Town, District Headquarter
|District created||1 October 1989|
|• Body||Hailakandi Municipality Board|
|• Total||1,327 km2 (512 sq mi)|
|Elevation||21 m (69 ft)|
|• Density||497/km2 (1,290/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
|Telephone code||91 - (0) 03844|
|Most spoken language||Sylheti|
Hailakandi (pron:ˈhaɪləˌkʌndi) is a town and the district headquarters of Hailakandi district in the Indian state of Assam. The Hailakandi district is one of the three districts of Southern Assam i.e. Barak Valley.
Hailakandi District at a glance
Hailakandi was one of the oldest sub-division in the state of Assam. It was constituted as a civil subdivision on 1st June, 1869. Subsequently, it was upgraded to district in 1989. It has an area of 1326.10 square km. Out of this, more than 50% is reserve forest. There are two reserve forests in Hailakandi district viz. inner line reserve forest and Katakhal reserve forest. The district has an inter-state border with Mizoram on its south having a length of 76 km and inter-district borders on other sides with Karimganj and Cachar districts. Per the 2011 census, it has a population of 6,59,260. It comprises two notified towns viz. Hailakandi (district headquarter) and Lala and one Industrial Township viz. Panchgram. A Municipal Board governs Hailakandi Town and a Town Committee governs Lala. It has give Development Blocks viz. Algapur, Hailakandi, Lala, Katlicherra and South Hailakandi development Block. There is a Zilla Parishad named Hailakandi Zilla Parishad covering these five Development Blocks. There are 62 numbers of Gaon Panchayat under these five Blocks. The district is divided into four Revenue Circles comprising a total of 393 villages (including 27 forest villages). Nearly half the district is forest. Of the remaining half, 33.2% is under cultivation, rice being the main crop. The district has 17 tea gardens. The district has six police stations, four police outposts, six colleges, 43 H/E schools, 247 ME/MV schools and 937 L.P. schools.
The residents are predominantly agriculturists. The total cultivated area is 44,670 Hectares. Rice is the major crop in the district, covering 36,500 hectares. Other crops include banana, pineapple, orange, etc., covering 1700 hectares. An area of 2,800 hectares is covered with beetle nut crops. Annual rainfall in the district is 2600.12 mm. The total irrigated area is 4,164 Hectares. The climate is temperate and humid.
In the organized sector, tea is the main industry of the district. It has 17 tea gardens with 5,570.38 hectares planted in tea. Cachar Paper Mill, run by Hindustan Paper Corporation, is the only big industry in this district. It is situated at Panchgram and was closed in 2015.
In the urban area, people are engaged in merchandise and other sundry activities.
Perched in the heart of Barak Valley, Hailakandi was one of the oldest subdivisions of Assam, constituted on 1st June, 1869. At the time of partition i.e. during 1946-47, prior to its emergence as a full-fledged district, Hailakandi was a Civil Sub-Division under Cachar district and later became a district.
Despite Hailakandi’s modern look, the district is rich in cultural heritage and tradition. It is in fact a melting pot of cultures and a converging ground of diverse caste, creed and religion. The district has glorious records of having participated in the Freedom Movement of India. Hailakandi’s role in India’s freedom struggle started right from the Sepoy Mutiny in 1857 when leaders from this part of the region had a valiant fight with British soldiers at a place called "Ron Tila" (battle field) at Mohonpur in Hailakandi, where some of the Indian leaders laid down their lives for the cause of the motherland. Several youths of the district also took part in Gandhiji’s Civil Disobedience Movement and Quit India Movement. Prominent among them are Sanat Das Gupta, Upendra Dhar, Abdul Matlib Mazumder, and Sunil Chakrabarty.
Much of the historical antecedents of Hailakandi can be traced back to the British Raj in India. Before the invasion of the British administrators, water way was the only means of connectivity in the district. During early British period changes in transport and communication systems had taken place. The British rulers established many tea gardens and systems for transportation of raw and finished products. Hailakandi was linked with a railway line. Gradually, a road system developed in the district. Some scattered publications and public opinion highlighted the names of some managers of tea gardens, viz. Mr. James Marshal Winchister, Mr. Mc. Farlene Charlmars and M. R. Hoiates. The present Charlmars Higher Secondary School in Katlicherra was set up named after Mr. Mc. Farlene Charlmars. There is Graham M.V. School in Hailakandi Sub-Division. The present Hertbertganj Bazar was named after Mr. Hertbert, the then-SDO of Hailakandi. Besides the contributions of the British, some renowned families of Hailakandi donated land for construction of schools and are still the flag-bearers of the rich history of the district. Many national leaders including Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose, and Jawaharlal Nehru visited the district in the pre-independence period.
Hailakandi is located at  Nested in the heart of Barak Valley, geographically Hailakandi occupies an important position. Located in plain and an apparently mountainous region, the district bears a cultural link-up with South East Asia on one hand and mainland India on the other. The topographical feature of the district is one that is diversified by plains and hills, bearing a link with the rest of the state through North Cachar Hills. Total geographical area of the district is 1327 Sq. KM. of which 10.53 Sq. KM falls in urban areas and 1316.47 Sq. KM in villages..
Hailakandi attained the status of a district in 1989. The district consists of four revenue circles vis. Hailakandi, Lala, Katlicherra and Algapur and five Development Blocks viz. Hailakandi, Lala, Katlicherra, Algapur and South Hailakandi. To ensure that the fruits of development percolate down to the lowest level, district has been further divided into 62 Gaon Panchayats. The district has two numbers of towns – Hailakandi and Lala. Both the towns have elected Urban Local Bodies with 16 Wards in Hailakandi Town and 10 Wards in Lala Town. There are 6(six) Police Stations in the district viz. Hailakandi, Algapur, Lala, Katlicherra, Panchgram (Algapur Revenue Circle) and Ramnathpur (Katlicherra Revenue Circle).
Geographical distribution of population belonging to different groups in the district is interesting. Total population in the district is 659296 as per census 2011 of which 337890 Male and 321406 Female.
Population Break-up in the District
(As per 2011 census)
Hailakandi is blessed with people with different language hues. Though these people speak in different languages, they epitomize unity in diversity.
== District Level Key Indicators ==
||1327 Sq. km.|
|Reserved Forest Area
|Revenue Circles||4||1. Hailakandi|
|Development Blocks||5||1. Hailakandi|
|5. South Hailakandi|
|Towns||3||Population (as per 2011 Census)|
|1. Hailakandi (Municipal Board)||33637|
|2. Lala (Town Committee)||11771|
|3. HPC Township (CT)||2732|
|Population (as per 2011 Census)||Total Population||659296|
|Density of Population||419 Sq. km.|
|Literacy Rate||74.33 %|
|Decadal population growth||21.45 %|
|Total Nos. of Villages||Revenue Village||331|
|College||5 (2 Provincialised)|
|Basic Training Centre||1|
|Extension Training Centre||1|
|Medical Infrastructure||Civil Hospital (100 Bed)||1|
|CHC (30 Bed)||2|
|PHC (2 Bed)||13|
|Road in the District||National Highway||99.86 km.|
|State Highway||17 km.|
|Major District Road||99 km.|
|Urban Road||6 km.|
|Rural Road||351 km.|
|Black Topped Road||299 km.|
|Earthen/Gravel Road||174 km.|
|Railway Infrastructure||Railway Road||82.92 km.|
|Public Health||Habitation Covered||1673|