|Regions with significant populations|
|Sudan, Egypt, Eritrea|
|Related ethnic groups|
Hadendoa (or Hadendowa) is the name of a nomadic subdivision of the Beja people, known for their support of the Mahdiyyah rebellion during the 1880s to 1890s. The area historically inhabited by the Hadendoa is today parts of Sudan, Egypt and Eritrea.
According to Roper (1930), the name Haɖanɖiwa is made up of haɖa 'lion' and (n)ɖiwa 'clan'. Other variants are Haɖai ɖiwa, Hanɖiwa and Haɖaatʼar (children of lioness).
The southern Beja were part of the Christian kingdom of Axum during the sixth to fourteenth centuries. In the fifteenth century, Axum fell to the Islamization of the Sudan region, and although the Beja were never entirely subjugated, they were absorbed into Islam via marriages and trade contracts. In the seventeenth century, some of the Beja expanded southward, conquering better pastures. These became the Hadendoa, who by the eighteenth century were the dominant people of eastern Sudan, and always at war with the Bisharin tribe.
Extensive anthropological research was done on Egyptian tribes in the late 1800s and a number of skulls of people of the Hadendoa tribe were taken to the Royal College of Surgeons to be measured and studied.
The Hadendoa were traditionally a pastoral people, ruled by a hereditary chief, called a Ma'ahes. One of the best-known chiefs was a Mahdist general named Osman Digna. He led them in the battles, from 1883 to 1898, against the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan- Britain and Egypt were exercising joint sovereignty in Sudan. They fought the British infantry square in many battles, such as in the Battle of Tamai in 1884 and in the Battle of Tofrek in 1885 and earned an unenviable reputation for their bravery. After the reconquest of the Egyptian Sudan (1896–98), the Hadendoa accepted the new order without demur.
In popular culture
- Orville Boyd Jenkins, Profile of the Beja people (1996, 2009)
- Martin, Hugh (1899) Kassala: An Historical Sketch in The United Service Magazine. London: William Clowes & Son. 1899. pp. 58–.
- Roper, E. M. (1928). Tu Bedawie: an elementary handbook for the use of Sudan government officials. Hertford: Stephen Austin and Sons, Ltd. Archived from the original on 12 July 2017. Retrieved 25 November 2016.
- Burckhardt, John Lewis (1819). Travels in Nubia: by the late John Lewis Burckhardt. Association for Promoting the Discovery of the Interior Parts of Africa. Retrieved 24 November 2016.
- The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. Royal Anthropological Institute. p. 607.
- Foole, Reginald Stuart (1887). "The Egyptian Classification". The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. 16: 370–379. Retrieved 10 December 2016.
- Monick, S. (1985). "The Political Martyr: General Gordon and the Fall of Kartum". Military History Journal. 6 (6).
- Allen, W.H. (1887). The Battle of Tofrek (4th ed.). Galloway. Retrieved 25 November 2016.
- F.R. Wingate, "The True Story of Osman Dinga", The Graphic, June 16, 1923.
- "Hadendoa". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 25 November 2016. Retrieved 25 November 2016.
- "Africa - The Impact of Firearms". Weapons and Warfare. Archived from the original on November 25, 2016. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- Hitchens, Christopher (June 2002). "A Man of Permanent Contradictions". The Atlantic. Retrieved 5 October 2016.
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Hadendoa". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. This work in turn cites:
- Count Gleichen, ed., Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (London, 1905)
- F. R. Wingate, Mahdism and the Egyptian Sudan (London, 1891)
- G. Sergi, Africa: Anthropology of the Hamitic Race (1897)
- A. H. Keane, Ethnology of the Egyptian Sudan (1884)
- Media related to Hadendoa at Wikimedia Commons