Hackensack people

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Hackensack was the exonym given by the Dutch colonists to a band of the Lenape, or Lenni-Lenape ("original men"), a Native American tribe. The name is a Dutch derivation of the Lenape word for what is now the region of northeastern New Jersey along the Hudson and Hackensack rivers. While the Lenape people occupied much of the mid-Atlantic area, Europeans referred to small groups of native people by the names associated with the places where they lived.

Territory and society[edit]

Hackensack territory shown in relation to other groups

The territory of the Hackensack was variously called Ack-kinkas-hacky, Achkinhenhcky, Achinigeu-hach, Ackingsah-sack, among other spellings (translated as "place of stony ground"[1] or "mouth of a river") and included the areas around the Upper New York Bay, Newark Bay, Bergen Neck, the Meadowlands, and the Palisades.

A phratry of the Lenape, the Hackensack spoke the Unami dialect, one of the two major dialects of the Lenape, or Delaware, languages, which were part of the Algonquian language family. Unami meant the "people down river".[2]

Other bands of Unami speakers in the area included the Raritan on Staten Island/Raritan Bay, the Acquackanonk on the Passaic River, the Tappan along the Palisades and Pascack Valley, and the Pompton people along the Passaic River and Saddle River tributaries.[3] These groups, along with the Wappinger in the Hudson Valley, and Canarsee and Rockaway on Long Island, were sometimes collectively called the River Indians.[4]

The Lenape engaged in agriculture and seasonally migrated, cultivating companion planting at their campsites to supplement foraging, hunting, fishing, trapping, and shellfishing. The terrain they inhabited was diverse: wide tidal flats and oyster beds, forested mountains, and level land that could be cultivated. The Hackensack would relocate their semi-permanent village every several years to allow the land to renew itself.[5] It was usually sited between Tantaqua and the middle reaches of the Hackensack River.[1] Their summer encampment and council fire was located at Gamoenpa,[4] (the "big landing-place from the other side of the river").[6] At Hopoghan Hackingh (meaning "land of the tobacco pipe"), they collected soapstone from which to carve tobacco pipes.[7]

The Hackensack identified themselves with the totem of the turtle ("Turtle Clan").[8] Those with the totem of the turtle were held in great esteem by Lenape groups, particularly as peacemakers. The society of the Hackensack (and all Lenape) was based on governance by consensus. A sachem, or sagamore, ("paramount chief"), though influential, was obliged to follow decisions of the council made up of leaders among the tribe. The word caucus may come from the Algonquian caucauasu meaning "counselor".[9]

In the 17th century, the Hackensack numbered about one thousand,[10] of whom 300 were warriors.[4] An important sachem of that time was Oratam [11] (born circa 1576[5]). He was likely also the sagamore of the Tappan, a distinct but closely related Lenape group.[4] It has also been written that the Tappan and the Hackensack were one tribe, the evidence for this being the many land deeds signed by men who were sachems of both tribes at the same time.[12]

New Netherland and province of New Jersey[edit]

New Netherland - smoking the peace pipe.jpg

After Henry Hudson first explored the area, sailing up the river now named for him, anchoring at Weehawken Cove in September 1609, the Dutch claimed Hackensack lands as part of the colonial province of New Netherland. Living close to what became the province's capital, New Amsterdam, at the tip of Manhattan, the Hackensack had early and frequent contact with the New Netherlanders. They traded beaver, pelts, and sewant for manufactured goods, including firearms, gunpowder, and alcohol. The Hackensack also "sold" their land, which became sites for the Dutch settlements at Pavonia, Communipaw, Harsimus, Hoboken, Weehawken, Constable Hook, Achter Col, and Vriessendael.

In 1658, Peter Stuyvesant, the Director-General of New Netherland, negotiated the purchase of all the land from "the great rock above Wiehacken", west to Sikakes, and south to Konstapels Hoeck.[13] The area became collectively known as Bergen with the founding of a village at Bergen Square in 1661. In 1666, the Hackensack sold the land that would become the city of Newark to Robert Treat.

In 1669, Oratam deeded a vast tract of land (2200 acres), between Overpeck Creek and the Hackensack River, to Sara Kiersted, who had mastered the Lenape language and acted as interpreter. He also brokered other land sales, and treaties, between the native and colonizing peoples, including those that ended Kieft's War and the Esopus Wars.[4]

In a series of essays published in 1655, David Pietersen de Vries, who had established a homestead at Vriessendael, gave his observations of the Hackensack.[14]

The British takeover of New Netherland, between 1663 and 1674, coincided with Oratam's death (he was said to have lived into his 90s). The government of the newly formed province of East Jersey quickly surveyed, patented, or deeded lands throughout Hackensack, Tappan, and Raritan territory. In most cases, the Lenape were compensated for sale of the land. Both the land at Newark Tract[15] and Horseneck Tract were sold to English-speaking settlers by the Hackensack.[16]

Decline during European colonization[edit]

In 1600, the Lenape population may have numbered as many as 20,000.[17] Several wars, at least 14 separate epidemics of new infectious diseases (yellow fever, smallpox, influenza, encephalitis lethargica, etc.), and disastrous over-harvesting of the animal populations reduced the Lenape population to around 4,000 total by 1700. The Lenape people, like all Native Americans, had no immunity to Eurasian diseases, which had been endemic in European cities for centuries after arriving from Asia; and they suffered high fatality rates from the diseases.[18][19]

As the Lenape population declined and the European population increased, the history of the area was increasingly defined by the new European inhabitants. The Lenape Indian tribes played an increasingly secondary role.[20][21]

By the mid-18th century, the English colonists referred to the Lenape people generally as the Delaware, in recognition of their major territory along that river and around the bay it feeds, both of which they named for Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr, governor of the Jamestown Colony.[18][22][23] Some Lenape had migrated west out of the area of English colonization.[24]

In the eighteenth century, the Lenape were signatories to the Walking Purchase agreement in Pennsylvania, and Treaty of Easton. The British were trying to gain control of lands they had "acquired" from the French after the French and Indian War (1754-1763), and the Native Americans were trying to prevent further European encroachment into their territory.[25] Today Lenape groups are dispersed around the United States.[26]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Wright, Kevin W. "The Indigenous Population of Bergen County". Bergen County Historical Society. Retrieved August 26, 2018. 
  2. ^ Science Forum Index – Anthropology Forum – Coastal American Aboriginal People
  3. ^ "Mochomes – Grandfathers". Geocities. June 1, 2001. Retrieved August 26, 2018 – via Webcitation.org. 
  4. ^ a b c d e Indian Tribes of Hudson's River; Ruttenber,E.M.; Hope Farm Press, 3rd ed, 2001, ISBN 0-910746-98-2
  5. ^ a b Our story begins with ... Native Americans ? BC - 1664 Archived 2008-10-25 at the Wayback Machine., Bogota, New Jersey. Retrieved September 19, 2008.
  6. ^ Shriner, Charles A. (1919). Four Chapters of Paterson History. Archive.org. Paterson, N.J.: Lent & Overkamp Pub. Co. Retrieved August 26, 2018. 
  7. ^ HM-hist "The Abridged History of Hoboken", Hoboken Museum, Accessed 24-Nov-2006
  8. ^ "Native People of New Jersey". USGenNet. Retrieved August 26, 2018. 
  9. ^ No wholly satisfactory etymology has been documented. James Hammond Trumbull suggested to the American Philological Association that the word comes from the Algonquian word for "counsel", 'cau´-cau-as´u'. Other sources claim that it derived from medieval Latin caucus, meaning "drinking vessel," such as might have been used for the flip drunk at Caucus Club of colonial Boston.
  10. ^ On Overpeck County Park NY-NJ-CT Botany
  11. ^ Englewood History Archived 2009-10-02 at the Wayback Machine., City of Englewood
  12. ^ Indian Deeds 1630 to 1748; Budke, George H.; Library Associates of Rockland County, 1975, pg. 19
  13. ^ History of the County of Hudson, New Jersey, from Its Earliest Settlement to the Present Time, p. 62. Retrieved March 29, 2007.
  14. ^ Joris van der Meer Koopman in de West; De indianen en de Nieuw Nederlanders in het journaal van David Pietersz. De Vries Archived 2008-06-30 at the Wayback Machine., 2001 (Dutch)
  15. ^ "content". Millburn.lib.nj.us. Retrieved 2008-11-01. 
  16. ^ *A History of the Horseneck Riots: Chapter 1
  17. ^ Winson, Terrie (2002). "Lenni Lenape". Reading Area Community College. Archived from the original on June 21, 2008. Retrieved August 28, 2018. 
  18. ^ a b Penn Treaty Museum
  19. ^ "Lenape" Archived 2012-01-27 at the Wayback Machine., Ulster County
  20. ^ "Timeline of colonial history"
  21. ^ McGrath, Ben (March 1, 2010). "Strangers on the Mountain". The New Yorker. p. 50. 
  22. ^ "Earl de la Warr", Answers.com
  23. ^ "Delaware", Etymonline
  24. ^ "Delaware Tribe of Indians" Archived 2011-11-02 at the Wayback Machine.
  25. ^ "Make History Yours!". Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Retrieved August 26, 2018. 
  26. ^ "Native Americans: Lenape", Penn Treaty Museum.

External links[edit]