Haider al-Abadi

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Haider al-Abadi
حيدر العبادي
Haider Al-Abadi in 2015
Prime Minister of Iraq
In office
8 September 2014 – 25 October 2018
PresidentFuad Masum
Barham Salih
DeputySaleh al-Mutlaq
Baha Araji
Hoshyar Zebari
Rowsch Shaways
Preceded byNouri al-Maliki
Succeeded byAdil Abdul-Mahdi
Leader of the Victory Alliance
Assumed office
14 December 2017
Preceded byPosition established
Deputy Leader of the Islamic Dawa Party
In office
15 January 2007 – 8 September 2014
Preceded byNouri al-Maliki
Succeeded byBaha Araji
Minister of Communications
In office
1 September 2003 – 1 June 2004
Prime MinisterIraqi Governing Council
Preceded byMuhammad Saeed al-Sahhaf
Succeeded byMuhammad Ali Hakim
Personal details
Haider Jawad Kadhim al-Abadi

(1952-04-25) 25 April 1952 (age 71)
Baghdad, Iraq
CitizenshipIraq, United Kingdom
Political partyVictory Alliance
Other political
Islamic Dawa
Alma materUniversity of Technology
University of Manchester
SignatureHaider al-Abadi's signature

Haider Jawad Kadhim al-Abadi (Arabic: حيدر جواد كاظم العبادي; born 25 April 1952) is an Iraqi politician who was Prime Minister of Iraq from September 2014 until October 2018. Previously he served as Minister of Communication from 2003 to 2004, in the first government after Saddam Hussein was deposed.[1]

He was designated as Prime Minister by President Fuad Masum on 11 August 2014 to succeed Nouri al-Maliki[2] and was approved by the Iraqi parliament on 8 September 2014.[3] Al-Abadi was included in Time magazine's 100 Most Influential People of 2018.[4]

In office throughout the majority of the War in Iraq (2013–2017) which he announced victory against ISIL, he later left the office of Prime Minister in 2018, following rising domestic discontent and widespread violent protests.[5][6][7]

Early life and education[edit]

Al-Abadi's father was a member of the Baghdad Neurosurgery Hospital and Inspector General of the Iraqi Ministry of Health. He was forced to retire in 1979 due to disagreements with the Ba'athist regime, and was buried in the US after his death.[8] Al-Abadi, who speaks English, graduated high school in 1970 from the Central High School (Arabic: الإعدادية المركزية) in Bagdad.[9] In 1975, he earned a bachelor's degree in electrical engineering from the University of Technology in Baghdad.[10] In 1980, he earned a PhD degree in electrical engineering from the University of Manchester.[11]


Al-Abadi joined the Dawa Party in 1967.[9] Two of his brothers were killed and one was put in prison 1980, 1981, and 1982 for belonging to the Dawa Party. In 1981, his third brother was arrested and spent 10 years in prison.[10] In 1977, he became in charge of its organization in Britain.[12] In 1979, he became a member of the party's executive leadership.[13] In 1983, the government confiscated al-Abadi's passport for conspiring against Iraq's Ba'ath Party.[13]


Al-Abadi remained in the UK, in voluntary exile, until the 2003 invasion of Iraq.[14] His positions during this time included:[9]

  • Director general of a small design and development firm in London specialising in high-technology vertical and horizontal transportation (1993–2003)
  • Consultant, in London, in matters relating to transportation (1987–2003)
  • Research leader for a major modernization contract in London (1981–1986)

Al-Abadi was awarded a grant from the UK Department of Trade and Industry in 1998.[15] While working in London in 2001 al-Abadi registered a patent relating to rapid transit systems.

Return to Iraq[edit]

In 2003, al-Abadi became skeptical of the Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) privatization plan, proposing to Paul Bremer that they had to wait for a legitimate government to be formed. In October 2003, al-Abadi with all 25 of the interim Governing Council ministers protested to Paul Bremer and rejected the CPA's demand to privatize the state-owned companies and infrastructure prior to forming a legitimate government. The CPA, led by Bremer, fell out with al-Abadi and the Governing Council. The CPA worked around the Governing Council, forming a new government that remained beholden to the CPA to serve until the general elections, prompting more aggressive armed actions by insurgents against US-led coalition personnel.[16]

While al-Abadi was Minister of Communications, the CPA awarded licenses to three mobile operators to cover all parts of Iraq. Despite being rendered nearly powerless by the CPA,[17] Al-Abadi was not prepared to be a rubber stamp and introduced more conditions for the licenses. Among them that a sovereign Iraqi government has the power to amend or terminate the licenses and introduce a fourth national license, which caused some friction with the CPA. In 2003, press reports indicated Iraqi officials were under investigation over a questionable deal involving Orascom, an Egypt-based telecoms company, which in late 2003 was awarded a contract to provide a mobile network to central Iraq. Al-Abadi asserted that there was no illicit dealing in the completed awards.[18] In 2004, it was revealed that these allegations were fabrications, and a US Defense Department review found that telecommunications contracting had been illegally influenced in an unsuccessful effort led by disgraced US Deputy Undersecretary of Defense John A. Shaw and not by Iraqis.[19]

Between January and December 2005, he served as an adviser to the Prime Minister of Iraq in the first elected government.[20]

He was elected as a member of the Iraqi Parliament in the December 2005 parliamentary election and chaired the parliamentary committee for Economy, Investment and Reconstruction. Al-Abadi was re-elected in the 2010 parliamentary election as a member of the Iraqi Parliament representing Baghdad. In 2013, he chaired the Finance Committee and was at the center of a parliamentary dispute over the allocation of the 2013 Iraqi budget.[21]

Al-Abadi's name was circulated as a prime ministerial candidate during the formation of the Iraqi government in 2006 during which time Ibrahim al-Jaafari was replaced by Nouri al-Maliki as Prime Minister.[22]

In 2008, al-Abadi remained steadfast in his support of Iraqi sovereignty, insisting on specific conditions to the agreement with the U.S. regarding its presence in Iraq.[23]

In 2009, al-Abadi was identified by the Middle East Economic Digest as a key person to watch in Iraq's reconstruction.[20]

He is an active member of the Iraq Petroleum Advisory Committee, participating in the Iraq Petroleum Conferences of 2009–2012 organized by Nawar Abdulhadi and Phillip Clarke of The CWC Group.[24]

He was one of several Iraqi politicians supporting a suit against Blackwater as a result of the 2010 dismissal of criminal charges against Blackwater personnel involved in the 2007 killing of 17 Iraqi civilians.[25]

Al-Abadi was again tapped as a possible Prime Minister during the tough negotiations between Iraqi political blocs after the elections of 2010 to choose a replacement to incumbent PM Nouri al-Maliki. Again in 2014, he was nominated by Shia political parties as an alternative candidate for Prime Minister.[26]

Prime Minister (2014–2018)[edit]

At a meeting with Russian President Vladimir Putin.
At a meeting with U.S. Vice President Mike Pence.
At a meeting with Iranian President Hassan Rouhani.
President Donald Trump greets al-Abadi at the White House in Washington, D.C.

On 24 July 2014, Fuad Masum became the new president of Iraq. He, in turn, nominated al-Abadi for prime minister on 11 August.[27] For the appointment to take effect, al-Abadi was required to form a government to be confirmed by Parliament within 30 days.[28] Al-Maliki, however, refused to give up his post and referred the matter to the federal court claiming the president's nomination was a "constitutional violation". He said, "The insistence on this until the end is to protect the state."[29] On 14 August 2014, in the face of growing calls from world leaders and members of his own party, the embattled Prime Minister announced he was stepping down to make way for al-Abadi. The announcement of the leadership transition from al-Maliki to al-Abadi triggered a major realignment of Sunni Arab public opinion away from armed opposition groups and to the Iraqi government, since many Iraqi Sunni Arabs were optimistic that the new government would address their grievances and deliver public goods and services to them.[30]

The Iraqi Parliament approved al-Abadi's new government and his presidential program on 8 September 2014.[31] In the months after assuming office in September 2014, Abadi made determined efforts to increase Sunni participation in the Iraqi government.[32][33] Abadi appointed Khaled al-Obaidi, a prominent Sunni politician from Mosul, as his Defense Minister, and the appointment was ratified by the Iraqi parliament after two months.[32] In mid-December 2014, Abadi forged a new revenue-sharing agreement with the Kurds, under which Baghdad agreed to pay the Kurdish Regional Government one half of all income from Kurdish-controlled oil fields.[32] To counter the widespread corruption in the army stemming from the Maliki years, Abadi announced that 50,000 "ghost soldiers" had been identified and would be removed from army payrolls.[32] "Ghost soldiers" were men on army payrolls who never showed up for duty, but paid their officers part of their salaries, thus institutionalizing corruption and hollowing out the armed forces.[34]

Iraqi President Fuad Masum paid a goodwill visit to Saudi Arabia in November 2014. In response, Saudi Arabia prepared to reopen its embassy in Baghdad, which had remained closed since the start of the Gulf War in 1990.[32] Abadi has also visited Egypt, Jordan, and Turkey to discuss regional strategies to combat militant Islamist forces.[32] Foreign Affairs magazine has written that after four months in power, Abadi's attempts to resolve Iraq's sectarian strife make his premiership "a welcome change from the schismatic style of his predecessor". As a result of Abadi's reforms, the United States pledged $1.5 billion to train Iraqi forces and announced the sale of F-16 fighter jets, suspended after the 2003 invasion of Iraq.[32]

Combating political corruption was an early priority of the al-Abadi administration. In August 2015, al-Abadi unveiled a plan to strengthen the government by, among other things, eliminating security details for senior officials and cutting benefits to specific high-level officials.[35]

Al-Abadi was forced to contend with the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant as Prime Minister; he was sometimes critical of Barack Obama and the United States military response to the threat of ISIL.[36] Furthermore, al-Abadi pivoted closer towards Russia and Iran in order to combat the threat of ISIL and encouraged cooperation between these nations on military operations in the region.[36][37]

In April, 2016, al-Abadi's difficulties in implementing political reforms led to the storming of the Iraqi parliament by supporters of Shia cleric Muqtada al-Sadr.[38] The protesters breaching the Green Zone and disrupting the parliament have been described as evidence of Iraq's increasingly dysfunctional political system and al-Abadi's problems in getting corruption under control.[39]

On 9 December 2017, Prime Minister Al-Abadi announced victory over ISIL and the end of the Iraqi Civil War (2014-2017).[40]

Abadi was succeeded by Adil Abdul-Mahdi on 25 October 2018.[41]


  1. ^ "Haider al- Abadi - Munzinger Biographie". munzinger.de. Retrieved 2021-07-06.
  2. ^ Pearson, Mike; Yan, Holly; Coren, Anna (11 August 2014). "Iraq's Nuri al-Maliki digs in as President nominates new Prime Minister". CNN. Retrieved 8 September 2014.
  3. ^ "Iraqi Parliament approves the new government of Abadi and the vice-presidents of Fuad Masum". 8 September 2014. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |url= (help)
  4. ^ "Haider al-Abadi: The World's 100 Most Influential People". Time. Retrieved 2020-09-23.
  5. ^ Cornish, Chloe; Khattab, Asser (2018-09-11). "Iraq prime minister Haider Al-Abadi faces calls to step down". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 2022-12-10. Retrieved 2022-02-13.
  6. ^ "The End Is Near for Iraq's Haider al-Abadi". Time. Retrieved 2022-02-13.
  7. ^ AFP. "Iraq's top two parliament groups demand PM Abadi resign after Basra violence". www.timesofisrael.com. Retrieved 2022-02-13.
  8. ^ "نبذة عن حياة رئيس الوزراء المكلف حيدر العبادي" (in Arabic). AlSumaria TV. 13 August 2014.
  9. ^ a b c "CV of Haider Jawad al-Abadi". Facebook. 10 February 2010.
  10. ^ a b "Haider al-Abadi, the designated Prime Minister of Iraq". CNN Arabic. 11 August 2014.
  11. ^ "Iraq's new Prime Minister is graduate from University of Manchester". Manchester Evening News. Retrieved 2014-08-14.
  12. ^ "Who is the new designated Prime Minister of Iraq, Haider al-Abadi?". BBC Arabic. 11 August 2014.
  13. ^ a b "CV of the new designated Iraqi Prime Minister, Haider al-Abadi". Euronews Arabic. 11 August 2014.
  14. ^ Iraq's post-war cabinet , [1], September 1, 2003, BBC
  15. ^ "Biography of New Prime Minister, Haider al-Abadi". Iraq Business News. Retrieved 2017-12-12.
  16. ^ Klein, Naomi (September 2004). "Baghdad Year Zero". Information Clearing House. Harper's Magazine. Archived from the original on 2014-08-21. Retrieved 2013-04-09.
  17. ^ Dreazen, Yochi J.; Cooper, Christopher (May 13, 2004). "Behind the Scenes". Wall Street Journal – via Global Policy Forum.
  18. ^ "US probe fails to stop mobile licence awards". TeleGeography. PriMetrica, Inc. 20 December 2003.
  19. ^ Miller, T. Christian (29 April 2004). "Iraq Cellular Project Leads to U.S. Inquiry". Los Angeles Times.
  20. ^ a b "People to Watch 2009: Twelve Key Figures for the Region in the Coming Year". Middle East Economic Digest. 53 (1). January 2, 2009.
  21. ^ al-Shaher, Omar (January 17, 2013). "Iraqi Parliament Struggles to Ratify Budget Amid Political Crisis". Al-Monitor Iraq Pulse.
  22. ^ Madi, Mohamed (2014-09-09). "Haider al-Abadi: A new era for Iraq?". BBC News. Retrieved 2017-12-12.
  23. ^ "Crocker: No permanent bases will be set up in Iraq". USA Today. June 5, 2008.
  24. ^ Advisory Committee. "Iraq Petroleum Advisory Committee". Archived from the original on 2014-12-18. Retrieved 2013-04-09.
  25. ^ Webb, Susan (January 5, 2010). "Iraq sues Blackwater over killing spree". People's World.
  26. ^ "Iraq crisis: Turmoil over PM Nouri Maliki's status". BBC News. 11 August 2014.
  27. ^ Madi, Mohamed (11 August 2014). "Profile: Haider al-Abadi, Iraqi PM in waiting". BBC. Retrieved 2014-08-12.
  28. ^ Ashton, Adam (August 11, 2014). "Haider al Abadi named to replace Maliki as troops take to Baghdad's streets". McClatchyDC. Retrieved 2014-08-12.
  29. ^ "Iraq's Incumbent PM Nouri Al-Maliki Grows More Isolated As He Clings To Power". Huffington Post. 13 August 2014. Retrieved 14 August 2014.
  30. ^ Mikulaschek, Christoph; Pant, Saurabh; Tesfaye, Beza (3 June 2020). "Winning Hearts and Minds in Civil Wars: Governance, Leadership Change, and Support for Violent Groups in Iraq". American Journal of Political Science. 64 (4): 773–790. doi:10.1111/ajps.12527.
  31. ^ Madi, Mohamed (September 9, 2014). "Haider al-Abadi: A new era for Iraq?". BBC News. Retrieved August 8, 2015.
  32. ^ a b c d e f g Almaliky, Muhamed (January 16, 2015). "Mending Iraq". Foreignaffairs.com. Retrieved August 8, 2015. {{cite magazine}}: Cite magazine requires |magazine= (help)
  33. ^ "The Robert and Joann Bendetson Public Diplomacy Award Recipients". Tufts Global Leadership. Retrieved 2017-12-12.
  34. ^ Wvans, Dominic (December 1, 2014). "Iraq says it found 50,000 'ghost soldiers' on payroll". Reuters.com. Retrieved August 8, 2015.
  35. ^ Shinkman, Paul D. "Prime Minister Abadi Unveils a Bold Plan for Iraq". Retrieved 2015-10-07.
  36. ^ a b "Iraqi PM Abadi accused Obama of a lack of "will," and warned he might invite Russia to bomb ISIS — AEI". 6 October 2015. Retrieved 2015-10-07.
  37. ^ "Prime Minister Abadi: Iraq welcomes Russia in Islamic State fight". PBS. 30 September 2015. Retrieved 2015-10-07.
  38. ^ "Iraqi Shia protesters storm Baghdad parliament". BBC News. April 30, 2016. Retrieved May 17, 2016.
  39. ^ Jaffe, Greg (April 30, 2016). "Protests in Baghdad throw administration's Iraq plan into doubt". Washington Post. Retrieved May 17, 2016.
  40. ^ Mostafa, Nehal (9 December 2017). "Iraq announces end of war against IS, liberation of borders with Syria: Abadi". Iraqi News. Retrieved 9 December 2017.
  41. ^ Salaheddin, Sinan (2 October 2018). "Iraq tasks Shiite independent with forming new government". San Francisco Chronicle. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 4 October 2018. Retrieved 26 February 2019.

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded byas Minister of Information Minister of Communications
Succeeded by
Muhammad Ali Hakim
Preceded by Prime Minister of Iraq
Succeeded by
Party political offices
Preceded by Deputy Leader of Islamic Dawa Party
Succeeded by