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Haecceity (/ -/,; from the Latin haecceitas, which translates as "thisness") is a term from medieval scholastic philosophy, first coined by followers of Duns Scotus to denote a concept that he seems to have originated: the irreducible determination of a thing that makes it this particular thing. Haecceity is a person's or object's thisness, the individualising difference between the concept "a man" and the concept "Socrates" (i.e., a specific person).
Haecceity is a Latin neologism formed as an abstract noun derived from the demonstrative pronoun "haec(ce)", meaning "this (very)" (feminine singular) or "these (very)" (feminine or neuter plural). It is apparently formed on the model of another (much older) neologism, viz. "qui(d)ditas" ("whatness"), which is a calque of Aristotle's Greek to ti esti (τὸ τί ἐστι) or "the what (it) is."
Haecceity vs. quiddity
Haecceity may be defined in some dictionaries as simply the "essence" of a thing, or as a simple synonym for quiddity or hypokeimenon. However, in proper philosophical usage these terms have not only distinct but opposite meanings. Whereas haecceity refers to aspects of a thing that make it a particular thing, quiddity refers to the universal qualities of a thing, its "whatness", or the aspects of a thing it may share with other things and by which it may form part of a genus of things.
Haecceity in scholasticism
Duns Scotus makes the following distinction:
Because there is among beings something indivisible into subjective parts—that is, such that it is formally incompatible for it to be divided into several parts each of which is it—the question is not what it is by which such a division is formally incompatible with it (because it is formally incompatible by incompatibility), but rather what it is by which, as by a proximate and intrinsic foundation, this incompatibility is in it. Therefore, the sense of the questions on this topic [viz. of individuation] is: What is it in [e.g.] this stone, by which as by a proximate foundation it is absolutely incompatible with the stone for it to be divided into several parts each of which is this stone, the kind of division that is proper to a universal whole as divided into its subjective parts?— Duns Scotus, Ordinatio II, d. 3, p. 1. q. 2, n. 48]
In Scotism and the scholastic usage in general, therefore, "haecceity" properly means the irreducible individuating differentia which together with the specific essence (i.e. quiddity) constitutes the individual (or the individual essence), in analogy to the way specific differentia combined with the genus (or generic essence) constitutes the species (or specific essence). Haecceity differs, however, from the specific differentia, by not having any conceptually specifiable content: it does not add any further specification to the whatness of a thing but merely determines it to be a particular unrepeatable instance of the kind specified by the quiddity. This is connected with Aristotle's notion that an individual cannot be defined.
Haecceity in analytical philosophy
In analytical philosophy, the meaning of "haecceity" shifted somewhat. Charles Sanders Peirce used the term as a non-descriptive reference to an individual. Alvin Plantinga and other analytical philosophers used "haecceity" in the sense of "individual essence". The "haecceity" of analytical philosophers thus comprises not only the individuating differentia (the scholastic hacceity) but the entire essential determination of an individual (i.e., including that which the scholastics would call its quiddity).
Haecceity in continental philosophy
Harold Garfinkel, the founder of ethnomethodology, used the word "haecceity" in his seminal Studies in Ethnomethodology (1967), to enhance the indexical inevitable character of any expression, behavior or situation. According to him, the members display the social order they refer to within the settings of the situation they contribute to define. The study of particular situations in their "haecceity" — aimed at disclosing the ordinary, ongoing social order that is constructed by the members and their practices — is the object of ethnomethodology.
In his famous paper generally referred to as "Parson's Plenum" (1988), Garfinkel used the term "Haecceities" to indicate the importance of the infinite contingencies in both situations and practices.
Gilles Deleuze uses the term to denote entities that exist on the plane of immanence. The usage was likely chosen in line with his esoteric concept of difference and individuation, and critique of object-centered metaphysics.
- Formal distinction
- Identity of indiscernibles
- Objective precision
- Ostensive definition
- Personal identity
- Principle of individuation
- Rigid designation
- Scotistic realism
- Ship of Theseus
- Sine qua non
- Cf. Sanskrit tathata, "thus-ness"
- Type-token distinction
- Gardner, W. H., Gerard Manley Hopkins (1975), p. xxiii
- Aristotle, Metaphysics, 1030a
- Hicks, P., The Journey So Far (2003), p. 218
- Bertman, M. A., Humanities Insights (2007), p. 39
- Button, G., ed., Ethnomethodology and the Human Sciences (1991), p. 10
- Rawls, Ann (2003), "Harold Garfinkel", in Ritzer, George (ed.), The Blackwell companion to major contemporary social theorists, Malden, Massachusetts Oxford: Blackwell, ISBN 9781405105958. Also available as: Rawls, Ann (2003). "Harold Garfinkel". Chapter 5. Harold Garfinkel. Wiley. pp. 122–153. doi:10.1002/9780470999912.ch6. ISBN 9780470999912. Extract.
- Duns Scotus's Oxford quoted in Gardner, p. xxiv
- Kearney, R., Navigations (2007), pp. 133–4
- Bartosch, R., EnvironMentality: Ecocriticism and the Event of Postcolonial Fiction (Amsterdam & New York: Rodopi, 2013), p. 270.
- E. Gilson, The Philosophy of the Middle Ages (1955)
- A. Heuser, The Shaping Vision of Gerard Manley Hopkins (OUP 1955)
- E. Longpre, La Philosophie du B. Duns Scotus (Paris 1924)
- Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari. 1980. A Thousand Plateaus. Trans. Brian Massumi. London and New York: Continuum, 2004. Vol. 2 of Capitalism and Schizophrenia. 2 vols. 1972–1980. Trans. of Mille Plateaux. Paris: Les Editions de Minuit. ISBN
- Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari. 1991/1994. "What is Philosophy?". Trans. Hugh Tomlinson and Gregory Burchell. New York: Columbia University Press, 1994.
- Harold Garfinkel, 'Evidence for Locally Produced, Naturally Accountable Phenomena of Order, Logic, Meaning, Method, etc., in and as of the Essentially Unavoidable and Irremediable Haecceity of Immortal Ordinary Society', Sociological Theory Spring 1988, (6)1:103-109
- The dictionary definition of haecceity at Wiktionary
- Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy article — "Medieval Theories of Haecceity"