prohibitive postfix -na (attaching to the final form) is used instead.

Final Form -u[edit]

The final form (旧終止形, kyū-shūshikei, lit. "old termination form," fin) is made by adding the suffix -u to the stems of Class 1 verbs, nothing or -ru to those of Class 2, and -ke or underlying *-karu to verbal adjectives'. For irregular verbs, sjowa becomes su, and kurowa becomes ku or kuru. However, for Class 1.1C verbs, the underlying *-aru typically contracts to aQ, aN, or oo depending on the following morpheme; the same can be said for verbal adjectives, whose underlying 1.1C *-karu contracts to -kaQ, -kaN, or -koo. This form descends from the Old Japanese final form -u, as well as in some constructions borrowed from Japanese using its attributive form -u ~ -ru.

Despite its name, this suffix's use in concluding declarative sentences has mostly been supplanted in Hachijō by the declarative -owa form. It mainly only exists as a predicative form in quotative and reportative speech:

(1)
baasamawa kooii seNtakuN ikaraQteiga

baa-sama=wa

grandma-HON=TOP

koo=jii

river=ALL

seNtaku=N

laundry=DAT

ik-ar-ar-(u)

go-STAT-STAT-FIN

=tew-o=ga

=QUOT.say-ATTR=but

baa-sama=wa koo=jii seNtaku=N ik-ar-ar-(u) =tew-o=ga

grandma-HON=TOP river=ALL laundry=DAT go-STAT-STAT-FIN =QUOT.say-ATTR=but

"I hear that Grandma went to the river to do laundry, but..."
おばあさんは川へ洗濯に行ったそうだが[29]

(2)
bjoukide cino iroga kooraQteija.

bjouki=de

illness=LOC

ci=no

blood=GEN

iro=ga

color=NOM

koor-ar-(u)

change-STAT-FIN

=tew-o=wa

=QUOT.say-ATTR=DECL

bjouki=de ci=no iro=ga koor-ar-(u) =tew-o=wa

illness=LOC blood=GEN color=NOM change-STAT-FIN =QUOT.say-ATTR=DECL

"I hear that his blood changed color when he was sick."
病気で血の色が変わったそうだ。[34]

However, the final form still remains fossilized in the formation of several verbal extensions:

Prohibitive -na[edit]

The prohibitive form (禁止形, kinshikei, proh) is made by adding the suffix -na to the final form (with or without the extra -ru on Class 2 verbs and kurowa). This form is either inherited from the Old Japanese prohibitive -(u)na or reborrowed from Japanese. This form serves as the negative counterpart to the imperative, commanding the addressee not to do something:

(1)
sjakude mizuu nomuna.

sjaku=de

ladle=LOC

mizu=o

water=ACC

nom-u-na

drink-FIN-PROH

sjaku=de mizu=o nom-u-na

ladle=LOC water=ACC drink-FIN-PROH

"Don't drink water with a ladle."
柄杓で水を飲む[34]

(2)
kokoronake hitoni cukoorena.

kokoro-na-ke

heart-not-ADJ.ATTR

hito=ni

person=DAT

cukaw-are-na

use-PASS.FIN-PROH

kokoro-na-ke hito=ni cukaw-are-na

heart-not-ADJ.ATTR person=DAT use-PASS.FIN-PROH

"Don't get used by heartless people."
心ない人に使われる[105]

Conjectural Extension -naw-[edit]

The conjectural (推量, suiryō, cnjec) extension is made by adding -naw- (Class 1.1A') to the final forms of verbals. On Class 2 verbs and kurowa, the extra ru is optional; for verbal adjectives, the combined result is -kaNnaw-. This extension descends from the Old Japanese tentative-conjectural extension -nam- (contrast Western Old Japanese -uram-), with /m/ elided to /w/.

This extension denotes various conjectural meanings such as guessing, expectation, prediction, hypotheticality, and other such irrealis situations.

Focalizing Extension -naw-[edit]

The focalizing (強調, kyōchō, lit. "emphatic," foclz) extension is made by adding -naw- (Class 1.1A') to the final forms of verbals, identical in all forms to the conjectural.

This extension was borrowed from a Middle Japanese mermaid construction -(r)u nari, consisting of the Middle Japanese nominalized attributive form in -(r)u followed by the copula なり nari, an exact parallel to Hachijō's native -(r)odara mermaid construction. Because the Middle Japanese attributive is -(r)u rather than -(r)o, this construction was borrowed to use the Hachijō final form in -(r)u instead. In addition, the borrowed copula nar- has been reduced to -naw-, merging in form with the conjectural -naw-.

The Japanese-style present form -nou (← -naw-u) is used sentence-finally for emphasis (example 1) and sentence-medially express cause and effect (example 2):

(1)
ikura aga cukurjaatei uiga kite korei kousunou.

ikura

how.many

a=ga

me=NOM

cukur-jaatei

make-FHYP

uĭ=ga

that.person=NOM

ki-te

come-PTCP

kore=o

this=ACC

kous-u-naw-u

destroy-FIN-FOCLZ-JPRS

ikura a=ga cukur-jaatei uĭ=ga ki-te kore=o kous-u-naw-u

how.many me=NOM make-FHYP that.person=NOM come-PTCP this=ACC destroy-FIN-FOCLZ-JPRS

"No matter how many I make, that person will come and destroy them."
いくら私が作っても、あいつが来てこれを壊すんだもの[107]

(2)
uiga nomunou aimo hosiku narodoozja.

uĭ=ga

that.person=NOM

nom-u-naw-u

drink-FIN-FOCLZ-JPRS

aĭ=mo

me=also

hosi-ku

wanting-INF

nar-o

become-ATTR(NMLZ)

=da(r)-o=zja

=COP-ATTR=DECL

uĭ=ga nom-u-naw-u aĭ=mo hosi-ku nar-o =da(r)-o=zja

that.person=NOM drink-FIN-FOCLZ-JPRS me=also wanting-INF become-ATTR(NMLZ) =COP-ATTR=DECL

"That person will drink, so I will want some, too."
あの人が飲むから、私も欲しくなるんだよ。[65]

The exclamatory form -nee (← -naw-e) is used in kakari-musubi with the focus particle koo (see the section on focalized exclamatory kakari-musubi for details and examples).

The provisional form -neeja (← -naw-eba) is used to express two types of conditionals or cause-and-effect statements. When not following the stative extension, it is an imperfect conditional, indicating that the condition was met repeatedly or many times at once:

(3)
terebjo mineeja ureN waikjuuretara.

terebi=o

television=ACC

mi-naw-e(b)a

see.FIN-FOCLZ-PROV

ure=N

that.person=DAT

waĭkjuw-are-tar-(o=w)a

scold-PASS-STAT-ATTR=DECL

terebi=o mi-naw-e(b)a ure=N waĭkjuw-are-tar-(o=w)a

television=ACC see.FIN-FOCLZ-PROV that.person=DAT scold-PASS-STAT-ATTR=DECL

"Whenever I watched television, I was scolded by that person." (repeated instances)
テレビを見ていると、あの人に怒られた。[108]

(4)
konasamaga marubuneeja jakekusoN naQte haa kabeejomo mogiNnaka.

konasama=ga

silkworm=NOM

marub-u-naw-e(b)a

die-FIN-FOCLZ-PROV

jakekuso=N

desperate=DAT

nar-te

become-PTCP

haa

already

kabee=jo=mo

mulberry.leaf=ACC=even

mog-i-Nnak-(o=w)a

pluck-INF-NEG-ATTR=DECL

konasama=ga marub-u-naw-e(b)a jakekuso=N nar-te haa kabee=jo=mo mog-i-Nnak-(o=w)a

silkworm=NOM die-FIN-FOCLZ-PROV desperate=DAT become-PTCP already mulberry.leaf=ACC=even pluck-INF-NEG-ATTR=DECL

"When the silkworms started dying (one after another), he became desperate and wouldn't pick any more mulberry leaves." (many instances at once)
蚕が(つぎつぎ)死んでいく、(それが原因でこの人は)ヤケクソになって、もう桑の葉をも、捥がないよ。[108]

When -neeja does follow the stative extension, the clauses expresses a completed action, and the following clause indicates a result that occurred upon its completion:

(5)
ukii nuburaNneeja meitara.

uku=i

there=ALL

nubur-ar-(u)-naw-e(b)a

climb-STAT-FIN-FOCLZ-PROV

mei-tar-(o=w)a

be.visible-STAT-ATTR=DECL

uku=i nubur-ar-(u)-naw-e(b)a mei-tar-(o=w)a

there=ALL climb-STAT-FIN-FOCLZ-PROV be.visible-STAT-ATTR=DECL

"When (I) climbed up there, (it) was visible."
あそこへ上ったら見えた。[109]

Lastly, this extension appears to be somehow fossilized in the optative ending -osunou.

Jussive Adjective -beki[edit]

The jussive (当為・義務, tōi-gimu, lit. "responsibility & duty," juss) is made by adding the postfix -beki to the final forms of verbs, creating an adjectival noun. This form is borrowed from the Japanese form -beki, descended from Western Old Japanese -(u)be2-ki1.

This form acts as an adjectival noun that, when used with the copula dara, expresses a meaning like "ought to do," "should do," or "needs to do":

(1)
waimo ikubekidarooni

waĭ=mo

me=also

ik-u-beki

go-FIN-JUSS

=dar-a(r)-o

=COP-STAT-ATTR(NMLZ)

=ni

=COP.INF

waĭ=mo ik-u-beki =dar-a(r)-o =ni

me=also go-FIN-JUSS =COP-STAT-ATTR(NMLZ) =COP.INF

"Even though I should have gone too..."
私も行くべきだったのに[110]

A verbal adjective form -bekja of this affix has also been attested.[citation needed]

Suppositional Adjective -rasikja[edit]

The suppositional (推定, suitei, supp) form is made by adding the extension -rasi- to the final forms of verbs, creating a verbal adjective. This form is either inherited from Eastern Old Japanese -(u)rasi or borrowed from its Japanese cognate form ~らしい -rashi-i.

This form is a verbal adjective with the meaning "seeming":

(1)
asumo jukiga hururasikja.

asu=mo

tomorrow=also

juki=ga

snow=NOM

hur-u-rasi-ke=(w)a

fall-FIN-SUPP-ADJ.ATTR=DECL

asu=mo juki=ga hur-u-rasi-ke=(w)a

tomorrow=also snow=NOM fall-FIN-SUPP-ADJ.ATTR=DECL

"It seems it will snow tomorrow, too."
明日も雪が降るらしい。[110]

Conditional Gerund -aba[edit]

The conditional gerund (aba条件形, ABA jōkenkei, lit. "aba-conditional form," cond) is made by adding the suffix -aba to the stems of Class 1 verbs, -ba or -raba to those of Class 2, and -kaba or -kaaba ~ -karaba to verbal adjectives'. For irregular verbs, sjowa becomes saba, and kurowa becomes koba or kuraba. This form descends from the Old Japanese conditional gerund -aba.

This form introduces a condition or prerequisite that, if it is (or were) true, the following clause occurs (or would occur).[111] For conditions without a stative, the consequence occurs before the condition (in anticipation of it):

(1)
kokoN neba hutoNjo sukowa.

koko=N

here=DAT

ne-ba

sleep-COND

hutoN=jo

futon=ACC

suk-o=wa

lay.out-ATTR=DECL

koko=N ne-ba hutoN=jo suk-o=wa

here=DAT sleep-COND futon=ACC lay.out-ATTR=DECL

"If (he) is going to sleep here, then (I) will lay out a futon (beforehand)," or
"If (he) were to sleep here, then (I) would lay out a futon (beforehand)."
ここに寝るなら、布団を敷くよ。[112]

(2)
unumo ikaba korei moQte ike.

unu=mo

you=also

ik-aba

go-COND

kore=o

this=ACC

mot-te

hold-PTCP

ik-e

go-IMP

unu=mo ik-aba kore=o mot-te ik-e

you=also go-COND this=ACC hold-PTCP go-IMP

"If you're going too, take this with you (before you go)."
おまえも行くなら、これを持っていけ。[112]

For past conditions (usually marked with a stative), the consequence occurs after the achievement of the condition:

(3)
hamee ikaaba keegoujo hiroQte ko jou.

hama=i

beach=ALL

ik-a(r)-aba

go-STAT-COND

keegou=jo

seashell=ACC

hirow-te

pick.up-PTCP

ko

come.IMP

jou

DM

hama=i ik-a(r)-aba keegou=jo hirow-te ko jou

beach=ALL go-STAT-COND seashell=ACC pick.up-PTCP come.IMP DM

"If you go to the beach, bring back a seashell (afterwards)."
浜に行ったら、貝を拾ってこいと。[113]

Finally, if the consequence refers to past time, the sentence is always counterfactual, where the condition was not actually met:

(4)
unumo ikaba cuQte ikoositooni.

unu=mo

you=also

ik-aba

go-COND

cur-te

join-PTCP

ik-oosita(r)-o

go-PSTSUBJ-ATTR(NMLZ)

=ni

=COP.INF

unu=mo ik-aba cur-te ik-oosita(r)-o =ni

you=also go-COND join-PTCP go-PSTSUBJ-ATTR(NMLZ) =COP.INF

"If you were going to go too, I would've gone with you, but..."
おまえも行くなら、連れて行っのに。[114]

(5)
haiku keeraaba jokarara.

haĭ-ku

soon-ADJ.INF

keer-a(r)-aba

go.home-STAT-COND

jo-kar-ar-(o=w)a

good-ADJ-STAT-ATTR=DECL

haĭ-ku keer-a(r)-aba jo-kar-ar-(o=w)a

soon-ADJ.INF go.home-STAT-COND good-ADJ-STAT-ATTR=DECL

"It would have been better if you had come home early."
はやく帰ればよかっ[114]

Futile-Hypothetical Gerund -jaatei[edit]

The futile-hypothetical gerund (逆条件形, gyaku-jōkenkei, lit. "reverse-conditional form," fhyp) is made by adding the suffix -jaatei to the stems of Class 1 verbs, -rjaatei to those of Class 2, and -kjaatei or -karjaatei to verbal adjectives'. For irregular verbs, sjowa becomes sjaatei, and kurowa becomes kurjaatei. This form is believed to descend from the Class 1 infinitive -i followed by the phrase aQte mo "even if it is": *-iaQtemo → *-jaQtewo → *-jaatei; the other verb classes' forms must have been formed by analogy.[115]

This form expresses futility: the clause marked by -jaatei introduces a condition that is known to be false or impossible, and the following clause expresses an action or state that would remain true even if the condition were met.[116]

(1)
ureN jaatei kikiNnaka.

ure=N

that.person=DAT

iw-jaatei

say-FHYP

kik-i-Nnak-(o=w)a

hear-INF-NEG-ATTR=DECL

ure=N iw-jaatei kik-i-Nnak-(o=w)a

that.person=DAT say-FHYP hear-INF-NEG-ATTR=DECL

"Even if (you) tell that person, he won't listen," or "...he won't hear it."
あいつに言っても、聞かないよ。[116]

(2)
ikura nomjaatei joiNnaNnouwa.

ikura

how.much

nom-jaatei

drink-FHYP

jow-i-Nar-(u)-naw-o=wa

get.drunk-INF-NEG-FIN-CNJEC-ATTR=DECL

ikura nom-jaatei jow-i-Nar-(u)-naw-o=wa

how.much drink-FHYP get.drunk-INF-NEG-FIN-CNJEC-ATTR=DECL

"I probably won't get drunk no matter how much I drink."
いくら飲んでも酔わないだろうよ。[116]

Exclamatory -e[edit]

The exclamatory form (已然形, izenkei, excl) is made by adding the suffix -e to the stems of Class 1 verbs, -re to those of Class 2, and -ke to verbal adjectives'. For irregular verbs, sjowa becomes se or sje, and kurowa becomes kure. This form descends from the Old Japanese exclamatory form -e2 ~ -ure.

The exclamatory form used as a predicative form in constructions with the focus particles ka and koo; these constructions are detailed further in the section on kakari-musubi. The exclamatory form is also used etymologically as the base for forming the provisional and concessive gerunds, detailed in the following subsection:

Provisional -eba ~ -ja[edit]

The provisional gerund (eba条件形, EBA jōkenkei, lit. "eba-conditional form," prov) is generally formed by adding by the suffix -ba or -a to the exclamatory form of verbals (but is treated as its own suffix). For the -a variant, this contracts with a preceding e to become ja, or if the verb's exclamatory form ends in a long vowel, -a becomes -ja instead (e.g., wareebawareeja "when he laughs"). For verbal adjectives, the -ba forms are -keba and -kereba, while the -a form is -kerja. For the irregular verb sjowa, the -ba forms are sureba and s(j)eba, and the -a forms are surja and sja. For the irregular verb kurowa, the -ba form is kureba, and the -a form is -kurja. All of these forms descend from the Old Japanese conjunctive gerund -e2ba ~ -ureba with or without the /b/ elided. Although the variants in -eba and -ja have identical etymologies, they have slightly diverged in usage.

The principal function of the provisional gerund is to mark a subordinate clause that is causally or temporally related to the main clause, describing the circumstance in which the main clause occurs:

(1)
korei nomja/nomeba daidemo jowowa.

kore=o

this=ACC

nom-e(b)a

drink-PROV

daĭ

who

=de=mo

=COP.PTCP=even

jow-o=wa

get.drunk-ATTR=DECL

kore=o nom-e(b)a daĭ =de=mo jow-o=wa

this=ACC drink-PROV who =COP.PTCP=even get.drunk-ATTR=DECL

"Anyone would get drunk if/when they drank this."
これを飲めばだれでも酔うよ。[117]

(2)
akiN narja/nareba kaNmoga kamerowa.

aki=N

autumn=DAT

nar-e(b)a

become-PROV

kaNmo=ga

sweet.potato=NOM

kam-e-ro=wa

eat-POT-ATTR=DECL

aki=N nar-e(b)a kaNmo=ga kam-e-ro=wa

autumn=DAT become-PROV sweet.potato=NOM eat-POT-ATTR=DECL

"(We) can eat sweet potatoes when autumn comes."
秋になればサツマイモが食べられるよ。[117]

Both -eba and -ja can also be used to mark future conditions, whether they are expected to be actualized or not:

(3)
sogoN sjeba kiga harerowa

sogo͡oN

in.that.way

sj-eba

do-PROV

ki=ga

feeling=NOM

hare-ro=wa

become.clear-ATTR=DECL

sogo͡oN sj-eba ki=ga hare-ro=wa

in.that.way do-PROV feeling=NOM become.clear-ATTR=DECL

"If you do that, you'll feel better," or "If you did that, you'd feel better."
そうすれば気が晴れるよ。[117]

(4)
korei nomja koĭga soogowa.

kore=o

this=ACC

nom-e(b)a

drink-PROV

koĭ=ga

this.person=NOM

soog-o=wa

get.angry-ATTR=DECL

kore=o nom-e(b)a koĭ=ga soog-o=wa

this=ACC drink-PROV this.person=NOM get.angry-ATTR=DECL

"If you drink this, this person will get angry," or "If you drank this, this person would get angry."
これを飲めばこの人が怒るよ。[118]

However, for conditions or circumstances that are or were met repeatedly, with the same result in each case, -ja is preferred for both present and past results:

(5)
aga uteeja koiga tomerowa

a=ga

me=NOM

utaw-e(b)a

sing-PROV

koĭ=ga

this.person=NOM

tome-ro=wa

stop-ATTR=DECL

a=ga utaw-e(b)a koĭ=ga tome-ro=wa

me=NOM sing-PROV this.person=NOM stop-ATTR=DECL

"Whenever I sing, this person stops me."
私が歌っている、こいつが止める。[117]

(6)
uiga kamja aimo hosiku narara.

uĭ=ga

that.person=NOM

kam-e(b)a

eat-PROV

aĭ=mo

me=also

hosi-ku

wanting-ADJ.INF

nar-ar-(o=w)a

become-STAT-ATTR=DECL

uĭ=ga kam-e(b)a aĭ=mo hosi-ku nar-ar-(o=w)a

that.person=NOM eat-PROV me=also wanting-ADJ.INF become-STAT-ATTR=DECL

"Whenever that person was eating, I wanted some, too."
あの人が食べている、私も欲しくなった。[117]

When used with a focus-marking particle ka or koo, a provisional in -ja marks a precise reason, with more emphasis than the common phrasing using -Nte "because." Naturally, such sentences with ka or koo use exclamatory kakari-musubi:

(7)
aga cukeejakoo moQte kitaNnee

a=ga

me=NOM

cukaw-e(b)a=koo

use-PROV=FOC

mot-te

hold-PTCP

ki-tar-(u)-naw-e

come-STAT-FIN-FOCLZ-EXCL

a=ga cukaw-e(b)a=koo mot-te ki-tar-(u)-naw-e

me=NOM use-PROV=FOC hold-PTCP come-STAT-FIN-FOCLZ-EXCL

"It is because I will use it that I have started holding it."
私が使うからこそ持ってきたんだよ。[119]

Concessive -edou[edit]

The concessive gerund (dou接続形, DOU setsuzokukei, lit. "dou-conjunctional form," cnces) is formed by adding by the suffix -dou to the exclamatory form of verbals (but is treated as its own suffix). For Class 1.1C verbs, the resulting sequence -aredou can contract to -aĭdou. This form descends from the Old Japanese concessive gerund -e2do2mo2 ~ -uredo2mo2-edowo ~ -redowo-edou ~ -redou, cognate to the Japanese conjunctions けども kedomo and けれども keredomo "although." The forms -doumo and -douni are also attested.

The concessive gerund introduces adverse information despite which the main clause still nevertheless occurs or occurred:

(1)
kineiwa huQcidou keiwa adadaka.

kinei=wa

yesterday=TOP

hur-ci-dou

rain-RET(EXCL)-CNCES

kei=wa

today=TOP

ada

how

=da=ka

=COP.JPRS=Q

kinei=wa hur-ci-dou kei=wa ada =da=ka

yesterday=TOP rain-RET(EXCL)-CNCES today=TOP how =COP.JPRS=Q

"Although it rained yesterday, how will today be, I wonder?"
昨日は(雨が)降った、今日はどうだか。[120]

Volitional -ou[edit]

The volitional form (意志形, ishikei, vol) is made by adding the suffix -ou to the stems of Class 1 verbs, and -rou to those of Class 2.[121] Alternative formations also exist, where Class 1.1A' verbs use their declarative or final form, -i (possibly underlying *o or *u) is attached to the stems of Class 2b verbs, and nothing is added to the stems of Classes 2c and 2d.[122] For irregular verbs, sjowa becomes sjou, and kurowa becomes kurou or kou. (Verbal adjectives have no volitional form.) The volitional seems to have some relationship to the Old Japanese tentative-conjectural form -am-, and thereby the Japanese volitional -ō ~ -yō,[123] but the exact path between the Old Japanese and Modern Hachijō forms is not clear.[121]

The volitional indicates a personal intent or a cohortative suggestion:[124]

(1)
sorosoro nerou.

sorosoro

before.long

ne-rou

sleep-VOL

sorosoro ne-rou

before.long sleep-VOL

"It's about time (we) went to sleep," or "Let's go to sleep soon."
そろそろ寝よう[125]

(2)
aimo nomou.

aĭ=mo

me=also

nom-ou

drink-VOL

aĭ=mo nom-ou

me=also drink-VOL

"I'll drink, too."
私も飲もう[125]

Statements of intent can be emphasized by adding the postfix -bei, as in nomoubei "I'll drink!" Similarly, cohortative suggestions can be emphasized by adding the declarative particle -zja, as in ikouzja "Let's go!"

The volitional can also be used as an attributive form in the construction -ou houdara and its negative equivalent -ou hou nakja, which indicate ability or possibility:[122]

(3)
ura jomou houdoote urei tanome.

ur(e=w)a

that.person=TOP

jom-ou

read-VOL(ATTR)

hou

way

=da(r)-o=(N)te

=COP-ATTR=because

ure=o

that.person=ACC

tanom-e

request-IMP

ur(e=w)a jom-ou hou =da(r)-o=(N)te ure=o tanom-e

that.person=TOP read-VOL(ATTR) way =COP-ATTR=because that.person=ACC request-IMP

"That person can read (it), so ask him."
あの人は読るから、あの人を頼め。[126]

(4)
jasei hou nakja.

jase-i

lose.weight-VOL(ATTR)

hou

way

na-ke=(w)a

not-ADJ.ATTR=DECL

jase-i hou na-ke=(w)a

lose.weight-VOL(ATTR) way not-ADJ.ATTR=DECL

"I am unable to lose weight."
痩せることができない。[127]

Simultaneous -outei[edit]

The simultaneous gerund (同時形, dōjikei, simul) can be made by appending -tei to the end of the volitional form. There are two likely candidates for this form's etymology:[128]

  • volitional -ou + quotative te + accusative -o (in mirative usage)
  • volitional -ou + quotative to + allative -i

This form denotes an action that occurs simultaneously with another action, similar to English "while ~ing," and equivalent in meaning to adding -nagara "while" to the infinitive.[129]

(1)
teekou hatakoutei utaQte miro.

teeko=o

drum=ACC

hatak-ou-tei

beat-VOL-SIMUL

utaw-te

sing-PTCP

mi-ro

see-IMP

teeko=o hatak-ou-tei utaw-te mi-ro

drum=ACC beat-VOL-SIMUL sing-PTCP see-IMP

"Try singing and playing the drums at the same time."
太鼓を叩きながら歌ってみろ。[130]

This sense of simultaneity can also be used to indicate an action that was interrupted by another:

(2)
isjo horoutei bukacukara.

isi=o

rock=ACC

horow-(ou)-tei

pick.up-VOL-SIMUL

bukacuk-ar-(o=w)a

fall.forward-STAT-ATTR=DECL

isi=o horow-(ou)-tei bukacuk-ar-(o=w)a

rock=ACC pick.up-VOL-SIMUL fall.forward-STAT-ATTR=DECL

"He fell forward while trying to pick up a rock."
石を拾おうとして前に転んだ。[131]

It can also be used to emphasize a contradictory yet simultaneous event:

(3)
waraQte aroutei wareenakaate jowa.

waraw-te

laugh-PTCP

ar-ou-tei

be-VOL-SIMUL

waraw-i-(N)nak-(o=w)a

laugh-INF-NEG-ATTR=DECL

=te

=QUOT

iw-o=wa

say-ATTR=DECL

waraw-te ar-ou-tei waraw-i-(N)nak-(o=w)a =te iw-o=wa

laugh-PTCP be-VOL-SIMUL laugh-INF-NEG-ATTR=DECL =QUOT say-ATTR=DECL

"He says "I'm not laughing!" (even) while laughing."
笑っていながら、「笑わない(笑っていない)よ」と言う。[132]

Dubitative-Related Forms[edit]

Several verbal forms appear to be related to the dubitative (formerly optative) form listed below, which seems to be related in some way to the Classical Japanese optative constructions ~ま欲しき -mafosi-ki or ~ま欲りする -mafori suru.[133]

Dubitative -oosi[edit]

The dubitative (反語, hango, lit. "ironic," dub) form is made by adding the suffix -oosi to the stems of Class 1 verbs (or -aroosi for Class 1.1A'), -isi or -roosi to those of Class 2a and 2b, -si or -roosi to those of Class 2c and 2d, and -karoosi to verbal adjectives'. For irregular verbs, sjowa becomes seisi or sjoosi, and kurowa becomes kousi or kuroosi. The Sueyoshi and Aogashima dialects are an exception, where -iisi is used for Class 1 verbs (-ariisi for Class 1.1A'), only -isi ~ -si is used for Class 2, sjowa becomes siisi, and kurowa becomes kiisi.

As attested in older records, this form once expressed an optative meaning, often (but not necessarily) regarding a wish or hope that the speaker thinks might not come true:

(1)
NNga icuka kousiga.

(u)n(u)=ga

you=NOM

icu=ka

when=INDET

ko-osi=ga

come-DUB=but

(u)n(u)=ga icu=ka ko-osi=ga

you=NOM when=INDET come-DUB=but

"I'd like for you to come again sometime."
おまえがいつか(また)来るといいなあ[95]

(2)
icuka nacuga kite koode zjoNzjoumei sukuuroosiga.

icu=ka

when=INDET

nacu=ga

summer=NOM

ki-te

come-PTCP

koo=de

river=LOC

zjoNzjoume=o

loach=ACC

sukuw-ar-oosi=ga

scoop-STAT-DUB=but

icu=ka nacu=ga ki-te koo=de zjoNzjoume=o sukuw-ar-oosi=ga

when=INDET summer=NOM come-PTCP river=LOC loach=ACC scoop-STAT-DUB=but

"Sometime, when summer comes, I'd like to scoop up loaches at the river."
いつか夏が来て川でドジョウを掬いたいなあ[95]

(3)
icuka uraga huuhuN naroosiga.

icu=ka

when=INDET

ura=ga

they=NOM

huuhu=N

husband.and.wife=DAT

nar-oosi=ga

become-DUB=but

icu=ka ura=ga huuhu=N nar-oosi=ga

when=INDET they=NOM husband.and.wife=DAT become-DUB=but

"It would be nice if they became a married couple."
いつ彼らは夫婦になるかなあ。(夫婦になるのは楽しみだなあ。)[95]

However, due to semantic shift emphasizing the non-realization of the wish, this form has changed to have an ironic, doubting, or generally negative meaning in modern speech. When used with a first-person subject, it expresses what the speaker does not want to do, cannot do, or does not believe he or she can do. When used with non-first-person subjects, it expresses what the speaker expects is not the case or will not happen.

(4)
adaN nareto nomeisi.

adaN

however

nare=to

you(OFNS)=COM

nom-e-isi

drink-POT-DUB

adaN nare=to nom-e-isi

however you(OFNS)=COM drink-POT-DUB

"There's no way I could ever drink with you."
どうもおまえとは飲めない[34]

(5)
hjaQkokute adaN koide abiisi/abiroosi.

hjaQko-kute

cold-ADJ.PTCP

adaN

however

koĭ=de

this.thing=LOC

abi-isi/roosi

bathe-DUB

hjaQko-kute adaN koĭ=de abi-isi/roosi

cold-ADJ.PTCP however this.thing=LOC bathe-DUB

"(This water) is cold, so there's no way I'd bathe in it."
(水が)冷たくてどうもこれで浴びられない[97]

(6)
mou waga ikuneN ikiisi/ikiroosi.

mou

anymore

wa=ga

me=NOM

iku-nen

how.many-year

iki-isi/roosi

live-DUB

mou wa=ga iku-nen iki-isi/roosi

anymore me=NOM how.many-year live-DUB

"I doubt that I'll live for many more years."
もう私が何年生きるだろう。(もうそんなに生きられない。)[97]

(7)
ureN nou kikjaatei oseite keisi.

ure=N

that.person=DAT

nou

DM

kik-jaatei

ask-FHYP

osei-te

teach-PTCP

ke-isi

give-DUB

ure=N nou kik-jaatei osei-te ke-isi

that.person=DAT DM ask-FHYP teach-PTCP give-DUB

"As for that guy, he wouldn't tell you even if you asked him."
あいつにね、聞いても教えてくれるものか[125]

(8)
kono zikini hotouroosi.

kono

this.ATTR

ziki=ni

time.period=DAT

hotour-oosi

be.hot-DUB

kono ziki=ni hotour-oosi

this.ATTR time.period=DAT be.hot-DUB

"It's not like it's hot in this season."
この時期に暑いわけないよ[125]

The dubitative can also attach to the negative infinitive -zu to form -ziisi, which—due to its double negative-like meaning—indicates what the speaker thinks should be possible or doesn't doubt will happen.

(9)
aNde sorei nomiziisi.

aNde

why

sore=o

that=ACC

nom-izu-isi

drink-NEG.INF-DUB

aNde sore=o nom-izu-isi

why that=ACC drink-NEG.INF-DUB

"There's no reason why he wouldn't drink that."
なんでそれを飲まないものか[7]

(10)
unaNsee dekiro monou aNde wareN dekiziisii

un(u-r)a=N=see

that.person-PL=DAT=even

deki-ro

be.able-ATTR

mono=o

thing=ACC

aNde

why

ware=N

me=DAT

deki-zu-isi

be.able-NEG.INF-DUB

un(u-r)a=N=see deki-ro mono=o aNde ware=N deki-zu-isi

that.person-PL=DAT=even be.able-ATTR thing=ACC why me=DAT be.able-NEG.INF-DUB

"If even those people can do it, there's no reason why I shouldn't be able to."
おまえたちにさえできるものを、どうして私にできないものか[134]

This is identical in meaning to the forms -Nnakaroosi and Nzjaroosi, which use the negative auxiliaries -Nnaka and -Nzjara.

Optative -oosunou[edit]

The optative (希望, kibō, opt) form is made by replacing the -si of the dubitative form with -sunou (but is treated as its own suffix). This form appears to consist of the dubitative followed by the focalizing extension -naw- in its Japanese-style present form -nou.[133]

Like the older use of -osi, -osunou expresses an optative meaning, often regarding a wish or hope that the speaker thinks might not come true. Kaneda (2001) notes that the older meaning of optative -osi and the modern meaning of -osunou are largely the same with subtle differences, but does not elaborate further.

(1)
ukude hara-iQpee kamoosunou.

uku=de

there=LOC

hara-iQpee

belly-full

kam-oosunou

eat-OPT

uku=de hara-iQpee kam-oosunou

there=LOC belly-full eat-OPT

"I'd like to eat there (until my) belly (is) full."
あそこで腹いっぱい食べたいなあ[95]

(2)
nizjuugoNciga icuka kousunou.

nizjuugoNci=ga

twenty.fifth.day=NOM

icu=ka

when=INDET

ko-osunou

come-OPT

nizjuugoNci=ga icu=ka ko-osunou

twenty.fifth.day=NOM when=INDET come-OPT

"The 25th day (of this month) can't come soon enough," or "I wish the 25th could come faster."
25日がはやく来ないかなあ[95]

Intentional -oosjaate[edit]

The intentional (意図, ito, inten) gerund is made by replacing the -si of the dubitative form with -sjaate (but is treated as its own suffix).

This form is generally indicate that an action is attempted, considered, to planned to be done:

(1)
atode kamoosjaate okoojo dareNka kamaretara.

ato=de

afterward=LOC

kam-oosjaate

eat-INTEN

ok-a(r)-o=jo

leave-STAT-ATTR(NMLZ)=ACC

dare=N=ka

who=DAT=INDET

kam-are-tar-(o=w)a

eat-PASS-STAT-ATTR=DECL

ato=de kam-oosjaate ok-a(r)-o=jo dare=N=ka kam-are-tar-(o=w)a

afterward=LOC eat-INTEN leave-STAT-ATTR(NMLZ)=ACC who=DAT=INDET eat-PASS-STAT-ATTR=DECL

"Somebody ate (the food) that I had left out and had intended to eat later."
後で食べようと置いておいたのを誰かに食べられた。[40]

The intentional is often used in conjunction with the verb sjowa "to do." With agentive verbs, this construction means "to attempt to, to plan to," etc., whereas with non-agentive verbs, it instead means "to seem to be about to":[135]

(2)
kousjaate sjaatei kou hou nakedara.

ko-osjaate

come-INTEN

s-jaatei

do-FHYP

k-ou

come-VOL

hou

way

na-ke

not-ADJ.ATTR(NMLZ)

=dar-(o=w)a

=COP-ATTR=DECL

ko-osjaate s-jaatei k-ou hou na-ke =dar-(o=w)a

come-INTEN do-FHYP come-VOL way not-ADJ.ATTR(NMLZ) =COP-ATTR=DECL

"No matter how (much) I try to come, I cannot come (because I have bad legs)."
ようとしても来られないのだ。(足が悪くて)[135]

(3)
wakoosjaate site arowa.

wak-oosjaate

boil-INTEN

si-te

do-PTCP

ar-(o=w)a

be-ATTR=DECL

wak-oosjaate si-te ar-(o=w)a

boil-INTEN do-PTCP be-ATTR=DECL

"(The pot) seems like it's about to boil."
(ナベが)沸きかかっている。[135]

Past Subjunctive -oositar-[edit]

The past subjunctive (局面に関わる派生形式, kyokumen ni kakawaru hasei-keishiki, lit. "derived form concerning circumstance," pstsubj) is made by replacing the -si of the dubitative form with -sitara (but is treated as its own suffix), which is conjugated as a Class 1.1C verb (stem -sitar-). This form appears to etymologically consist of the dubitative followed by the stative suffix -tar-.

This form is used to mark actions that would have occurred in different circumstances, but were not (or could not be) actualized:[136]

(1)
maNdaatowa terebiN mainici hoosoosariisitaNnoowa. (Sueyoshi dialect)

ma=N

now=DAT

=da=to=wa

=COP.JPRS=if=TOP

terebi=N

television=DAT

maĭnici

every.day

housou

broadcasting

=s-are-isitar-(u)-naw-o=wa

=do-PASS-PSTSUBJ-FIN-CNJEC-ATTR=DECL

ma=N =da=to=wa terebi=N maĭnici housou =s-are-isitar-(u)-naw-o=wa

now=DAT =COP.JPRS=if=TOP television=DAT every.day broadcasting =do-PASS-PSTSUBJ-FIN-CNJEC-ATTR=DECL

"It probably would have been broadcast on TV every day now."
今だとテレビに毎日、放送されるところだったろうよ。[136]

Japanese-Style Forms[edit]

All of these forms have been borrowed directly from Modern or Late Middle Japanese, but are nativized to lesser or greater extent. In many constructions, Japanese-style tenses are capable of replacing final and/or attributive forms. Generally, the Japanese-style present and Japanese-style past are equivalent to Hachijō-style forms with and without the stative suffix -(t)ar-, respectively.

Present -u[edit]

The affirmative Japanese-style present (ノム形, NOMU kei, lit. "nomu form," jprs) is made by adding the suffix -u to the stems of Class 1 verbs, -ru to those of Class 2, and a coalescing -i to verbal adjectives'. For irregular verbs, sjowa becomes su or suru, and kurowa becomes ku or kuru. The copula dara also has the irregular form da.
The negative Japanese-style present has two forms; the first is made by changing the New-Type Negative auxiliary -Nnaka to -Nnee, while the second is formed by changing the -ba of the conditional gerund -aba to -nee.

Past -ta[edit]

The affirmative Japanese-style past (ノンダ形, NONDA kei, lit. "nonda form," jpst) is made by changing the -te or -de of verbs' participles to -ta or -da, respectively, and by adding -kaQta to verbal adjectives' stems. For verbs, this can be further extended by adding another -Qta to the end, with a meaning akin to adding a second past -(t)ar- to a verb.
The negative Japanese-style past is made by changing the New-Type Negative auxiliary -Nnaka of the negative Japanese-style present tense to -NnaQta.

Despite being a Japanese-borrowed form, Class 1 verbs still exhibit Hachijō-style euphony as in the participle form; for example, the Japanese-style past form of togowa "to grind, polish" (stem tog-) is toNda, not **toida.

Presumptive -darou ~ -rou[edit]

The Japanese-style presumptive (推量, suiryō, prsm) forms are made by appending -darou to Japanese-style present tense verbals, or -rou to Japanese-style past tense verbals. On verbs, the negative present presumptive also has a suppletive form where -mee is appended to the final form. These forms were borrowed from the Japanese presumptive particle だろう darō (a combination of the copula だ da and suffix ~ろう -rō) and the suffixes ~ろう -rō and ~まい -mai. The latter are descended from the Early Middle Japanese suffixes ~らむ -ramu ~ -raũ and ~まじ -mazi.[137]

This form is generally equivalent in meaning to the native Hachijō conjectural extension -naw-.

Representative -tari[edit]

The Japanese-style representative (並列, heiretsukei, lit. "parallel," jrep) gerund is made by adding -ri or to the Japanese-style past tense (but is treated as its own suffix). This creates a gerund meaning "activities such as ~ing," and it is often used in non-exhaustive lists of activities. These forms were borrowed from the equivalent Japanese forms -tari ~ -dari.

This gerund is usually paired with a verb of doing usually sjowa "to do" (but also occasionally, others, such as simouwa "to finish doing"):

(1)
cjawaNjo araQtari, imoo kokuQtari, komee toQdari sitoa tokoro. (Nakanogō dialect)

cjawaN=jo

bowl=ACC

araw-tari

clean-JREP

imo=o

taro=ACC

kokur-tari

scrape[138]-JREP

kome=o

rice=o

tog-tari

polish-JREP

si-ta(r)-o

do-STAT-ATTR

tokoro

place

cjawaN=jo araw-tari imo=o kokur-tari kome=o tog-tari si-ta(r)-o tokoro

bowl=ACC clean-JREP taro=ACC scrape[138]-JREP rice=o polish-JREP do-STAT-ATTR place

"the place where we did things like cleaning bowls, peeling taros, and washing rice"
茶碗を洗ったり、サトイモの皮を剥いたり、米を米を磨いだりした場所[139]

The auxiliary verb -mik- differs in that it cannot mark lists of activities, only a single activity.

Verbal Adjective Nominalizers -sa and -mi[edit]

Two unique ways to change verbal adjectives into nouns is by using the affixes -sa and -mi (both adj.nmlz), both of which are attached directly to the verbal adjective stem.[140] Unlike in Japanese, Hachijō -mi is synonymous with -sa and indicates a noun of extent or quantity, comparable to English -ness:

(1)
kono takamiga joQkja.

kono

this.ATTR

taka-mi=ga

high-ADJ.NMLZ=NOM

jo-ke=(w)a

good-ADJ.ATTR=DECL

kono taka-mi=ga jo-ke=(w)a

this.ATTR high-ADJ.NMLZ=NOM good-ADJ.ATTR=DECL

"This height is fine."
この高がいいよ。[141]

(2)
kono sebasadoo tokou

kono

this.ATTR

seba-sa

narrow-ADJ.NMLZ

=da(r)-o

=COP-ATTR

toko=o

place=ACC

kono seba-sa =da(r)-o toko=o

this.ATTR narrow-ADJ.NMLZ =COP-ATTR place=ACC

"a place of this narrowness"
この狭のところを/このぐらい狭いところを[141]

The suffix -mi can only be used with a select number of verbal adjectives, whereas -sa can be used with all verbal adjectives.

Negative[edit]

There are a variety of ways to form negative (否定, hiteikei) verbs—that is, verbs with the meaning "not" included—in Hachijō. The primary ways are with auxiliary verbs, of which Hachijō has two: the "Old-Type" -Nzjara and the "New-Type" -Nnaka. It has been said that the Old-Type is typical of the Uphill region of Hachijō-jima (in the Kashitate, Nakanogō, and Sueyoshi dialects), whereas the New-Type is typical of the Downhill region (Mitsune and Ōkagō dialects); however, the New-Type has spread to be used among all younger generations of speakers.[142] Verbal adjectives and the copula do not use either of these negative auxiliaries. Instead, verbal adjectives use their infinitive form in -ku followed by the verbal adjective nakja "not"; similarly, the copula uses zja nakja—the participle form de fused with the topic marker -wa, followed by nakja.

Old-Type Negative -Nzjara[edit]

The Old-Type negative (古いタイプ否定, furui taipu hitei, neg) is formed by adding the auxiliary verb -Nzjara (stem -Nzjar-, Class 1.1C) to a verb's infinitive form. If the verb's infinitive ends in a long vowel, the first N of this auxiliary is dropped.

It is speculated that -Nzjar- may come from an unattested Eastern Old Japanese construction *-ni si ar- "is not doing," composed the negative infinitive -(a)ni, infinitive si of s- "to do," and ar- "to be." This would be akin to how early Old Japanese -ni su yielded later -zu "does not."[142]

New-Type Negative -Nnaka[edit]

The New-Type negative (新しいタイプ否定, atarashii taipu hitei, neg) is formed by adding the auxiliary verb -Nnaka (stem -Nnak- ~ -Nnar- ~ -Nnakar-, special conjugation class) to a verb's infinitive form. If the verb's infinitive ends in a long vowel, the first N of this auxiliary is dropped. It is speculated that the New-Type negative is based on replacing the zjara of the Old-Type negative -Nzjara with the adjective nakja "not," then reanalyzing it as something akin to a Class 1.1C verb. This would explain the alternating verb stems:[142]

  • -Nnakar- would be the regular derived Class 1.1C verb stem of *-Nnakja: *-Nna-ku ar--Nnakar-.
  • -Nnak- would be from changing *-Nnakja to a verb *-Nnakowa-Nnaka.
  • -Nnar- would be from replacing the zj of -Nzjara with n by analogy: -Nzjar--Nnar-.

As this auxiliary is highly irregular, a sample of conjugated forms is given in the table below:[143]

Verb Form Basic
(Present)
Stative
(Past)
Attributive Nnoo
Nnako
Nn(ak)aroo
wa-Declarative Nnaka Nn(ak)arara
Final *Nnaru *Nn(ak)araru
Conjectural NnaNnouwa Nn(ak)araNnouwa
Japanese-style Nnee NnaQta
Exclamatory Nnare Nn(ak)arare
Focalized Exclamatory NnaNnee Nn(ak)araNnee
Participle Nsjade
Conditional Nn(ak)aaba Nn(ak)araaba
Provisional Nn(ak)areba Nn(ak)arareba
Futile-Hypothetical Nnakjaatei Nn(ak)arjaatei
Other Negative Forms[edit]

In addition to the negative auxiliaries, there are also several other verbal affixes that indicate negative meaning:

  • Negative Infinitive -zu (neg.inf), and all of its derived forms.
  • Prohibitive -na (proh), a postfix following the final form, which serves as the negative counterpart to the imperative.
  • Japanese-style Negative Present -anee (neg.jprs), which is one of the Japanese-style counterparts to the normal present tense. It can be formed by replacing the -zu of the -azu form of the negative infinitive with -nee, e.g., nomanee "doesn't drink."
  • Japanese-style Negative Present Presumptive -mee (neg.jprs.prsm), a postfix following the final form, which serves as the negative counterpart to -darou.

Stative -ar- ~ -tar-[edit]

The stative (アリ形, ARI kei, lit. "ari-form," stat) derivation is made by adding -ar- to the stems of Class 1.1 and 1.2 verbs, -(i)tar- to those of Class 1.3 (with some allomorphy), -tar- to those of Class 2, and -karar- to verbal adjectives'. For irregular verbs, sjowa becomes sitar-, and kurowa becomes kitar-. All stative forms are conjugated as Class 1.1C verbs. The allomorph -ar- descends from the Eastern Old Japanese stative-progressive -ar-, itself a construction from the Pre-Old Japanese infinitive *-i + ar- "to be"; it is therefore cognate to Western Old Japanese -e1r- and Middle Japanese -er- of the same original meaning (extinct in Modern Japanese).[144] The allomorphs containing -tar- instead descend from the Old Japanese stative-progressive -tar-, consisting of participle -te + ar- "to be";[145] it is therefore cognate to the Modern Japanese past tense -ta.

Although originally indicating stative-like meaning, and continuing to do so in some situations, this extension has changed to a meaning close to a past tense in modern Hachijō, supplanting the former past tense (now retrospective) -ci in most cases.

Due to heavy influence from Japanese, for some speakers, forms with the morph -ar- are in the process of being replaced with forms in -tar- ~ -dar- (formed in the same way as the participle -te ~ -de): nomara → noNdara "drank," ikara → iQtara "went," curara → cuQtara "fished."[146]


Retrospective -ci[edit]

The retrospective (過去キ, kako KI, lit. "past-ki," ret) is made by replacing the -te or -de of the participle with -ci or -zi, respectively. It is often used in combination with the stative -(t)ar-, as -(t)aQci, to express more or less the same meaning. The retrospective can also combine with the Japanese-style past -ta to form -taQci, or with both the Japanese-style past -ta and the stative -ar- to form -taraQci.

This form descends from the attributive form -si of the Old Japanese past tense auxiliary -ki1. It is believed to have been changed from -si to -ci by morphological leveling due to Class 1.1A verbs' stem-final Q, as per the phonological process Q-sQc.

This extension indicates past tense, as well as often indicating a modal meaning of retrospection or recollection. Although it does not inflect per se, -ci can be treated as an attributive, exclamatory, or final form. As an attributive form, it can be used in all normal attributive-form functions:

(1)
ukuN sakaQcjo torazuN ciree simooroozja.

uku=N

there=DAT

sak-ar-ci=o

bloom-STAT-RET(ATTR,NMLZ)=ACC

tor-azu=N

take-NEG.INF=DAT

cir-a(s)e-(te)

scatter-CAUS-(PTCP)

simaw-ar-a(r)-o=zja

finish-STAT-STAT-ATTR=DECL

uku=N sak-ar-ci=o tor-azu=N cir-a(s)e-(te) simaw-ar-a(r)-o=zja

there=DAT bloom-STAT-RET(ATTR,NMLZ)=ACC take-NEG.INF=DAT scatter-CAUS-(PTCP) finish-STAT-STAT-ATTR=DECL

"You didn't pick what had bloomed there; you just let them scatter, right?" (nominalized)
あそこに咲いたのを採らずに散らせてしまったね。[147]

(2)
ukuN araQci hitowa adaN naQte arudarou?

uku=N

there=DAT

ar-ar-ci

be-STAT-RET(ATTR)

hito=wa

person=TOP

adaN

in.what.way

nar-te

become-PTCP

ar-u-darou

be-JPRS-PRSM

uku=N ar-ar-ci hito=wa adaN nar-te ar-u-darou

there=DAT be-STAT-RET(ATTR) person=TOP in.what.way become-PTCP be-JPRS-PRSM

"What happened to the person who was there?" (adnominal)
あそこにい人はどうしているだろう。[148]

(3)
unotokimo nomaQcikaN

uno-toki=mo

that.ATTR-time=also

nom-ar-ci=kaN

drink-STAT-RET(ATTR)=Q

uno-toki=mo nom-ar-ci=kaN

that.ATTR-time=also drink-STAT-RET(ATTR)=Q

"Did I drink at that time, too...?" (interrogative kakari-musubi)
あの時も飲んだんだっけ[149]

(4)
unotoki NNmasouni noNziNte joQpodo sukideka aNnou

uno-toki

that.ATTR-time

NNma-sou

delicious-seeming

=ni

=COP.INF

nom-ci=Nte

drink-RET(ATTR)=because

joQpodo

greatly

suki

liking

=de=ka

=COP.PTCP=Q

ar-(u)-naw-o

be-FIN-CNJEC-ATTR

uno-toki NNma-sou =ni nom-ci=Nte joQpodo suki =de=ka ar-(u)-naw-o

that.ATTR-time delicious-seeming =COP.INF drink-RET(ATTR)=because greatly liking =COP.PTCP=Q be-FIN-CNJEC-ATTR

"Since he drank it like it was delicious, he must like really it." (with a conjunction particle)
あのとき美味そうに飲んから、よほど好きなんだろう。[150]

However, the declarative form with -wa is irregular, becoming -cii ~ -zii:

(5)
ukude uito nomaQcii.

uku=de

that.place=LOC

uĭ=to

that.person=COM

nom-ar-ci=(wa)

drink-STAT-RET(ATTR)=DECL

uku=de uĭ=to nom-ar-ci=(wa)

that.place=LOC that.person=COM drink-STAT-RET(ATTR)=DECL

"(As I recall,) that person did drink at that place."
あそこで、あの人と飲んだっけなあ[151]

As a final form, -ci combines with the focalized exclamatory -nee for kakari-musubi with the focus particle koo. Such sentences are used to emphatically remind others of past events that they have forgotten:

(6)
ukudekoo noNzinee!

uku=de=koo

that.place=LOC=FOC

nom-ci-naw-e

drink-RET(FIN)-FOCLZ-EXCL

uku=de=koo nom-ci-naw-e

that.place=LOC=FOC drink-RET(FIN)-FOCLZ-EXCL

"(Surely,) that was where you drank it, (was it not?)"
(まさに)あそこでコソ飲んだじゃない[149]

Lastly, as an exclamatory-type form, -ci can serve as the base for the concessive gerund -dou:

(7)
kineiwa huQcidou keiwa adadaka.

kinei=wa

yesterday=TOP

hur-ci-dou

rain-RET(EXCL)-CNCES

kei=wa

today=TOP

ada

how

=da=ka

=COP.JPRS=Q

kinei=wa hur-ci-dou kei=wa ada =da=ka

yesterday=TOP rain-RET(EXCL)-CNCES today=TOP how =COP.JPRS=Q

"Although it rained yesterday, how will today be, I wonder?"
昨日は(雨が)降ったが、今日はどうだか。[120]

This affix is falling out of use, having mostly been supplanted in meaning by the stative, which has transitioned into a past-like meaning. However, it still contrasts with the stative in that the retrospective requires an action to have occurred significantly in the past. For example, sentence 8 is acceptable, whereas sentence 9 is not:

(8)
maN kitoo hitowa koidara.

ma=N

now=DAT

ki-ta(r)-o

come-STAT-ATTR

hito=wa

person=TOP

koĭ

this.person

=dar-(o=w)a

=COP-ATTR=DECL

ma=N ki-ta(r)-o hito=wa koĭ =dar-(o=w)a

now=DAT come-STAT-ATTR person=TOP this.person =COP-ATTR=DECL

"This person is the one who just arrived."
今来人はこの人だ。[152]

(9)
**maN kitaQci hitowa koidara.

ma=N

now=DAT

ki-tar-ci

come-STAT-RET(ATTR)

hito=wa

person=TOP

koĭ

this.person

=dar-(o=w)a

=COP-ATTR=DECL

ma=N ki-tar-ci hito=wa koĭ =dar-(o=w)a

now=DAT come-STAT-RET(ATTR) person=TOP this.person =COP-ATTR=DECL

Intended meaning: "This person is the one who just arrived."
今来人はこの人だ。[152]

Because the person in the above examples still remains present in when the sentence is uttered, the action of "arriving" is not significantly past enough for the retrospective (in 9) to be appropriate, but the simple stative (in 8) is acceptable.

Passive -(r)are-[edit]

The "passive" (受動, judō, pass) extension is made by adding the suffix -are- to the stems of Class 1 verbs, and -rare- to those of Class 2. For irregular verbs, sjowa becomes sare-, and kurowa becomes korare-. All passive forms are conjugated as Class 2b verbs.

The primary function of the passive is to denote an action that occurs without the intent or volition of the subject of the sentence. In this usage, the recipient or "affected party" of the action becomes the subject (marked as a topic or in nominative case, or omitted), and any agent is marked in the dative case with N~ni:

(1)
ara kanasike terebjo miruto, sugu benarare. (spoken to oneself)

ar(e=w)a

me=TOP

kanasi-ke

sad-ADJ.ATTR

terebi=o

television=ACC

mi-ru=to

see-JPRS=if

sugu

soon

benar-are

cry-PASS.INF

ar(e=w)a kanasi-ke terebi=o mi-ru=to sugu benar-are

me=TOP sad-ADJ.ATTR television=ACC see-JPRS=if soon cry-PASS.INF

"Whenever I watch a sad television show, I quickly start crying."
私は悲しいテレビを見ると、すぐ泣けてくる[77]

A specialized use of this is to form passive sentences. In some situations, these can be interpreted as a direct passive similar to English's, where the former direct object becomes the new subject of the sentence as the "affected party":

(2)
korei nomja soogarerowa.

kore=o

this=ACC

nom-e(b)a

drink-PROV

soog-are-ro=wa

scold-PASS-ATTR=DECL

kore=o nom-e(b)a soog-are-ro=wa

this=ACC drink-PROV scold-PASS-ATTR=DECL

"If you drink this, you will be scolded."
これを飲めば怒られるよ。[153]

(3)
uciwano kazeN aworarete deNpjouga hiNmakara.

uciwa=no

uchiwa=GEN

kaze=N

wind=DAT

awor-are-te

fan-PASS-PTCP

deNpjou=ga

payment.slip=NOM

hiQ-mak-ar-(o=w)a

INTS-fly-STAT-ATTR=DECL

uciwa=no kaze=N awor-are-te deNpjou=ga hiQ-mak-ar-(o=w)a

uchiwa=GEN wind=DAT fan-PASS-PTCP payment.slip=NOM INTS-fly-STAT-ATTR=DECL

"When fanned by the wind of the uchiwa, the payment slips flew away."
ウチワの風に扇がれて、伝票が飛んでいった。[40]

(4)
karasumeN torarete tedoreNnaka.

karasume=N

crow=DAT

tor-are-te

take-PASS-PTCP

tedor-e-Nnak-(o=w)a

obtain-POT.INF-NEG-ATTR=DECL

karasume=N tor-are-te tedor-e-Nnak-(o=w)a

crow=DAT take-PASS-PTCP obtain-POT.INF-NEG-ATTR=DECL

"It was taken by crows, so you're not going to be able to get it."
カラスに取られて手には入れられないよ。[40]

In other situations, the "affected party" is not the former direct object, creating passive sentences that often cannot be directly translated with the English passive voice. Such usages are sometimes termed the "suffering passive" (迷惑の受身, meiwaku no ukemi), as the Hachijō subject is often a person who suffers as a result of the action. As Hachijō is a pro-drop language, the "sufferer" can also be omitted:

(5)
atode kamoosjaate okoojo dareNka kamaretara.

ato=de

afterward=LOC

kam-oosjaate

eat-INTEN

ok-a(r)-o=jo

leave-STAT-ATTR(NMLZ)=ACC

dare=N=ka

who=DAT=INDET

kam-are-tar-(o=w)a

eat-PASS-STAT-ATTR=DECL

ato=de kam-oosjaate ok-a(r)-o=jo dare=N=ka kam-are-tar-(o=w)a

afterward=LOC eat-INTEN leave-STAT-ATTR(NMLZ)=ACC who=DAT=INDET eat-PASS-STAT-ATTR=DECL

"Somebody ate (the food) that (I) had left out and had intended to eat later." (sufferer is "I")
後で食べようと置いておいたのを誰かに食べられた。[40]

(6)
uno neQkomegoo kono neQkomeN nomaretara.

uno

that.ATTR

neQkome=ga=∅=o

cat=GEN=∅=ACC

kono

this.ATTR

neQkome=N

cat=DAT

nom-are-tar-(o=w)a

drink-PASS-STAT-ATTR=DECL

uno neQkome=ga=∅=o kono neQkome=N nom-are-tar-(o=w)a

that.ATTR cat=GEN=∅=ACC this.ATTR cat=DAT drink-PASS-STAT-ATTR=DECL

"This cat drank that cat's (drink)." (sufferer is "that cat")
あの猫のをこの猫に飲まれた。[40]

(7)
haNzume jamakaa keero tokiN ameni hurarete taiheNdarara.

haNzume

just.now

jama=kaa

field=ABL

keer-o

return-ATTR

toki=N

time=DAT

ame=ni

rain=DAT

hur-are-te

fall-PASS-PTCP

taĭheN

awful

=dar-ar-(o=w)a

=COP-STAT-ATTR=DECL

haNzume jama=kaa keer-o toki=N ame=ni hur-are-te taĭheN =dar-ar-(o=w)a

just.now field=ABL return-ATTR time=DAT rain=DAT fall-PASS-PTCP awful =COP-STAT-ATTR=DECL

"Just now, when (I) was returning from the fields, (I) got rained on, and it was awful." (sufferer is "I")
さっき畑から帰るときに雨に降られて大変だったよ。[96]

Another use of the passive extension is to express potentiality, that is, meanings such as an individual's ability, a general ability for anyone, a possible state, and past achievement:

(8)
dareNdemo oseirarerowa.

dare=N

who=DAT

=de=mo

=COP.PTCP=also

osei-rare-ro=wa

teach-PASS-ATTR=DECL

dare=N =de=mo osei-rare-ro=wa

who=DAT =COP.PTCP=also teach-PASS-ATTR=DECL

"He can teach anyone." (specific ability)
誰にでも教えられるよ。[96]

(9)
kokono mizuwa nomarerowa.

koko=no

here=GEN

mizu=wa

water=TOP

nom-are-ro=wa

drink-PASS-ATTR=DECL

koko=no mizu=wa nom-are-ro=wa

here=GEN water=TOP drink-PASS-ATTR=DECL

"(People) can drink the water here." (general ability)
ここの水は飲る。[96]

(10)
meNkjoga naQkeNte uNteN sareNnaka.

meNkjo=ga

license=NOM

na-ke=Nte

not-ADJ.ATTR=because

uNteN

driving

s-are-Nnak-(o=w)a

do-PASS.INF-NEG-ATTR=DECL

meNkjo=ga na-ke=Nte uNteN s-are-Nnak-(o=w)a

license=NOM not-ADJ.ATTR=because driving do-PASS.INF-NEG-ATTR=DECL

"Since you don't have a license, you are not able to drive." (possible state)
免許が無くて、運転できない。[67]

(11)
joNbewa guQsuri neraretara.

joNbe=wa

last.night=TOP

guQsuri

soundly

ne-rare-tar-(o=w)a

sleep-PASS-STAT-ATTR=DECL

joNbe=wa guQsuri ne-rare-tar-(o=w)a

last.night=TOP soundly sleep-PASS-STAT-ATTR=DECL

"I was able to sleep soundly last night." (past achievement)
夕べはぐっすり寝られた。[77]

In a negative sentence, this potential meaning can also be used deontically to indicate a necessity:

(12)
kora noomo cukezuN kogoN sicja okareNnoogaateQte

kor(e=w)a

this.person=TOP

na=o=mo

name=ACC=even

cuke-zu=N

attach-NEG.INF=DAT

kogo͡oN

this.way

si-te=(w)a

do-PTCP=TOP

ok-are-Nna(k)-o=ga

leave-PASS.INF-NEG-ATTR=but

=tew-te

=QUOT.say-PTCP

kor(e=w)a na=o=mo cuke-zu=N kogo͡oN si-te=(w)a ok-are-Nna(k)-o=ga =tew-te

this.person=TOP name=ACC=even attach-NEG.INF=DAT this.way do-PTCP=TOP leave-PASS.INF-NEG-ATTR=but =QUOT.say-PTCP

"...saying, 'We cannot just leave this boy like this without a name,' ..."
「これは、名を付けずに、このようにしては置けないな」と言って[77]

Potential -e-[edit]

The potential (可能, kanō, pot) extension is a specialized alternative to the passive extension that exists for Class 1 verbs and the irregular verb kurowa. It is made by adding the suffix -e- to the stems of Class 1 verbs, and kurowa becomes kore-. Like the passive, all potential forms are conjugated as Class 2b verbs.

Like the passive, the potential can also denote certain kinds of spontaneous actions (but not the passive):

(1)
areN sirete kotobaga koote arowa.

are=N

me=DAT

sir-e-te

know-POT-PTCP

kotoba=ga

word=NOM

koor-te

change-PTCP

ar-o=wa

be-ATTR=DECL

are=N sir-e-te kotoba=ga koor-te ar-o=wa

me=DAT know-POT-PTCP word=NOM change-PTCP be-ATTR=DECL

"Our words are changing, I know it (to be true for myself, too)."
私に分かって、言葉が変わっている(自分でも変わったのが分かる)よ。[154]

However, the potential extension's primary function is to indicate potentiality, much like one of the functions of the passive extension:

(2)
wareNmo zjouzuN sakega cugerowa.

ware=N=mo

me=DAT=also

zjouzu

skillful

=n(i)

=COP.INF

sake=ga

alcohol=NOM

cug-e-ro=wa

pour-POT-ATTR=DECL

ware=N=mo zjouzu =n(i) sake=ga cug-e-ro=wa

me=DAT=also skillful =COP.INF alcohol=NOM pour-POT-ATTR=DECL

"I can pour sake well, too." (specific ability)
私には上手に酒が注る。[155]

(3)
kokono mizuwa nomerowa.

koko=no

here=GEN

mizu=wa

water=TOP

nom-e-ro=wa

drink-POT-ATTR=DECL

koko=no mizu=wa nom-e-ro=wa

here=GEN water=TOP drink-POT-ATTR=DECL

"(People) can drink the water here." (general ability)
ここの水は飲る。[96]

(4)
zikaNga aroNte nomerowa.

zikaN=ga

time=NOM

ar-o=Nte

be-ATTR=because

nom-e-ro=wa

drink-POT-ATTR=DECL

zikaN=ga ar-o=Nte nom-e-ro=wa

time=NOM be-ATTR=because drink-POT-ATTR=DECL

"Since I've got time, I can drink." (possible state)
時間があるから飲る。[155]

(5)
kineiwa teQcumo nomeNnarara.

kinei=wa

yesterday=TOP

teQcu=mo

one.thing=even

nom-e-Nnar-ar-(o=w)a

drink-POT.INF-NEG-STAT-ATTR=DECL

kinei=wa teQcu=mo nom-e-Nnar-ar-(o=w)a

yesterday=TOP one.thing=even drink-POT.INF-NEG-STAT-ATTR=DECL

"I could not drink even one bit yesterday." (past achievement)
昨日は全然飲なかった。[154]

Causative -(s)ase-[edit]

The causative (使役, shieki, caus) extension is made by adding the suffix -ase- to the stems of Class 1 verbs, and -sase- to those of Class 2. For irregular verbs, sjowa becomes sase-, and kurowa becomes kosase-. In these forms, causatives are conjugated as Class 2b verbs. Especially in the Downhill Dialects, the ase found in this form can be reduced to ee by dropping of the s; in these forms, causatives are conjugated as Class 2c verbs.

This extension is used to form causative constructions, increasing a verb's valency by 1 to include a causer agent. The old subject becomes a new indirect object (in dative case), and the causer becomes the new subject (as a topic or in nominative case). This function can indicate direct causation (such as by a command) or indirect causation (such as by giving permission, or by allowing something to happen through inaction).

(1)
hoowa areN hurou wakaseetara.

hoo=wa

mother=TOP

are=N

me=DAT

huro=o

bath=ACC

wakas-a(s)e-tar-(o=w)a

boil-CAUS-STAT-ATTR=DECL

hoo=wa are=N huro=o wakas-a(s)e-tar-(o=w)a

mother=TOP me=DAT bath=ACC boil-CAUS-STAT-ATTR=DECL

"My mother made me heat up the bath."
母は私に風呂を沸かさせた。[156]

(2)
koraN katazukesaseroNte omeeroo jasumijare.

kor(e-r)a=N

this.person-PL=DAT

katazuke-sase-ro=Nte

tidy.up-CAUS-ATTR=because

omee-ra=o

you(HON)-PL=ACC

jasum-i-jar-e

rest-INF-HON-IMP

kor(e-r)a=N katazuke-sase-ro=Nte omee-ra=o jasum-i-jar-e

this.person-PL=DAT tidy.up-CAUS-ATTR=because you(HON)-PL=ACC rest-INF-HON-IMP

"I'll get these people to take care of it, so rest easy."
この人たちにかたづけさせるから、あなたがたはお休みなされ。[147]

(3)
kamabuteQte kogo͡aN juQte miNnaN sjoweetoadoazja. (Nakanogō dialect)

kamabu

wage

=tew-te

=QUOT.say-PTCP

kogo͡oN

this.way

juw-te

bind-PTCP

miNna=N

everyone=DAT

sjow-a(s)e-ta(r)-o

carry-CAUS-STAT-ATTR(NMLZ)

=da(r)-o=zja

=COP-ATTR=DECL

kamabu =tew-te kogo͡oN juw-te miNna=N sjow-a(s)e-ta(r)-o =da(r)-o=zja

wage =QUOT.say-PTCP this.way bind-PTCP everyone=DAT carry-CAUS-STAT-ATTR(NMLZ) =COP-ATTR=DECL

"Calling it 'kamabu,' they tied up (the rice plants) like this and allowed everyone to carry them (back home)."
カマボ [sic]と言って、こんなふうに(稲を)結って、(持って帰るように)みんなに背負わせたんだよね。[147]

(4)
kodomoniwa hookisibaN komii cucuQde nite kamasetaraQtiizja. (Nakanogō dialect)

kodomo=ni=wa

child=DAT=TOP

houkisi-ba=N

leopard.plant-leaf=DAT

kome=o

rice=ACC

cucum-te

wrap.up-PTCP

ni-te

boil-PTCP

kam-ase-tar-ar-(u)

eat-CAUS-STAT-STAT-FIN

=tew-o=zja

=QUOT.say-ATTR=DECL

kodomo=ni=wa houkisi-ba=N kome=o cucum-te ni-te kam-ase-tar-ar-(u) =tew-o=zja

child=DAT=TOP leopard.plant-leaf=DAT rice=ACC wrap.up-PTCP boil-PTCP eat-CAUS-STAT-STAT-FIN =QUOT.say-ATTR=DECL

"I heard that they wrapped rice in leopard plant leaves, cooked it, and let the (important) child eat it."
(大切な)子供には、ツワブキの葉に米を包んで炊いて食べさせたそうじゃない。[147]

(5)
unohitoni jokei cukoosereba jokarooni macigaQte hetadoojo cukoosetara.

uno-hito=ni

that.ATTR-person=DAT

jo-ke=o

good-ADJ.ATTR(NMLZ)=ACC

cukaw-ase-reba

use-CAUS-PROV

jo-kar-a(r)-o

good-ADJ-STAT-ATTR(NMLZ)

=ni

=COP.INF

macigaw-te

mistake-PTCP

heta

bad

=da(r)-o=o

=COP-ATTR(NMLZ)=ACC

cukaw-ase-tar-(o=w)a

use-CAUS-STAT-ATTR=DECL

uno-hito=ni jo-ke=o cukaw-ase-reba jo-kar-a(r)-o =ni macigaw-te heta =da(r)-o=o cukaw-ase-tar-(o=w)a

that.ATTR-person=DAT good-ADJ.ATTR(NMLZ)=ACC use-CAUS-PROV good-ADJ-STAT-ATTR(NMLZ) =COP.INF mistake-PTCP bad =COP-ATTR(NMLZ)=ACC use-CAUS-STAT-ATTR=DECL

"I should've had him use the good one, but I let him use the bad one by mistake."
あの人に良いのを使わせれば良かったのに、間違ってダメなのを使わせた。[147]

In forms where ase is elided to ee and then inflected into its participle form, the -te that marks the participle can be dropped, much like Class 1.3A and 1.3A' verbs:

(6)
ukuN sakaQcjo torazuN ciree simooroozja.

uku=N

there=DAT

sak-ar-ci=o

bloom-STAT-RET(ATTR,NMLZ)=ACC

tor-azu=N

take-NEG.INF=DAT

cir-a(s)e-(te)

scatter-CAUS-(PTCP)

simaw-ar-a(r)-o=zja

finish-STAT-STAT-ATTR=DECL

uku=N sak-ar-ci=o tor-azu=N cir-a(s)e-(te) simaw-ar-a(r)-o=zja

there=DAT bloom-STAT-RET(ATTR,NMLZ)=ACC take-NEG.INF=DAT scatter-CAUS-(PTCP) finish-STAT-STAT-ATTR=DECL

"You didn't pick what had bloomed there; you just let them scatter, right?"
あそこに咲いたのを採らずに散らせてしまったね。[147]

Syntax[edit]

Like Japanese, Hachijō is head-final, left-branching, topic-prominent, often omits nouns that can be understood from context, and has default subject–object–verb word order. Nouns exhibit neither grammatical gender nor number.

Quotations and Reported Speech[edit]

Quotations and reported speech, both direct and indirect, are fundamentally marked by the quotative particle -to, which follows the quoted speech.

The quotative particle is often followed by a verb of speaking or thinking, typically jowa "say" and omouwa "think," respectively. Due to vowel coalescence, -to often becomes -te when followed by jowa (underlying stem iw-). Similarly, the sequence -to omow- is usually trimmed to -to mow- by haplology.

In addition, certain forms of -te jowa often contract to make an irregular defective verb -teija (stem *-tew-, quot.say). This verb has the following forms:[157]

  • attributive + wa-declarative: teija (or teiwa in the Aogashima dialect) ← *te jo-wa
  • attributive + "because": teite ← *te jo-Nte
  • attributive + copular participle de: teide ← *te jo-de
  • participle: teQte ← *tew-tete iQte

Any other forms are made periphrastically using the non-contracted to jowa ~ te jowa.

Except in exact quotations, verbs followed by the quotative particle generally use the final form (or a Japanese-style tense) in place of a wa-declarative form; the use of the final form in this construction is either fossilized from Old Japanese or influenced by mainland Japanese. Words followed by the quotative particle have a tendency to have their final syllable altered slightly:[157]

  • a Q can be inserted: nomu "drinks" + -teijanomuQteija "it is said that he drinks"
  • the vowel can be lengthened: wareenaka "won't laugh" + -tewareenakaate[132] "won't laugh" (direct quote)
  • for Class 1.1C verbs (and verbal adjectives), -ru contracts to Q: *jokaru "is good" + -teitejokaQteite "because they say it is good"

Kakari-Musubi[edit]

Kakari-musubi (係り結び, "hanging-tying") is a grammatical phenomenon found in most Japonic languages where certain particles on nouns in a sentence influence the form that a sentence's verb takes. In Hachijō, it involves the change of a sentence-final verb from an expected declarative form (in -owa) to either the attributive or exclamatory form. Hachijō's kakari-musubi can be triggered by the use of the focus particles ka and koo, or by making a sentence into a question.

Interrogative kakari-musubi[edit]

This type of kakari-musubi surfaces in questions and in statements of wondering. Such a sentence will use the bare attributive form (連体形, rentaikei) for its main verb rather than a declarative form in -wa or -zja, for example. Effectively, this means that the declarative particle is dropped.

For examples and further information on forming questions, see the subsection on interrogative sentences.

Exclamatory kakari-musubi[edit]

This type of kakari-musubi is found in conjunction with the focus particle ka, which requires the main verb of the sentence to be in exclamatory form (已然形, izenkei). This construction is inherited from Old Japanese, possibly even Proto-Japonic.[158]

(1)
agaka sakei nomare.

a=ga=ka

me=NOM=FOC

sake=o

alcohol=ACC

nom-ar-e

drink-STAT-EXCL

a=ga=ka sake=o nom-ar-e

me=NOM=FOC alcohol=ACC drink-STAT-EXCL

"It was I who drank the alcohol."
私がコソ酒を飲んだ[159]

(2)
uiga kuroNteka kokoN are.

uĭ=ga

that.person=NOM

k-uro=Nte=ka

come-ATTR=because=FOC

koko=N

here=DAT

ar-e

be-EXCL

uĭ=ga k-uro=Nte=ka koko=N ar-e

that.person=NOM come-ATTR=because=FOC here=DAT be-EXCL

"It is because that person will come that I am here."
あの人が来るからコソここにいる[159]

(3)
aNseika jare?

aNsei=ka

why=FOC

iw-ar-e

say-STAT-EXCL

aNsei=ka iw-ar-e

why=FOC say-STAT-EXCL

"Why was it that I said (such a thing)?" (an expression of regret)
どうして(あんなことを)言っただろう。/なぜコソ言った。(後悔して)[159]

(4)
jokuka kitare.

jo-ku=ka

good-ADJ.INF=FOC

ki-tar-e

come-STAT-EXCL

jo-ku=ka ki-tar-e

good-ADJ.INF=FOC come-STAT-EXCL

"It's good that you have come."
ああ、来て良かったなあ。/良くコソ来た。[159]

(5)
ara sakei nomika sitare.

ar(e=w)a

me=TOP

sake=o

alcohol=ACC

nom-i=ka

drink-INF=FOC

si-tar-e

do-STAT-EXCL

ar(e=w)a sake=o nom-i=ka si-tar-e

me=TOP alcohol=ACC drink-INF=FOC do-STAT-EXCL

"It was drinking that I did with the alcohol."
私は酒を飲みコソした[159]

If the clause containing ka is used in a mermaid construction, then the following copula uses the exclamatory form instead:

(6)
omeidasinagaraka hanasite ikodarega.

omeidas-i-nagara=ka

recall-INF-while=FOC

hanas-te

talk-PTCP

ik-o

go-ATTR(NMLZ)

=dar-e

=COP-EXCL

=ga

=DM

omeidas-i-nagara=ka hanas-te ik-o =dar-e =ga

recall-INF-while=FOC talk-PTCP go-ATTR(NMLZ) =COP-EXCL =DM

"It is only as he remembers it that he will start talking about it."
思い出しながらコソ話していくんだよ[160]

Focalized Exclamatory kakari-musubi[edit]

This type of kakari-musubi uses the focalizing suffix -naw- in its exclamatory form -nee, which always links to the particle -koo:

(1)
agakoo sogoN jaNnee.

a=ga=koo

me=NOM=FOC

sogo͡oN

in.that.way

iw-ar-(u)-naw-e

say-STAT-FIN-FOCLZ-EXCL

a=ga=koo sogo͡oN iw-ar-(u)-naw-e

me=NOM=FOC in.that.way say-STAT-FIN-FOCLZ-EXCL

"It was I who said so."
私がコソそう言ったんだ[161]

(2)
sugukoo dete kuruneegoo.

sugu=koo

soon=FOC

de-te

go.out-PTCP

k-uru-naw-e

come-FIN-FOCLZ-EXCL

=goo

=DM

sugu=koo de-te k-uru-naw-e =goo

soon=FOC go.out-PTCP come-FIN-FOCLZ-EXCL =DM

"It will be soon that he'll start (talking), eh?"
すぐコソ(話が)出てくるんだよね。[160]

Like ordinary exclamatory kakari-musubi, if the clause containing koo is used in a mermaid construction, then the following copula takes the focalizing exclamatory -nee:

(3)
hazimewa heikidekoo sitoodaNneegoo.

hazime=wa

beginning=TOP

heiki=de=koo

fine=LOC=FOC

si-tar-o

do-STAT-ATTR(NMLZ)

=dar-(u)-naw-e

=COP-FIN-FOCLZ-EXCL

=goo

=DM

hazime=wa heiki=de=koo si-tar-o =dar-(u)-naw-e =goo

beginning=TOP fine=LOC=FOC do-STAT-ATTR(NMLZ) =COP-FIN-FOCLZ-EXCL =DM

"At first, (not thinking it would be difficult,) I did it completely normally."
はじめは(こんなに大変だとは思わずに)平気でコソしたんだよ[161]

Interrogative Sentences[edit]

For these types of sentences, it is not unheard of for the final vowel of the sentences to become lengthened if it is short i, u, or a.

Polar Questions[edit]

For most polar questions, the particle ka (or its variant kaĭ) is used, and the main verb is usually required to be in attributive form (連体形, rentaikei) as a type of kakari-musubi:

(1)
kamoka? kamiNnooka?

kam-o=ka

eat-ATTR=Q

kam-i-Nna(k)-o=ka

eat-INF-NEG-ATTR=Q

kam-o=ka kam-i-Nna(k)-o=ka

eat-ATTR=Q eat-INF-NEG-ATTR=Q

"Will you eat, or won't you?"
食べるか?食べないか?[162]

(2)
mada meirokai?

mada

still

mei-ro=kaĭ

burn-ATTR=Q

mada mei-ro=kaĭ

still burn-ATTR=Q

"Is it still burning?"
まだ燃えてるかい?[162]

(3)
haruu sjokai?

haru=o

sericulture=ATTR

sj-o=kaĭ

do-ATTR=Q

haru=o sj-o=kaĭ

sericulture=ATTR do-ATTR=Q

"Are you taking care of silkworms?" (a seasonal greeting)
蚕を飼ってるかい?[162]

A specific kind of polar question can be marked instead by the sentence-final particle -kaN, a descendant of Old Japanese かも kamo2. In the Mitsune dialect, these questions indicate that the speaker is recalling or trying to recall information as he or she is asking about it; in the Sueyoshi dialect, -kaN is the general marker for polar questions instead of -ka.

(4)
aroega meno mawarii cukeruto hetadaraate jookaN? (Mitsune dialect)

aroe=ga

aloe=NOM

me=no

eye=GEN

mawari=i

around=ALL

cuke-ru=to

attach-JPRS=if

heta

bad

=dar-(o=w)a

=COP-ATTR=DECL

=te

=QUOT

iw-a(r)-o=kaN

say-STAT-ATTR=Q

aroe=ga me=no mawari=i cuke-ru=to heta =dar-(o=w)a =te iw-a(r)-o=kaN

aloe=NOM eye=GEN around=ALL attach-JPRS=if bad =COP-ATTR=DECL =QUOT say-STAT-ATTR=Q

"Was it aloe that (he) said wasn't good to put around the eyes?"
アロエが目の回りに付けると良くないって言ったっけ?[163]

(5)
kineewa omjaa amega huraNnooga seNtakumonowa kaakaakaN? (Sueyoshi dialect)

kinei=wa

yesterday=TOP

omi=wa?

you(POL)=TOP?

ame=ga

rain=NOM

hur-ar-(u)-naw-o=ga

fall-STAT-FIN-CNJEC-ATTR=but

seNtaku-mono=wa

laundering-thing=TOP

kook-a(r)-o=kaN

dry-STAT-ATTR=Q

kinei=wa omi=wa? ame=ga hur-ar-(u)-naw-o=ga seNtaku-mono=wa kook-a(r)-o=kaN

yesterday=TOP you(POL)=TOP? rain=NOM fall-STAT-FIN-CNJEC-ATTR=but laundering-thing=TOP dry-STAT-ATTR=Q

"I know it rained yesterday, but did your laundry dry?"
昨日はあなた、雨が降ったろうけど、洗濯物は乾いたかい?[162]

Nonpolar Questions[edit]

For most nonpolar questions, the main verb is used in attributive form (連体形, rentaikei) (instead of using a declarative particle like -wa) as a relic of kakari-musubi. Occasionally, a non-coalescing can be heard attached to the end of the sentence:

(1)
anjo nomo?

ani=o

what=ACC

nom-o

drink-ATTR

ani=o nom-o

what=ACC drink-ATTR

"What will you drink?"
何を飲む?[163]

(2)
maN joukekai? anjo kamoi?

ma=N

now=DAT

jouke=kaĭ

dinner=Q

ani=o

what=ACC

kam-o=ĭ

eat-ATTR=Q

ma=N jouke=kaĭ ani=o kam-o=ĭ

now=DAT dinner=Q what=ACC eat-ATTR=Q

"(Are you eating) dinner now? What are you eating?"
いま夕食かい?なに食べてるの?[163]

(3)
asuno toNmetenja adaN narijaro?

asu=no

tomorrow=GEN

toNmete=nja

morning=DAT.TOP

adaN

in.what.way

nar-i-jar-o

become-INF-HON-ATTR

asu=no toNmete=nja adaN nar-i-jar-o

tomorrow=GEN morning=DAT.TOP in.what.way become-INF-HON-ATTR

"What will (you) do (about it) tomorrow morning?"
明日の朝はどうします?[163]

Infinitive Questions[edit]

Certain questions are asked using the infinitive rather than the attributive. These questions ask for definitive answers about an action or event that began in the past, regardless of whether it has ended by the present time:[164]

(1)
unumo kami?

unu=mo

you=also

kam-i

eat-INF

unu=mo kam-i

you=also eat-INF

"You ate, too?"
おまえも食ったの?[165]

(2)
haa kusaa torara. / kusaa torii? (Sueyoshi dialect)

haa

already

kusa=o

grass=ACC

tor-ar-(o=w)a

take-STAT-ATTR=DECL

/

/

kusa=o

grass=ACC

tor-i

take-INF

haa kusa=o tor-ar-(o=w)a / kusa=o tor-i

already grass=ACC take-STAT-ATTR=DECL / grass=ACC take-INF

"I already cut the grass." / "You cut the grass?"
もう草をとったよ。/草をとったの?[165]

(3)
omeemo doosini ozjarii? (Sueyoshi dialect)

omee=mo

you(HON)=also

dousi

together

=ni

=COP.INF

ozjar-i

go(HON)-INF

omee=mo dousi =ni ozjar-i

you(HON)=also together =COP.INF go(HON)-INF

"You also went with (them)?"
あなたも一緒にいらっしゃったの?[165]

(4)
omeegaaNcjee jobeeni ikizu? daremo? (Sueyoshi dialect)

omee=gaa=Ncjee

you(HON)=portion=etc.

jobee=ni

night.crawling=DAT

ik-izu

go-NEG.INF

dare=mo

who=even

omee=gaa=Ncjee jobee=ni ik-izu dare=mo

you(HON)=portion=etc. night.crawling=DAT go-NEG.INF who=even

"Hasn't (anyone) ever snuck into your room or wherever at night? Anyone at all?"
あなたのとこへなんか夜這いに行かなかった? 誰も?[166]

(5)
ijokowa adaN nari?

ijoko=wa

Iyoko=TOP

adaN

in.what.way

nar-i

become-INF

ijoko=wa adaN nar-i

Iyoko=TOP in.what.way become-INF

"How has Iyoko been doing?"
イヨコはどうしてるの?[165]

(6)
kiniiwa anjo sii? (Sueyoshi dialect)

kinei=wa

yesterday=TOP

ani=o

what=ACC

s-i

do-INF

kinei=wa ani=o s-i

yesterday=TOP what=ACC do-INF

"What did you do yesterday?"
昨日は何をした?[165]

Indirect Questions[edit]

General expressions of guessing, contemplation, or wondering on the part of the speaker are usually expressed with the conjectural extension -naw- in its attributive form -nou. The element of the sentence that the speaker is wondering about is marked with the question marker ka.

(1)
dokoNka cjoucukaNnou.

doko=N=ka

where=DAT=Q

cjoucuk-ar-(u)-naw-o

abandon-STAT-FIN-CNJEC-ATTR

doko=N=ka cjoucuk-ar-(u)-naw-o

where=DAT=Q abandon-STAT-FIN-CNJEC-ATTR

"Where could he have put it, I wonder?"
どこに置いたろう[167]

(2)
ura imouka kaNde aNnou.

ur(e=w)a

that.person=TOP

imo=o=ka

taro=ACC=Q

kam-te

eat-PTCP

ar-(u)-naw-o

be-FIN-CNJEC-ATTR

ur(e=w)a imo=o=ka kam-te ar-(u)-naw-o

that.person=TOP taro=ACC=Q eat-PTCP be-FIN-CNJEC-ATTR

"I wonder if it's a taro that that person is eating."
あの人はサトイモを食べているのかなあ[167]

(3)
doudakeka aNnou.

doudake=ka

what.extent=Q

ar-(u)-naw-o

be-FIN-CNJEC-ATTR

doudake=ka ar-(u)-naw-o

what.extent=Q be-FIN-CNJEC-ATTR

"How much is there, I wonder?"
どのくらいあるかなあ[167]

The same form with -nou can also be used to express anger or exasperation:

(4)
dareNka junou! kibigaarii!

dare=N=ka

who=DAT=Q

iw-u-naw-o

say-FIN-CNJEC-ATTR

kibigaarii

INTERJ

dare=N=ka iw-u-naw-o kibigaarii

who=DAT=Q say-FIN-CNJEC-ATTR INTERJ

"Who do you think you're talking to?! Geez!"
誰に言ってる!まったく![167]

Japanese-style Questions[edit]

Japanese-style tenses can be used without ka for all kinds of questions, occasionally using a non-coalescing suffix as well. These sentences can, but do not necessarily, imply a meaning of asking whether the listener shares the same volition or opinion as the speaker.

(1)
omeewa asino jameru?

omee=wa

you(HON)=TOP

asi=no

foot=NOM

jame-ru

hurt-JPRS

omee=wa asi=no jame-ru

you(HON)=TOP foot=NOM hurt-JPRS

"Does your foot hurt?" or "Do your feet hurt?"
あなたは足が痛む?[168]

(2)
omeewa kinoo anjo sijaQtai?

omee=wa

you(HON)=TOP

kinoo

yesterday

ani=o

what=ACC

s-i-jar-ta=ĭ

do-INF-HON-JPST=Q

omee=wa kinoo ani=o s-i-jar-ta=ĭ

you(HON)=TOP yesterday what=ACC do-INF-HON-JPST=Q

"What did you do yesterday?"
あなたは昨日何をなさった?[168]

Japanese-style tenses can also be combined with the postfixes -darou or -rou (both also borrowed from Japanese) to express a presumptive, confirming, or conjectural question:

(3)
nomerudarou?

nom-e-ru-darou

drink-POT-JPRS-PRSM

nom-e-ru-darou

drink-POT-JPRS-PRSM

"You can drink, right?"
飲めるだろ[168]

(4)
dogoN site akicjaNwa kogoN deeciku kakudarou?

dogo͡oN

in.what.way

si-te

do-PTCP

aki-cjaN=wa

Aki-DIM=TOP

kogo͡oN

in.this.way

deeci-ku

clean-ADJ.INF

kak-u-darou

write-JPRS-PRSM

dogo͡oN si-te aki-cjaN=wa kogo͡oN deeci-ku kak-u-darou

in.what.way do-PTCP Aki-DIM=TOP in.this.way clean-ADJ.INF write-JPRS-PRSM

"How can it be that Little Aki can write so neatly?"
どうやってアキちゃんはこんなに綺麗に書くのだろう?[168]

(5)
ura haNzume kokoN ooraidou manja adaN naQtarou?

ur(e=w)a

that.person=TOP

haNzume

just.now

koko=N

here=DAT

oor-a(r)-edou

be-STAT-CNCES

ma=nja

now=DAT.TOP

adaN

in.what.way

nar-ta-rou

become-JPST-PRSM

ur(e=w)a haNzume koko=N oor-a(r)-edou ma=nja adaN nar-ta-rou

that.person=TOP just.now here=DAT be-STAT-CNCES now=DAT.TOP in.what.way become-JPST-PRSM

"That person was here just a moment ago, but what could he be doing now?" (lit. "what could have become of him now?")
あの人はさっきここにいたけど、今はどうしてるだろう?[169]

(6)
dokei hiQkakuretarou?

doko=i

where=ALL

hiQ-kakure-ta-rou

INTS-hide-JPST-PRSM

doko=i hiQ-kakure-ta-rou

where=ALL INTS-hide-JPST-PRSM

"Where could he/it have gone?" (lit. "Where could he/it be hiding?")
どこへ行ったろう?[169]

The Japanese-style present tense can be followed by ka to ask whether the listener shares the same volition or opinion as the speaker:

(7)
anjoka nomukaa?

ani=o=ka

what=ACC=INDET

nom-u=ka

drink-JPRS=Q

ani=o=ka nom-u=ka

what=ACC=INDET drink-JPRS=Q

"Shall we drink something?"
何か飲もう?[163]

(8)
taihuuga kuruka noo?

taihuu=ga

typhoon=NOM

k-uru=ka

come-JPRS=Q

noo

DM

taihuu=ga k-uru=ka noo

typhoon=NOM come-JPRS=Q DM

"Will a typhoon come, (do you think)?"
台風が来るかねえ[163]

Finally, Japanese-style tenses (with or without the presumptive darou ~ -rou) can be used with ka and the discourse particle noo to express wondering (see also example 8 above):

(9)
haa tomuka noo?

haa

already

tom-u=ka

be.extinguished-JPRS=Q

noo

DM

haa tom-u=ka noo

already be.extinguished-JPRS=Q DM

"Has (the fire) already gone out, I wonder?"
もう(火が)消えるかなあ[170]

(10)
amega huQte keNneedarouka noo?

ame=ga

rain=NOM

hur-te

fall-PTCP

ke-Nna-i-darou=ka

give.INF-NEG-JPRS-PRSM=Q

noo

DM

ame=ga hur-te ke-Nna-i-darou=ka noo

rain=NOM fall-PTCP give.INF-NEG-JPRS-PRSM=Q DM

"I wonder if it won't rain for us."
雨が降ってくれないだろうかねえ[170]

Mermaid Constructions[edit]

Mermaid constructions, which are found across Japonic and in several other East Asian language families,[171] are also found in Hachijō. All of them are formed from the attributive form (連体形, rentaikei) of a verb, followed by a grammaticalized noun or nominalizing morpheme, followed by a copula.

-(r)odara

This construction -(r)odara consists of a nominalized attributive verb followed by the copula dara, roughly translatable as "to be the case that ~." It is considered a mermaid construction because the nominalized attributive can also be analyzed as the normal attributive followed by an enclitic null noun.

This construction serves multiple uses in Hachijō, similar to its Japanese counterpart ~のだ no da; for example, it can mark a phrase as being explanatory (ex. 1), hortative (ex. 2), or something the speaker wishes to emphasize (ex. 3):

(1)
hukurono sokoga naQkede

hukuro=no

bag=GEN

soko=ga

bottom=NOM

na-ke

not-ADJ.ATTR(NMLZ)

=de

=COP.PTCP

hukuro=no soko=ga na-ke =de

bag=GEN bottom=NOM not-ADJ.ATTR(NMLZ) =COP.PTCP

"Because the bag has no bottom..." or "It being the case that the bag has no bottom..."
袋の底が無いので[19]

(2)
keiwa omeiQkiri asubodara jou.

kei=wa

today=TOP

omeiQkiri

decisively

asub-o

play-ATTR(NMLZ)

=dar-(o=w)a

=COP-ATTR=DECL

jou

DM

kei=wa omeiQkiri asub-o =dar-(o=w)a jou

today=TOP decisively play-ATTR(NMLZ) =COP-ATTR=DECL DM

"Today, let's play with all our heart, okay?"
今日は思いきり遊ぼうね。[172]

(3)
arja waga esjaN topite ikaadaazjaN. (Sueyoshi dialect)

are=wa

me=TOP

wa=ga

me=GEN

e=sjaN

house=ORNT

topi-te

dash-PTCP

ik-a(r)-o

go-STAT-ATTR(NMLZ)

=da(r)-o=zjaN

=COP-ATTR=DECL

are=wa wa=ga e=sjaN topi-te ik-a(r)-o =da(r)-o=zjaN

me=TOP me=GEN house=ORNT dash-PTCP go-STAT-ATTR(NMLZ) =COP-ATTR=DECL

"I (really) did dash off towards my house, eh?"
私が我が家へ駆けて行ったんだよね。[3]

When the copula in this mermaid construction uses the infinitive form ni, the resulting sentence often has a contrastive meaning, akin to Japanese ~のに no ni:[173]

(4)
hotourimo siNnooni tarouni aorarete kazei hiko tokodarara.

hotour-i=mo

be.hot-INF=even

s-i-Nna(k)-o

do-INF-NEG-ATTR(NMLZ)

=ni

=COP.INF

tarou-ni

Tarō-DAT

aor-are-te

fan-PASS-PTCP

kaze=o

cold=ACC

hik-o

catch-ATTR

toko

place

=dar-ar-(o=w)a

=COP-STAT-ATTR=DECL

hotour-i=mo s-i-Nna(k)-o =ni tarou-ni aor-are-te kaze=o hik-o toko =dar-ar-(o=w)a

be.hot-INF=even do-INF-NEG-ATTR(NMLZ) =COP.INF Tarō-DAT fan-PASS-PTCP cold=ACC catch-ATTR place =COP-STAT-ATTR=DECL

"Even though it wasn't hot at all, (I) was being fanned by Tarō, so (I) nearly caught a cold."
暑くもないのに、太郎に扇がれてカゼをひくところだった。[174]

Unlike the Japanese ~のだ no da form, this construction can be freely used attributively (ex. 5), even in another mermaid construction (ex. 6):

(5)
koNdo oniN narodoo wake

koNdo

next.time

oni=N

demon=DAT

nar-o

become-ATTR(NMLZ)

=da(r)-o

=COP-ATTR

wake

circumstance

koNdo oni=N nar-o =da(r)-o wake

next.time demon=DAT become-ATTR(NMLZ) =COP-ATTR circumstance

"the case in which (the person who loses) becomes 'it' in the next round"
(負けた人が)今度鬼になると言うわけ[172]

(6)
keiwa uraN oseirodoodara.

kei=wa

today=TOP

ura=N

those.people=DAT

osei-ro

teach-ATTR(NMLZ)

=da(r)-o

=COP-ATTR(NMLZ)

=dar-(o=w)a

=COP-ATTR=DECL

kei=wa ura=N osei-ro =da(r)-o =dar-(o=w)a

today=TOP those.people=DAT teach-ATTR(NMLZ) =COP-ATTR(NMLZ) =COP-ATTR=DECL

"It is (now) the case that I will teach those people today."
今日はあの人たちに教えることになってるんだよ。[175]

-(r)o tokodara

This construction uses toko "place." When the preceding clause does not use the stative, it indicates that the action is in progress, about to happen, or nearly happening:

(1)
maN huroN heero tokodara.

ma=N

now=DAT

huro=N

bath=DAT

heer-o

enter-ATTR

toko

place

=dar-(o=w)a

=COP-ATTR=DECL

ma=N huro=N heer-o toko =dar-(o=w)a

now=DAT bath=DAT enter-ATTR place =COP-ATTR=DECL

"I am about to get in the bath."
今風呂に入るところだ[176]

(2)
isiga maciQtode bukotero tokodarara.

isi=ga

stone=NOM

maciQto=de

a.little.bit.more=LOC

buQ-ote-ro

INTS-fall-ATTR

toko

place

=dar-ar-(o=w)a

=COP-STAT-ATTR=DECL

isi=ga maciQto=de buQ-ote-ro toko =dar-ar-(o=w)a

stone=NOM a.little.bit.more=LOC INTS-fall-ATTR place =COP-STAT-ATTR=DECL

"The stone was close to falling."
石がもう少しで落ちるところだった。[177]

When it does use the stative, it indicates that the action has just happened:

(3)
dekaketoo tokodara.

dekake-ta(r)-o

depart-STAT-ATTR

toko

place

=dar-(o=w)a

=COP-ATTR=DECL

dekake-ta(r)-o toko =dar-(o=w)a

depart-STAT-ATTR place =COP-ATTR=DECL

"He departed just now."
(今)出かけたところだ[176]

(4)
hurei heeroo tokodarara.

huro=i

bath=ALL

heer-a(r)-o

enter-STAT-ATTR

toko

place

=dar-ar-(o=w)a

=COP-STAT-ATTR=DECL

huro=i heer-a(r)-o toko =dar-ar-(o=w)a

bath=ALL enter-STAT-ATTR place =COP-STAT-ATTR=DECL

"I had just gotten in the bath."
風呂へ入ったところだった。[176]

-(r)o moNdara

This construction uses moN, a reduced form of mono "thing."

When following a non-past expression, this construction is used to indicate what should be done in general cases, often as a kind of hortative expression:[177]

(1)
sogoNdoo tokja haQkiri jo moNdara.

sogo͡oN

in.that.way

=da(r)-o

=COP-ATTR

toki=(w)a

time=TOP

haQkiri

directly

iw-o

say-ATTR

moN

thing

=dar-(o=w)a

=COP-ATTR=DECL

sogo͡oN =da(r)-o toki=(w)a haQkiri iw-o moN =dar-(o=w)a

in.that.way =COP-ATTR time=TOP directly say-ATTR thing =COP-ATTR=DECL

"At such times, one should speak frankly."
そういう時ははっきり言うものだ[177]

When following a past expression, it instead indicates that the speaker is recalling or reminiscing about the information:

(2)
kaNno ucini isogumjowa joku moNde kamoo moNdooga noo.

kaN=no

midwinter=GEN

uci=ni

within=DAT

isogumi=o=wa

silverberry=ACC=TOP

jo-ku

good-ADJ.INF

mog-te

pick-PTCP

kam-a(r)-o

eat-STAT-ATTR

moN

thing

=da(r)-o=ga

=COP-ATTR=but

noo

DM

kaN=no uci=ni isogumi=o=wa jo-ku mog-te kam-a(r)-o moN =da(r)-o=ga noo

midwinter=GEN within=DAT silverberry=ACC=TOP good-ADJ.INF pick-PTCP eat-STAT-ATTR thing =COP-ATTR=but DM

"During midwinter, I often used to pick and eat silverberries, but (I don't anymore)."
寒のうちに、イソグミはよく捥いで食べたものだがね。[177]

-(r)o hazudara

This construction uses the bound noun hazu, etymologically derived from the word for "nock," but functioning like a noun meaning "expectation." It indicates something that the speaker expects or expected to happen:

(1)
aNde sorei nomiziisi, nomo hazudara.

aNde

why

sore=o

that=ACC

nom-izu-isi

drink-NEG.INF-DUB

nom-o

drink-ATTR

hazu

expectation

=dar-(o=w)a

=COP-ATTR=DECL

aNde sore=o nom-izu-isi nom-o hazu =dar-(o=w)a

why that=ACC drink-NEG.INF-DUB drink-ATTR expectation =COP-ATTR=DECL

"As if there's any reason why he wouldn't drink that. I think he will."
なんでそれを(あいつが)飲まないものか、飲むはずだ[7]

(2)
uimo kuro hazudooni kiNnaka.

uĭ=mo

that.person=also

k-uro

come-ATTR

hazu

expectation

=da(r)-o

=COP-ATTR

=ni

=COP.INF

k-i-Nnak-(o=w)a

come-INF-NEG-ATTR=DECL

uĭ=mo k-uro hazu =da(r)-o =ni k-i-Nnak-(o=w)a

that.person=also come-ATTR expectation =COP-ATTR =COP.INF come-INF-NEG-ATTR=DECL

"That person is thought to be coming too, but he hasn't yet."
あの人も来るはずなのに来ない。[7]

(3)
uimo utou hazudarooga zikaNga nakarara.

uĭ=mo

that.person=also

utaw-o

sing-ATTR

hazu

expectation

=dar-a(r)-o=ga

=COP-STAT-ATTR=but

zikaN=ga

time=NOM

na-kar-ar-(o=w)a

not-ADJ-STAT-ATTR=DECL

uĭ=mo utaw-o hazu =dar-a(r)-o=ga zikaN=ga na-kar-ar-(o=w)a

that.person=also sing-ATTR expectation =COP-STAT-ATTR=but time=NOM not-ADJ-STAT-ATTR=DECL

"That person was also expected to sing, but there wasn't enough time."
あの人も歌うはずだったが、時間が無かった。[7]

-(r)o go͡oNdara

This construction uses go͡oN, a reduced form of gooni, which is perhaps a contraction from a form related to Early Middle Japanese ~が様に ga yaũ ni, akin to Modern Japanese ~のように no yō ni.[7] It indicates resemblance or that an action seems to occur:

(1)
unohitomo sogoN omeijaro goNdara.

uno-hito=mo

that.ATTR-person=also

sogo͡oN

in.that.way

omow-i-jar-o

think-INF-HON-ATTR

go͡oN

seeming

=dar-(o=w)a

=COP-ATTR=DECL

uno-hito=mo sogo͡oN omow-i-jar-o go͡oN =dar-(o=w)a

that.ATTR-person=also in.that.way think-INF-HON-ATTR seeming =COP-ATTR=DECL

"It seems that that person also thinks so."
あの人もそうお考えのようだ[7]

(2)
marude takokuN aro goNdara.

marude

almost.as.if

takoku=N

another.country=DAT

ar-o

be-ATTR

go͡oN

seeming

=dar-(o=w)a

=COP-ATTR=DECL

marude takoku=N ar-o go͡oN =dar-(o=w)a

almost.as.if another.country=DAT be-ATTR seeming =COP-ATTR=DECL

"It almost seems as if (he) is in another country."
まるでよその国にいるみたいだ[178]

In order to indicate a plan or objective, go͡oN (and its variants) can also be used by itself, which is a form of mermaid construction in its own right, as it technically contains the copular infinitive N ~ ni. This treats the whole subordinate clause as an adverbial phrase:

(3)
konasamoo koroso gani (Nakanogō dialect)

konasama=o

silkworm=ACC

koros-o

kill-ATTR

go͡o=ni

in.order.to=COP.INF

konasama=o koros-o go͡o=ni

silkworm=ACC kill-ATTR in.order.to=COP.INF

"in order to kill the silkworms"
蚕を殺すように[178]

Honorific and Humble Speech[edit]

Like Japanese, Hachijō has a number of ways to grammatically express honorifics and humility. With regards to verbs, specific expressions can be used to express either honorific or humble meanings.

Honorific speech (尊敬語, sonkeigo) is used to exalt others when they are the subject of the sentence. Conversely, humble speech (謙譲語, kenjōgo) is used to lower oneself when the speaker (or a member of the speaker's in-group) is the subject of the sentence. For honorific speech, most verbs are inflected into their infinitive form, then attached to the auxiliary verb jarowa; e.g., jomowa "to read" → jomi-jarowa "to read (honorific)," roughly equivalent to Standard Japanese お読みになります o-yomi-ni-narimasu. To express humility, most verbs are inflected into their infinitive form, then attached to the auxiliary verb itasowa; e.g., jomowa "to read" → jomi-itasowa "to read (humble)," roughly equivalent to Standard Japanese お読みします o-yomi-shimasu or お読み致します o-yomi-itashimasu.

For verbal adjectives (ending in -kja), both honorific and humble speech are expressed by using the infinitive form -ku followed by the verb ozjarowa "to be"; the copula dara is similar, becoming de ozjarowa. Both -ku ozjarowa and de ozjarowa can be combined with jarowa and itasowa, as well.

Hachijō does not have a fully-developed polite (丁寧, teinei) level of speech, but there are a handful of polite verbs that are generally used instead of their basic counterparts in situations where the polite second-person pronoun omi would be used as the subject of a sentence. Outside of these exceptions, however, other verbs remain unchanged with omi. A handful of verbs have suppletive honorific and humble forms, as well. These irregularities are tabulated below:

Japanese and
English Equivalents
Basic Polite Honorific Humble
行く iku
to go
ikowa wasowa ozjarowa[a] meerowa[a]
来る kuru
to come
(de)kurowa
いる iru
to be, to exist
arowa (ari-itasowa)
飲む nomu
to drink
nomowa meerowa agarowa[a] tamourowa[a]
食べる taberu
to eat
kamowa
寝る neru
to sleep
jasumowa jadorowa ojorowa[a] (jasumi-itasowa)
言う iu
to say
jowa osunarowa osjarowa[a] mousowa[a]
見る miru
to see
mirowa gouzirowa (gouzi-jarowa) (mi-itasowa)
くれる kureru
to give (to me)
kerowa tabowa tamourowa[a][b] [c]
やる yaru
to give (from me)
(kerowa) mooserowa [c] agerowa[a]
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i It is common to expand these forms further, using jarowa for honorific speech and itasowa for humble speech.
  2. ^ Like Japanese 下さる kudasaru, the Hachijō verb tamourowa is used in its imperative form tamoure to make humble requests, as in site tamoure "please do it (for me)."
  3. ^ a b These spaces are empty due to a mismatch in meaning, as it is improper to honor oneself or to humble another.

There are also recorded instances where speakers have used honorific language when a humble meaning is meant, or vice versa, which can be seen as a trend toward a unified polite meaning of both honorific and humble language.[179] A semantic shift has formerly occurred in Japanese as well, wherein the formerly humble Early Middle Japanese verbs 候ふ saurafu and 参らす mawirasu evolved into polite auxiliary verbs: Late Middle Japanese ~さうらう -sɔɔrɔɔ and Modern Japanese ~ます -masu.[180]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Iannucci (2019), pp. 5, 65.
  2. ^ Kaneda (2001), p. 70.
  3. ^ a b c d e Kaneda (2001), p. 51.
  4. ^ Kupchik (2011), pp. 589–593.
  5. ^ Kaneda (2001), pp. 72–73.
  6. ^ a b c d e Kaneda (2001), p. 67.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Kaneda (2001), p. 399.
  8. ^ Kaneda (2001), pp. 29–32.
  9. ^ Kaneda (2001), pp. 33–34.
  10. ^ Kaneda (2001), pp. 34–57.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g Kaneda (2001), p. 57.
  12. ^ Kaneda (2001), pp. 58–59.
  13. ^ Kaneda (2001), pp. 59–64.
  14. ^ Kaneda (2001), pp. 64–69.
  15. ^ a b Kaneda (2001), p. 29.
  16. ^ a b c Kaneda (2001), p. 30.
  17. ^ a b Kaneda (2001), p. 31.
  18. ^ a b c Kaneda (2001), p. 36.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g Kaneda (2001), p. 38.
  20. ^ a b Kaneda (2001), p. 39.
  21. ^ a b c Kaneda (2001), p. 41.
  22. ^ a b Kaneda (2001), p. 40.
  23. ^ a b c Kaneda (2001), p. 43.
  24. ^ Kaneda (2001), p. 232.
  25. ^ Kaneda (2001), p. 240.
  26. ^ a b c Kaneda (2001), p. 44.
  27. ^ a b c Kaneda (2001), p. 45.
  28. ^ a b Kaneda (2001), p. 46.
  29. ^ a b c d Kaneda (2001), p. 48.
  30. ^ a b c Kaneda (2001), p. 49.
  31. ^ Alexander Vovin. Koreo-Japonica: A Re-evaluation of a Common Genetic Origin, University of Hawaii Press, Nov 2009, pp. 59–61. ISBN 978-0-82483-278-0
  32. ^ Iitoyo Kiichi, Hino Sukezumi, Satō Ryōichi (ed.), 講座方言学〈9〉九州地方の方言 (Kōza hōgengaku 9: Kyūshū chihō no hōgen), 国書刊行会 (Kokusho Kankōkai), 1983, p. 23. ISBN 978-4-336-01980-6
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Works cited[edit]

  • Frellesvig, Bjarke (2010), A History of the Japanese language, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-1-107-40409-0.
  • Iannucci, David J. (2019), The Hachijō Language of Japan: Phonology and Historical Development, University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa. Ph.D. Thesis.
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ADJ:verbal adjective (形容詞) INTS:intensifying verbal prefix STAT:stative (verb derivation) PASS:passive voice (verb derivation) POT:potential voice (verb derivation) CAUS:causative voice (verb derivation) RET:retrospective mood (verb derivation) PSTSUBJ:past subjunctive mood (verb derivation) FIN:final form (verb ending) IMP:imperative form (finite verb ending) DUB:dubitative form (finite verb ending) OPT:optative form (finite verb ending) REQ:requisitional (finite verb ending) VOL:volitional (finite verb ending) EXCL:exclamatory form (finite verb ending) JPRS:Japanese-style present/nonpast tense (finite verb ending) JPST:Japanese-style past tense (finite verb ending) ATTR:attributive form (verb ending) INF:infinitive (non-finite verb ending) PTCP:participle (non-finite verb ending) COND:conditional gerund (non-finite verb ending) PROV:provisional gerund (non-finite verb ending) CNCES:concessive gerund (non-finite verb ending) SIMUL:simultaneous gerund (non-finite verb ending) INTEN:intentional gerund (non-finite verb ending) FHYP:futile-hypothetical gerund (non-finite verb ending) ANT: anterior gerund (non-finite verb ending) JREP:Japanese-style representative gerund (non-finite verb ending) PROH:prohibitive (postfix) PRSM:Japanese-style presumptive (postfix) JUSS:jussive (postfix) DECL:declarative particle Q:question particle QT:tag question particle QUOT:quotative-reportative particle NEG:negative (auxiliary verb) CNJEC:conjectural extension (attaches to final form) FOCLZ:focalizing extension (attaches to final form) SUPP:suppositional extension (attaches to final form) ORNT:orientative case LAT:lative case ALL:allative case CMPR:comparative case TERM:terminative case INS:instrumental/locative case LOC:locative-instrumental case ENUM:enumerating particle INDET:indeterminate pronoun-marking particle INTERJ:interjection POL:polite speech HON:honorific speech HUM:humble speech OFNS:offensive speech NMLZ:nominalized J:Japanese-borrowed verb form