Hadhrami people

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Hadhrami people
Hadramaut Region.svg
Hadramaut Region in Yemen
Regions with significant populations
Hadhrami Arabic, Swahili (Kenya), Somali (Somalia).
Sunni Islam
Related ethnic groups
Arabs, other Afro-Asiatic people
Flag proposed by the 'Hadhrami League' in May 2013 to represent Hadramawt Region as part of the federalization of Yemen.

The Hadhrami (Arabic: حضرمي, romanizedḥaḍramī, singular) or Hadharem (Arabic: حضارم, romanizedḥaḍāram, plural) are an Arab ethnic group indigenous to the Hadhramaut region in South Arabia around Eastern Yemen, western Oman, and southern Saudi Arabia and their descendants in diaspora communities around the world. They speak Hadhrami Arabic, an Arabic dialect with heavy influence from the extinct South Semitic Hadramautic language.

Among the two million inhabitants of Hadhramaut, there are about 1,300 distinct tribes.

History and diaspora[edit]

The Hadharem have a long seafaring and trading tradition that predates Semitic cultures, the Semitic Hadramites diaspora was historically the Mofarite & Gurage mercantile Semitic pioneers in East Africa, Hadramite influence was later over shadowed by the rise of the temple of the Moon governing Sabaean Semites that saw the concentration of power switch to a governing ruling class. With Governing pressure in the South Semitic regions Hadhrami seamen navigated in large numbers all around the Indian Ocean basin, from the some part around the Horn of Africa, to the Swahili Coast to the Malabar Coast and Hyderabad in South India, Sri Lanka to Maritime Southeast Asia.[1] They were involved in many places as organizers of the Haj.

There are Hadharem communities in western Yemen and in the trading ports of the Arab States of the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea. The money changers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia have usually been of Hadhrami origin.[2]

Hadhrami East Africans[edit]

South Semitic Kingdom of Hadramawt in 400 BC

The Hadhrami have long had a notable presence in the African Horn region (Djibouti, Ethiopia and Somalia). Descendants of Hadhramis make up a notable part of the Harari population. Hadhrami settlers were instrumental in helping to consolidate the Muslim community in the coastal Benadir province of Somalia, in particular.[3] During the colonial period, disgruntled Hadhrami from the tribal wars additionally settled in various Somali towns.[4] They were also frequently recruited into the armies of the Somali Sultanates.[5]

Some Hadhrami communities also reportedly exist in Mozambique, Comoros, and Madagascar.[6]

Hadhrami Jews[edit]

The vast majority of the Hadhrami Jews now live in Israel.[7]


The Hadhrami speak Hadhrami Arabic, a variety of Arabic, while the Diasporas that have acculturated mainly speak the local language they live in.

Diaspora communities[edit]

Hadhrami immigrants in Surabaya (Indonesia), 1920

Hadhrami people[edit]

Swahili Coast[edit]

North Africa[edit]

Horn of Africa[edit]


East Timor[edit]



South Asia[edit]


Saudi Arabia[edit]

Saudi Arabia.


See also[edit]


  1. ^ Ho, Engseng (2006). The graves of Tarim: Genealogy and mobility across the Indian Ocean. University of California Press. ISBN 9780520244535. OCLC 123768411.
  2. ^ Seznec, Jean-François (1987). The financial markets of the Arabian Gulf. Croom Helm. ISBN 9780709954040. OCLC 18558231.
  3. ^ Cassanelli, Lee V. (1973). The Benaadir Past: Essays in Southern Somali History. University of Wisconsin--Madison. p. 24.
  4. ^ Gavin, R. J. (1975). Aden under British rule, 1839–1967. London, UK: Hurst. p. 198. ISBN 978-0-903983-14-3.
  5. ^ Metz, Helen Chapin, ed. (1993). Somalia: A country study (4th ed.). Washington, D.C.: The Division. pp. 10. ISBN 9780844407753. LCCN 93016246. OCLC 27642849.
  6. ^ Le Guennec, Francoise (1997). "Changing Patterns of Hadrahmi Migration and Social Integration in East Africa". In Freitag, Ulrike; Clarence-Smith, William G. (eds.). Hadhrami Traders, Scholars and Statesmen in the Indian Ocean, 1750s to 1960s. BRILL. p. 165. ISBN 978-9004107717.
  7. ^ Katz, Joseph. "The Jewish Kingdoms of Arabia". www.eretzyisroel.org. Retrieved 25 June 2017.
  8. ^ "WWW Virtual Library: From where did the Moors come?". www.lankalibrary.com. Retrieved 25 June 2017.
  9. ^ "IDBG President Receives Indonesia's Special Envoy". Retrieved 20 April 2017.
  10. ^ "Arab trader's role in Singapore landmark". The Straits Times. 24 September 2015. Retrieved 5 July 2016.

Further reading[edit]