Hadith of the Twelve Successors

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The Hadith of the Twelve Successors (Arabic: حديث الاثني عشر خليفة‎, translit. Hadith Al-Ithna Ashar Khalifah) is a Sahih Hadith in Islam, in which the Islamic prophet Muhammad said on several occasions that there will be twelve "Khulafa" him, all of whom will be from Quraysh.

Hadith[edit]

Hadith are collections of the reports claiming to quote what the prophet Muhammad said verbatim on any matter.[1] The term comes from the Arabic meaning "report", "account" or "narrative". Hadith are second only to the Quran in developing Islamic jurisprudence,[2] and regarded as important tools for understanding the Quran and commentaries (tafsir) on it.

The hadith literature is based on spoken reports that were in circulation in society after the death of Muhammad. Unlike the Quran itself, which was compiled under the official direction of the early Islamic State in Medina,[3] the hadith reports were not compiled by a central authority. Hadith were evaluated and gathered into large collections during the 8th and 9th centuries, generations after the death of Muhammad, after the end of the era of the "rightful" Rashidun Caliphate, over 1000 km from where Muhammad lived.

The basic version of the hadith of the Twelve Successors states that

The Islamic Prophet Muhammad said:
"Islam shall neither pass away nor be deviated while there are my 12 successors from my nation in it, all of them will be from Quraysh. When the last of them passes away, the Hour will be established and the earth will be destroyed (swallowed) with all its inhabitants."

This has been reported in numerous sources with slight textual differences.[4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38]

Shia view[edit]

Shias see the 'Hadith of the Twelve Successors' as a basis for their belief in a succession of Imams. Shi'a argue that the "Twelve Successors" must have come in succession, arguing from the term "Successors" (Arabic: Caliph). Twelver Shiites in particular identify the "twelve rulers" with their twelve Imams from Ali to Muhammad al-Mahdi. They maintain that a similar hadith[39] was transmitted from Muhammad in which it was stated that 9 of the 12 Imams are from Hussein ibn Ali's lineage and the ninth is Mahdi.[40] They also point to other similar traditions where the Prophet called Ali "your leader after me", or told the Muslims that whosoever was the friend of ali was a friend of the Prophet[41][42] and derive the same conclusion.

Sunni Views[edit]

According to Sunni views this Hadith is a Self-fulfilling prophecy which was fulfilled by the Rashidun Caliphs.[43] Some sunni scholars claim that as the last Imam of Shiites did not have a son[44][45] this cannot be about shi'ite Imams. Other sunni scholars argue that even if had one and was concealed, he could not have lived for a thousand years.[46][47][48] Shias though counter this claim by citing the extremely long life attributed by Islam or other religions to several Prophets such as Adam, Noah and the Islamic mystical figure, Khidr as evidence for possibility of exceedingly long lifespan for a Divine-supported saint.[49]

Links to the Bible[edit]

Various Muslim authors link this tradition to various verses of the Bible. According to the medieval Muslim scholars like Ibn Kathir and Ibn Taymiyya this hadith refers to the biblical account of Moses and his twelve deputies, and prophecies a similar situation in Islam. [50][51][52][53]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Abou El Fadl, Khaled (22 March 2011). "What is Shari'a?". ABC RELIGION AND ETHICS. Retrieved 20 June 2015. 
  2. ^ Ibn Hajar, Ahmad. al-Nukat ala Kitab ibn al-Salah, vol. 1, p. 90. Maktabah al-Furqan.
  3. ^ Cambridge Companion to the Quran. p. 62. 
  4. ^ Sahih al-Muslim, Kitab al-Imaarah; Al-Mo'jam al-Kabeer, Vol. 2, pg 285, Tr. No. 2068 and 2069; Kefaayah al-Asar, pg 51, Chap 6, Tr. No. 3; Bihar Al-Anwar, Vol. 36; Al-Taraaef, pg 168-172; Al-Khesaal, pg 469-473. Tr. No 12-30; Al-Umdah by Ibn Bitreeq; E'laam al-Waraa by Tabarsi
  5. ^ Mukhtasar al-sahih al-Muslim by Tirmidhi, Tr. No. 1196; Musnad Ahmad, Vol. 5, pg 89; Musnad Abi Ya'laa, Vol. 13, pg 456, Tr. No. 23(7463); al-Mo'jam al-Kabeer, Vol. 2, pg 218. Tr. No. 1809 and Vol. 2, pg 216. Tr. No. 1801; Kanz al-Ummaal Vol. 12, pg 32, Tr. No. 33855; al-Ghaibah by No'mani, pg 120, part 6, Tr No. 9 and pg 119, Chap 6, Tr. no. 6; Bihar Al-Anwar Vol. 36, pg 281, Chap 41, Tr. No. 102
  6. ^ Musnad Tayalesi, Vol. 3, pg 105 Tr. No 767 and Vol. 6, pg 180 Tr. No 1278, published at Hyderabad, India in 1321 A.H; Al-Mo'jam al-Kabeer, Vol. 2, pg 258, Tr. No. 1964; Al-Fetan, Vol. 1, pg 39, Chap 7, Tr. No. 2; Al-Malaahem wa al-Fetan pg 32, chap 29; Musnad Ahmad, Vol. 5, pg 93; Sunan Abi Dawood, Kitab al-Mahdi; Taarikh Baghdad, Vol. 12, pg 126, No. 516; Al-Bidaaya wa al-Nihaayah, Vol. 1, pg 18; Al-Mojam Al-Kabeer, Vol. 2, pg 214, Tr. No. 1792 and 1793
  7. ^ Musnad Ahmad, Vol. 5, pg 86; al-Mo'jam al-Kabeer, Vol. 2, pg 218, Tr. No. 1808; Lawaame' al-Uqool, Vol. 5, pg 150; al-Mo'jam al-Kabeer, Vol. 2, pg 215, Tr. No. 1798
  8. ^ Sahih Bukhari, Book 89, Hadith #329
  9. ^ Sahih Muslim, Book 20 Hadith #4477
  10. ^ Sahih Muslim, Book 20 Hadith #4478
  11. ^ Sahih Muslim, Sahih Muslim, Book 20 Hadith #4480
  12. ^ Sahih Muslim, Book #020 Hadith #4481
  13. ^ Sahih Muslim, Book #020 Hadith #4482
  14. ^ Sahih Muslim, Book #020, Hadith #4483
  15. ^ Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Vol. 5 Pg. 106
  16. ^ Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Vol. 5 Pg. 87
  17. ^ Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Vol. 1 Pg. 398
  18. ^ Sunan Abu Dawoud, Book 36 Number 4266
  19. ^ Sunan al-Tirmidhi (Arabic) Chapter of Fitan, 2:45 (India) 4:501 Tradition #2225 (Egypt) Hadith #2149 (numbering of al-'Alamiyyah)
  20. ^ Musnad Ahmad, Vol. 5, pg 92 ;Kanz al-Ummaal, Vol. 12, pg 33, Tr. no 33860 narrating from Tabraani and Tr. No. 33803, narrating from Tirmidhi; Sunan al-Tirmidhi, Kitab al-Fetan, Chap 46, Tr. No. 2223; Tarikh Baghdad Vol. 14, pg 353, No. 7673; Al-Mo'jam al-Kabeer, Vol. 2, pg 236. Tr. No. 1875 and pg 248, tr. No. 1923 and pg 251, Tr. No 1936 and pg. 283 Tr. No. 2063 and Vol. 2, pg 215, Tr. No 1799.; Al-Ghaibah of No'mani, pg 123 chap 6, Tr. No 14, and pg 120, Chap 6, Tr. No. 8; Kifaayaa al-Asar, pg 50, Chap 6, Tr. No. 2; Nihaayah al-bidaayah wa al-Nihaayah Vol. 1, pg 17; Yanaabi al-Mawaddah, Chap 77, pg 445; Al-Mawaddah al-Qurbah, pg 215; Kashf al-Yaqeen, chap 2, pg 71; Al-Ghaibah by No'maani pg 120, Chap 6, Tr. No. 8; Kifaayah al-Asar, pg 27, Chap 2, Tr. No 5 and pg 76, Chap 8, Tr. no. 6 and pg 77, Chap 8, Tr. No. 7 and pg 78, Chap 8, Tr. No. 9; Behaar al-Anwwar, Vol. 36, chap 41, pg 282, Tr. No 103 and Vol. 36, Chap 41, pg 255, Tr. No. 72 and Vol. 36, pg 311, Chap 41, Tr. No. 153-156; Al-Insaaf, Tr. No. 129 and pg 292, Tr. No. 264 and Tr. No. 127; Kamaal al-Deen, Vol. 1, pg 279, Chap 24, Tr. No. 26
  21. ^ Musnad Ahmad, Vol. 5, pg 93, 96, 98; Al-Ghaibah by No'maani, pg 116, chap 6, Tr. No. 17; Sahih Muslim, Kitaab al-Imaarah; Kanz al-Ummaal, Vol. 12, pg 32, Tr. No. 33850; Al-Mo'jam al-Kabeer, Vol. 2, pg 213, Tr. No 1791 and Vol. 2, pg 214, Tr. No 1795
  22. ^ Tarikh al-Khulafaa, The chapter of the duration of the Caliphs, pg 7
  23. ^ Musnad Ahmad, Vol. 5, pg 97; al-Malaahem by Ibn al-Munaadi, pg 113
  24. ^ Musnad Ahmad, Vol. 5, pg 107
  25. ^ Musnad Ahmad, Vol. 5, pg. 97; Sahih al-Muslim, Kitab al-Imaarah; Al-Mo'jam al-Kabeer, Vol. 2, pg 228, Tr. No. 1849, and Tr. No. 1850 and Tr. No. 1851; al-Malaahim by ibn Munaadi, pg 112; Firdaus al-Akhbaar, Vol. 5, pg 7705
  26. ^ al-Mo'jam al-Kabeer, Vol. 2, pg 214. Tr. No. 1794; al-mo'jam al-Awsat, Vol. 3, pg 437, Tr. No. 2943; Kanz al-Ummaal Vol. 12, pg 33, Tr. No. 33858
  27. ^ al-Mo'jam al-Kabeer, Vol. 2, pg 215. Tr. No. 1796; Kanz al-Ummaal Vol. 12, pg 33, Tr. No. 33852; Lawaame al-Uqool, Vol. 5, pg 151
  28. ^ al-Mo'jam al-Kabeer, Vol. 2 Pg. 238. No. 1883
  29. ^ al-Mo'jam al-Kabeer, Vol. 2, pg 215. Tr. No. 1797 and Vol. 2, pg 226, Tr. No. 1841; Kanz al-Ummaal Vol. 12, pg 33, Tr. No. 33853; Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain, Kitaab-o-Ma'refat al-Sahaabaa, Vol. 3, pg 317-617
  30. ^ al-Mo'jam al-Kabeer, Vol. 2, pg 282. Tr. No. 2059; Kanz al-Ummaal Vol. 12, pg 32, Tr. No. 33848; al-Bidaaya wa al-Nihaaya, Vol. 1, pg 17; al-Ghaibah of No'maani, pg 119, Chap 6, Tr No. 7
  31. ^ al-Mo'jam al-Kabeer, Vol. 2, pg 286. Tr. No. 2073; Majmaa az-Zawaaed, Vol. 5, pg 191, Chapter, 'The Caliphs are Twelve'. The author of Muntakhab al Asar says, "Tabraani in his al-Mo'jam al-Kabeer, Vol. 2, has brought this tradition of Jaabir from thirty-seven chain of narrators. It is clear that Jaabir has heard the tradition concerning the twelve caliphs on more than one occasion from the Messenger of Allah like the eve of the stoning of Al-Aslami, in the last pilgrimage at Arafaah, when he went to the Prophet along with his father and when he heard the Prophet delivering a sermon in the mosque.
  32. ^ Kamaal al-Deen, Vol. 1, pg 272, Chap 24, Tr. No 21
  33. ^ Musnad Ahmad, Vol. 1, pg 398; Kanz al-Ummaal, Vol. 12, pg 33, Tr. no. 33857; Muntakhab Kanz al-Ummaal, Vol. 5, pg 312; Taarikh al-Khulafaa, pg 7; Majma al-Zawaaed, Vol. 5, pg 190 (The Chapter of Twelve); Al-Mataaleb al-Aaliyah, Vol. 2, pg 196. Tr. No. 2040-2041; Al-Durr al-Manthoor by Jalaaluddin al-Suyuti under the Quranic verse, "And We raised amongst them twelve chiefs" (Surah Maaedah 5:12); Mutashaabehaat al-Quran Vol. 2, pg 53; Yanaabi al-Mawaddah, pg 258; Mustadrak al-Sahihain, Vol. 4, pg 501; Musnad Abi Ya'laa, Vol. 8, pg 444, Tr. no 65 (5031), Vol. 9, pg 222, Tr. no 356 (5322); Mutazab al-Asar pg 3, Tr. No. 1; Isbaat al-Hudaat (by Shaikh Hurr al-Aameli), Vol. 3, pg 196
  34. ^ Al-Ghaibah of No'maani, pg 118, Tr. No 5; Kefaayah al-Asar, pg 23, Chap 2, Tr. No. 2 and pg 25, Chap 2, Tr. No. 3; Bihar Al-Anwar, Vol. 36, Chap 41, pg 229, Tr. No 8 narrating from al-Uyoon, al-Khesaal, kamaal al-Deen, al-Lawaame' al-Elaahiyyah, pg 286
  35. ^ Mustadrak Alaa al-Sahihain, Vol. 3, pg 618; Kanz al-Ummaal, Vol. 12, pg 33, Tr. No. 33849; Majma al-Zawaaed, Vol. 5, pg 190; Al-Intinsaar fi Naas Al-Aimmah al-Athaar, pg 25; Akhbaar Isbahaan Vol. 2, pg 176 The Chapter of Meem
  36. ^ Kanz al-Ummaal, Vol. 12, pg 34, Tr. No. 3386; Kash al-Astaar, part 1, pg 99 narrating from al-Ebaanah; E'laam al-Waraa pg 384; Muqtazab al-Asar, pg 3-4; Manaaqeb of ibn Shar Aashob, Vol. 1, pg 290; Bihar Al-Anwar Vol. 36, pg 267, Chap 41, Tr. No. 87; Al-Insaaf, pg 361
  37. ^ Al-Juwayni, Fara’id al-Simtayn, Mu’assassat al-Mahmudi li-Taba’ah, Beirut 1978, p. 160
  38. ^ Fara'id al Simtain, volume 2, page 132
  39. ^ Kefayat Alathar fi Nass Ala Aemmate Ethna Ashar, By fourth century author, Ali Ibn Muhammad Alkhazzaz Alrazi (Alghomi), p. 23: "باب (ما جاء عن عبد الله بن مسعود عن النبي صلى الله) (عليه وآله وسلم في النصوص على الائمة الاثنى عشر) اخبرنا أبو المفضل محمد بن عبد الله الشيباني رحمه الله، قال حدثنا أبو علي (1) محمد بن زهير بن الفضل الابلي (2)، قال حدثنا أبو الحسين عمر (3) بن الحسين بن علي بن رستم، قال حدثني ابراهيم ابن يسار الرمادي (4)، قال حدثني سفيان بن عتبة (5)، عن عطا بن السائب (6)، عن ابيه، عن عبد الله بن مسعود قال: سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم يقول: الائمة بعدي اثنا عشر، تسعة من صلب الحسين والتاسع مهديهم. حدثنا محمد بن علي رضي الله عنه، قال حدثنا أبو علي"
  40. ^ Encyclopedia of Imam Ali, by Mohammad Reyshahri. Farsi link to the book
  41. ^ Ibn Hanbal’s Musnad, vol. 5, 356, Matba‘ah al-Maymaniyyah
  42. ^ Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, annotated by Ahmad Muhammad Shākir in 15 volumes, Dār al-Ma‘ārif, Cairo, 1949-1958, hadith no. 883
  43. ^ [1]
  44. ^ Goldziher, Ignaz. Introduction to Islamic theology and law. p. 200. 
  45. ^ Akhter, Shamim. Faith & Philosophy of Islam. p. 176. 
  46. ^ The Routledge Handbook of Religion and Security edited by Chris Seiple, Dennis R. Hoover, Pauletta Otis Page 60 [2]
  47. ^ Henry Corbin. History of Islamic Philosophy. Pages 69-70
  48. ^ Voices of Islam: Voices of tradition By Vincent J. Cornell Page 223
  49. ^ Musawi, Zaina. "The Prolonged Lifespan of Imam Mahdi". Message of Thaqalayn. 
  50. ^ Tarikh ibn Kathir 250
  51. ^ Tarikh ibn Kathir, volume 6, p. 249-250
  52. ^ Tarikh ibn Kathir, 6:248; Kanz al-Ummal, 13:27; Al-Haskani, Shawahid al-Tanzil, 1:455, Tradition No. 626.
  53. ^ Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal v1 p398 and p406; Mustadrak al-Hakim, 4:501; Al-Dhahabi, Talkhis al-Mustadrak 4:501. I; Ibn Hajar Asqalani, Fath al-Bari 16:339; #Ali ibn Abu Bakr al-Haythami, Majma al-Zawa'id 5:190; Ibn Hajar Al-Haythami, Al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqa, vol 12; Suyuti, Tarikh al-Khulafa, Vol 10; Jami' al-Saghir 1:75; Kanz al-Ummal, 13:27

External links[edit]