Hagley Museum and Library
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Hagley Museum and Library
|Nearest city||Wilmington, Delaware|
|Area||235 acres (95 ha)|
|NRHP Reference #||84000819|
|Added to NRHP||November 13, 1966|
The Hagley Museum and Library is a nonprofit educational institution in Wilmington, Delaware. Covering more than 235 acres (0.95 km²) along the banks of the Brandywine Creek, the museum and grounds include the first du Pont family home and garden in the United States, the powder yards, and a 19th-century machine shop. On the hillside below the mansion lies a Renaissance-revival garden, with terraces and statuary, created in the 1920s by Louise Evalina du Pont Crowninshield (1877–1958). The facility sits at the midpoint of the DuPont Historic Corridor.
Opened in 1957, the Hagley Museum features history from the early years of the du Pont family and corporation in the Brandywine Valley. Exhibits and demonstrations show the connections between early industrial technology and early American history. The Museum also exhibits personal stories of the people who worked for the DuPont Company in the nineteenth century, how they lived, and how their lifestyles changed during a century in tune with new machinery and new production methods in their workplace.
Hagley's library houses a major research collection of manuscripts, archives, photographs, pamphlets, and books documenting the history of American business and technology. A member of the Independent Research Libraries Association, the library serves scholars from this country and abroad. The library includes the Center for the History of Business, Technology, and Society, which coordinates Hagley's interactions with the world of scholarship in the fields of American economic, business, and technological history. A scholar-in-residence program, competitive fellowships, seminars, and historical conferences make the center the intellectual heart of Hagley.
The library's holdings include 37,000 linear feet in the Manuscripts and Archives Department, 290,000 printed volumes in the Imprints Department, 2 million visual items in the Pictorial Department, and more than 300,000 digital images and pages in the Digital Archives Department. The library and archival collections owned by Hagley are open to the public for research; a catalog and partial digital archive are available online.
In 1802, French immigrant Eleuthère Irénée du Pont founded black powder mills on the banks of Brandywine Creek. He chose the location for the river's tumble over the fall line which provided power, timber and willow trees (used to produce quality charcoal required for superior black powder), the proximity to the Delaware River (on which other ingredients of the powder – sulfur and saltpeter – could be shipped); and the quarries of gneiss which would provide building materials for the mills. The E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company's black powder factory became the largest in the world.
In 1921, the mills along the Brandywine closed and parcels of the property were sold. Plans for a museum were established 31 years later, on the occasion of the DuPont Company's 150th anniversary in 1952.
Origin of the name
Hagley historians only know that the name was already in use well before E.I. du Pont expanded downstream from Eleutherian Mills in 1813 by purchasing the land that became the Hagley Yards. An 1813 document refers to the land as Hagley and it had been called Hagley as early as 1797, when its owner, Philadelphia Quaker merchant Rumford Dawes, applied for insurance on buildings that were said to be located in a place called Hagley on the Brandywine. Dawes had acquired the property in 1783. Since the name Hagley did not appear on the documents transferring ownership at that time, it seems likely that Dawes gave this name to the Brandywine location.
It seems likely that Delaware's Hagley was named for an English estate that was well known in the second half of the eighteenth century. It is likely that Dawes chose the name based on an English narrative poem entitled The Seasons by James Thomson. Hagley Hall was the seat of Thomson's patron the Baron Lyttelton, and the poem's description of a sylvan dale is strikingly reminiscent of the Brandywine Valley. The Seasons was popular in Philadelphia at the time that Rumford Dawes acquired and named Hagley. The English Hagley estate is located in the West Midlands countryside about ten miles southwest of Birmingham.
At about the same time, Hagley Plantation on the Waccamaw River in South Carolina got its name when the owners, who were admirers of English culture, chose the name Hagley to remind them of the well-known parkland of that name near London.
- November 1952: The Eleutherian Mills-Hagley Foundation, a non-profit, educational corporation received its charter from the State of Delaware.
- May 1957: Hagley Museum was dedicated with the opening of the Henry Clay Mill building.
- 1961: The Longwood Library, founded in 1953 by Pierre S. duPont, merged with Hagley Museum and opened at the site of the original DuPont Company's powder works at Hagley.
- 1962: Eleutherian Mills, the du Pont family's ancestral home, was opened to the public.
- 1966: Designation of museum property as a National Historic Landmark.
- 1969: Restoration of the first DuPont company office was completed.
- 1971: Restoration of the E.I. du Pont Garden began.
- 1982: Workers' Hill opened. First fireworks show produced for Hagley members in honor of the museum's 25th anniversary. The annual fireworks continues on two weekends in June.
- 1984: Hagley Museum and Library was designated as the official name of the institution. (Eleutherian Mills-Hagley Foundation continues as the legal corporation name of the organization.)
- 1996: Hagley's first car show, 100 Years of Cars, held to honor 100 years of America's automotive heritage. The annual car show continues on the third Sunday in September.
- 1999: The kitchen in Hagley's Eleutherian Mills opens to visitors.
- 2002: Two new exhibits, "DuPont Science and Discovery" and "DuPont: The Explosives Era," open at Hagley in honor of the DuPont corporation's 200th anniversary.
- 2007: Accessible entrance to Visitors Center welcomes visitors to the museum's 50th anniversary exhibit, "Hagley at Fifty: Exploding with History."
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- List of museums in Delaware
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- Nemours Mansion and Gardens
- Longwood Gardens
- Delaware Historical Society
- David A. Hounshell, historian and academic who started his career at the Hagley Museum
- Breck's Mill Area
- Hagley Museum and Library
- Brandywine 10
- DuPont Heritage
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- Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS) No. DE-2, "DuPont Powder Mill, Hagley Museum, on Brandywine River, Greenville vicinity, New Castle County, DE", 3 photos, 5 measured drawings, 4 data pages, 1 photo caption page
- Collection of DuPont Company powder yards on the Brandywine Creek photographs at Hagley Museum and Library