|Regions with significant populations|
|Islam (Sunni, Shafi'i, Sufi Islam), Judaism|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Arab people, Arab Singaporean, Sri Lankan Moors, Chaush|
The Hadhrami (Arabic: حضرمي, sing.) or Hadharem (Arabic: الحضارم, pl.) are people inhabiting the Hadhramaut region in Yemen and their descendants in diaspora communities around the world. They speak Hadhrami Arabic, which belongs to the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic family.
Among the two million inhabitants of Hadhramaut, there are 1,300 distinct tribes. Historically, antagonism between townsfolk and wandering tribesmen had been so bitter that the towns are surrounded by stone walls to protect them from attack by their tribal countrymen.
Few Hadramis still practice the nomadic lifestyle of their ancient ancestors. Today, approximately half of the Hadramis live in the towns and villages scattered through the deep valleys of their region. Among these settled peoples, there are sharp distinctions, the highest social prestige belonging to the wealthy, educated Sadahs, who claim to be direct descendants of Muhammad. In the past, Hadramis rarely married outside their own social level, and often lived in segregated groups in separate parts of town.
The Hadharem have a long seafaring and trading tradition. Hadhrami seamen have navigated in large numbers all around the Indian Ocean basin, from the Horn of Africa to the Swahili Coast to the Malabar Coast and Hyderabad in South India to Maritime Southeast Asia.
The Hadhrami have long had a notable presence in the Horn region (Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia and Somalia). Hadhrami settlers were instrumental in helping to consolidate the Muslim community in the coastal Benadir province of Somalia, in particular. During the colonial period, disgruntled Hadhrami from the tribal wars additionally settled in various Somalian towns. They were also frequently recruited into the armies of the Somali Sultanates.
- Sri Lankan Moors 
- Arab Indonesian
- Arab Malaysian
- Arab Singaporean
- Chaush, in India
- Sodagar (Gujarati Shaikh)
- Nawayath in India
Horn of Africa
United Arab Emirates
- Ho, Engseng. 2006. Graves of Tarim. University of California Press. Berkeley. passim
- Jean-François Seznec The Financial Markets of the Arabian Gulf, Routledge, 1987
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- Leif Manger, The Hadrami Diaspora: Community-building on the Indian Ocean Rim, Berghahn Books, 2010
- Omar Khulaidi, The Arabs of Hadramawt in Hyderabad in Mediaeval Deccan History, eds Kulkarni, Naeem and de Souza, Popular Prakashan, Bombay, 1996
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- Anne K. Bang, Sufis and Scholars of the Sea: Family Networks in East Africa, 1860-1925, Routledge, 2003
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- The Hadhrami Diaspora in Southeast Asia: Identity Maintenance or Assimilation?, edited by Ahmed Ibrahim Abushouk and Hassan Ahmed Ibrahim, BRILL, 2009
- A Hadrami Diaspora in the Sudan in Diasporas Within and Without Africa: Dynamism, Hetereogeneity, Variation edited by Leif O. Manger and Munzoul A. M. Assal, Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, 2006, pg 61
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- Hadhrami Traders, Scholars and Statesmen in the Indian Ocean, 1750s-1960s Edited by Ulrike Freitag and William G. Clarence-Smith, BRILL, 1997
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- Ulrike Freitag, From Golden Youth in Arabia to Business Leaders in Singapore: Instructions of a Hadrami Patriarch in Southeast Asia and the Middle East: Islam, Movement, and the Longue Durée, edited by Eric Tagliacozzo, NUS Press, 2009, pp 235 – 249
- Talib, Ameen, Hadramis in Singapore, Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, vol 17 no1 (April 1997): 89- 97 (UK).
- Syed Muhd Khairudin Aljunied, The Role of Hadramis in Post-Second World War Singapore - A Reinterpretation, Immigrants & Minorities, Volume 25, Issue 2 July 2007, pages 163 - 183
- Iain Walker, Hadramis, Shimalis and Muwalladin: Negotiating Cosmopolitan Identities between the Swahili Coast and Southern Yemen, Journal of Eastern African Studies, Volume 2, Issue 1 March 2008, pages 44 – 59
- Shanti Sadiq Ali, The African Dispersal in the Deccan: From Medieval to Modern Times, Orient Blackswan, 1996, pp 193–202
- Al-Saqqaf, Abdullah (2012) "Arabic Literature in Diaspora: an Example from South Asia" in: Rizio Yohannan Raj (ed.): Quest of a Discipline: New Academic Directions for Comparative Literature (Cambridge University Press, India) . See http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9788175969346.018