Haikou dialect

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Haikou dialect
Pronunciation[hai˨˩˧ xau˨˩˧ ue˨˧]
Native toSouthern China
RegionHaikou, Hainan
Language codes
ISO 639-3
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The Haikou dialect is a topolect of Chinese and a subvariety of Hainanese spoken in Haikou, the capital of the Hainan province and island of China.


The Haikou dialect has the following initials:[1]

Labial Dental Sibilant Velar Glottal
Stop / Affricate voiceless t ts k ʔ
voiced implosive ɓ ɗ
Nasal m n ŋ
Fricative voiceless f s x h
voiced v z
Lateral l

The finals are:[2]

Vocalic codas Nasal codas Stop codas
a ai au am ap ak
ia iau iam iaŋ iap iak
ua uai uaŋ uak
ɛ e ek
o ɔi ɔu ɔm ɔŋ ɔp ɔk
io iɔŋ iɔk
i iu im in ip it
u ui un uk ok

There are also two syllabic nasals, /m̩/ and /ŋ̍/.[2]

The tone categories (described using Chao tone letters) are:[2][3]

level rising departing entering
upper 24 213 35 5
lower 21 33 3

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Chen (1996), p. 4.
  2. ^ a b c Chen (1996), p. 5.
  3. ^ Yan (2006), p. 142.


  • Chen, Hongmai (1996), Hǎikǒu fāngyán cídiǎn 海口方言詞典 [Haikou dialect dictionary], Great Dictionary of Modern Chinese Dialects, vol. 16, Nanjing: Jiangsu Education Press, ISBN 978-7-5343-2886-2.
  • Yan, Margaret Mian (2006), Introduction to Chinese Dialectology, LINCOM Europa, ISBN 978-3-89586-629-6.