Hadhrami people

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Hadhrami people
الحضارم
Hadhrami immigrants at Surabaya 1920s.jpg
Hadhrami immigrants in Surabaya, 1920
Regions with significant populations
Languages
Hadhrami Arabic, (Urdu in South Asia, Malay and Indonesian in Southeast Asia, Swahili in East Africa)
Religion
Islam (Sunni, Shafi'i, Sufi Islam), Judaism, Ancient Arabian Christianity
Related ethnic groups
Arab people, Arab Singaporean, Arab Malaysians, Arab Indonesians, Chaush, Arabs in India, Sri Lankan Moors, Hyderabadi Muslims

The Hadhrami (Arabic: حضرمي‎‎, sing.) or Hadharem (Arabic: الحضارم‎‎, pl.) are people inhabiting the Hadhramaut region in Yemen and their descendants in diaspora communities around the world. They speak Hadhrami Arabic, which belongs to the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic family.

Among the two million inhabitants of Hadhramaut, there are 1,300 distinct tribes. Historically, antagonism between townsfolk and wandering tribesmen had been so bitter that the towns are surrounded by stone walls to protect them from attack by their tribal countrymen.

Few Hadramis still practice the nomadic lifestyle of their ancient ancestors. Today, approximately half of the Hadramis live in the towns and villages scattered through the deep valleys of their region. Among these settled peoples, there are sharp distinctions, the highest social prestige belonging to the wealthy, educated Sadahs, who claim to be direct descendants of Muhammad. In the past, Hadramis rarely married outside their own social level, and often lived in segregated groups in separate parts of town.

Diaspora[edit]

The Hadharem have a long seafaring and trading tradition. Hadhrami seamen have navigated in large numbers all around the Indian Ocean basin, from the Horn of Africa to the Swahili Coast to the Malabar Coast and Hyderabad in South India, Sri Lanka to Maritime Southeast Asia.[1] They were involved in many places as organizers of the Haj.

There are Hadharem communities in the trading ports of the Arab States of the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea. The money changers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia have usually been of Hadhrami origin.[2]

The Hadhrami have long had a notable presence in the Horn region (Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia and Somalia). Hadhrami settlers were instrumental in helping to consolidate the Muslim community in the coastal Benadir province of Somalia, in particular.[3] During the colonial period, disgruntled Hadhrami from the tribal wars additionally settled in various Somalian towns.[4] They were also frequently recruited into the armies of the Somali Sultanates.[5]

Some Hadhrami communities also reportedly exist in Mozambique and Madagascar.[6]

Hadhrami Jews[edit]

The vast majority of the Hadhrami Jews now live in Israel.[7]

Language[edit]

The Hadhrami speak Hadhrami Arabic, a Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic family, while the Diasporas that have acculturated mainly speak the local language they live in.

Diaspora communities[edit]

Hadhrami people[edit]

Swahili Coast[edit]

North Africa[edit]

Horn of Africa[edit]

India[edit]

Al Abbadi[edit]

The Abbadies dynasty or Abbadies (Arabic,بنو عباد) was an Arab Muslim Dynasty which arose in Al-Andalus on the downfall of the Caliphate of Cordoba (756–1031). After the collapse, there were multiple small Muslim "Caliphates": the Hammudids, the Zayrids, the Jahwarids, the Dhul-Nunids, the Amirids, the Tojibids, and the Hudids. Of all of these small groups, the Abbadies were the strongest and most of them were absorbed by them.[1] Abbadies rule lasted from about 1023 until 1091,[2][3] but during the short period of its existence it exhibited singular energy and typified its time.

Abu al-Qasim Muhammad ibn Abbad (or Abbad I; 984[1] - 25 January 1042) was the eponymous founder of the Abbadid dynasty; he was the first independent Muslim ruler of Seville in Al-Andalus (ruled 1023–1042),dying in 1042.[2]

Abu al-Qasim Muhammad ibn Abbad (ruled 1023–1042), the qadi of Seville, founded the house in 1023.[2] He functioned as the chief of an Arab family settled in the city from the first days of the conquest. The Beni-abbad had not previously played a major role in history, though they were of noble pedigree, hailing from Bani Lakhm, the historical kings of Al-Hira in south-central Iraq. The family also did have considerable wealth

Indonesia[edit]

East Timor[edit]

Malaysia[edit]

Singapore[edit]

South Asia[edit]

Saudi Arabia[edit]

Yemen[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Ho, Engseng. 2006. Graves of Tarim. University of California Press. Berkeley. passim
  2. ^ Jean-François Seznec The Financial Markets of the Arabian Gulf, Routledge, 1987
  3. ^ Cassanelli, Lee V. (1973). "The Benaadir past: essays in southern Somali history". University of Wisconsin: 24. 
  4. ^ Gavin, R. J. (1975). Aden under British rule, 1839–1967. London: Hurst. p. 198. ISBN 0-903983-14-1. 
  5. ^ Helen Chapin Metz, Somalia: a country study, (The Division: 1993), p.10.
  6. ^ Francoise Le Guennec, Changing Patterns of Hadhrami Migration and Social Integration in East Africa in Hadhrami Traders, Scholars and Statesmen in the Indian Ocean, 1750s-1960s, Edited by Ulrike Freitag and William G. Clarence-Smith, BRILL, 1997, pg 165
  7. ^ http://www.eretzyisroel.org/~jkatz/arabia.html
  8. ^ http://www.lankalibrary.com/cul/muslims/moors.htm
  9. ^ "Arab trader's role in Singapore landmark". The Straits Times. 24 September 2015. Retrieved 5 July 2016. 

References[edit]

Further reading[edit]