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Hailu dialect

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Hailu dialect
Hoiliuk dialect
海陆腔 / 海陸腔
海陆客语 / 海陸客語
Native toChina, Taiwan and Indonesia
RegionShanwei, Guangdong; Hsinchu County, Hsinchu City, Taoyuan, Hualien County, and Miaoli County, Taiwan; West Kalimantan, Indonesia
Chinese characters
Official status
Official language in
Regulated byHakka Affairs Council
Language codes
ISO 639-3
hak-hai Hailu
Glottologhail1247  Hailu

The Hailu dialect (simplified Chinese: 海陆腔; traditional Chinese: 海陸腔; pinyin: Hǎilù qiāng; Hailu Hakka Romanization System: hoi´ liug` kiong`), also known as the Hoiluk dialect or Hailu Hakka (simplified Chinese: 海陆客语; traditional Chinese: 海陸客語; pinyin: Hǎilù Kèyǔ), is a dialect of Hakka Chinese that originated in Shanwei, Guangdong.[1] It is also the second most common dialect of Hakka spoken in Taiwan.[2][1]



The first edition of the Language Atlas of China places the Hakka dialects spoken in Haifeng and Lufeng[3] into the Xin–Hui cluster (新惠小片; Xīn-Huì xiǎopiàn) of the Yue–Tai subgroup (粤台片; 粵臺片; Yuè-Tái piàn) of Hakka.[4] In the second edition, it is given its own subgroup known as the Hai–Lu subgroup (海陆片; 海陸片; Hǎi-Lù piàn) separate from the Yue–Tai subgroup.[5]

Chang Song-hing and Zhuang Chusheng propose that it should be grouped as the Hai–Lu cluster (海陆小片; 海陸小片; Hǎi-Lù xiǎopiàn) of the Mei–Shao subgroup (梅韶片; Méi-Sháo piàn).[6]



In China, the Hailu dialect is spoken in Shanwei, Guangdong, particularly in Haifeng, Lufeng, and Luhe.[1][5] As of 2012, there are around 1.18 million speakers of the dialect in these three areas.[7]

In Taiwan, it is spoken in Hsinchu County (Xinfeng, Xinpu, Hukou, Qionglin, Hengshan, Guanxi, Beipu, Baoshan, Emei, and Zhudong), Hsinchu City (Xiangshan and Xinfeng), Taoyuan (mostly in Guanyin, Xinwu, and Yangmei; also pockets in Pingzhen, Zhongli, and Longtan), Hualien County (Ji'an, Shoufeng, Guangfu, Yuli, Ruisui, and Fenglin), and Miaoli County (Toufen, Sanwan, Nanzhuang, Xihu, Houlong, Zaoqiao, Tongxiao, and Tongluo).[8][9] In 2013, 41.5% of Hakka people in Taiwan were reported to be able to communicate in the Hailu dialect.[2]

In Indonesia, it is widely spoken in northern West Kalimantan, including Singkawang, Sambas, and Pemangkat.[10]





The Hailu dialect has seven lexical tones:[11][12]

Tone name dark level
(阴平 / 陰平)
light level
(阳平 / 陽平)
(上声 / 上聲)
dark departing
(阴去 / 陰去)
light departing
(阳去 / 陽去)
dark entering
(阴入 / 陰入)
light entering
(阳入 / 陽入)
Example /
Tone letter Hetian, Luhe ˥˧ (53) ˥ (55) ˨˩˧ (213) ˧˩ (31) ˨ (22) ˧˦ (34) ˥˦ (54)
Hsinchu ˥˧ (53) ˥ (55) ˨˦ (24) ˩ (11) ˧ (33) ˥ (5) ˨ (2)


  1. ^ a b c Teng 2015, p. 1.
  2. ^ a b HAC 2013, p. 2.
  3. ^ Including Luhe, which was carved out of Lufeng in 1988.
  4. ^ CASS & AAH 1987, B15.
  5. ^ a b Xie & Huang 2012, p. 117.
  6. ^ Chang & Zhuang 2008, p. 410.
  7. ^ Wu & Zhan 2012, p. 117.
  8. ^ HAC 2013, pp. 73, 78.
  9. ^ HAC 2018.
  10. ^ Huang 2008, pp. 2–3.
  11. ^ Xie & Huang 2012, p. 119.
  12. ^ MOE 2012, p. 38.


  • Chang, Song-hing; Zhuang, Chusheng (2008). 廣東方言的地理格局與自然地理及歷史地理的關係 [Geographical Distribution of Guangdong Dialects: Their Linkage with Natural and Historical Geography] (PDF). Journal of Chinese Studies (in Chinese) (48): 407–422.
  • Chinese Academy of Social Sciences; Australian Academy of the Humanities, eds. (1987). 中国语言地图集 [Language Atlas of China] (in Chinese). Hong Kong: Longman Group (Far East). ISBN 0-582-99903-0.
  • "Distribution and resurgence of the Hakka language". Hakka Affairs Council. 16 July 2018. Retrieved 14 August 2019.
  • Huang, Hui-chen (2008). 印尼山口洋客家話研究 [Study of Hakka in Singkawang, Indonesia] (PDF) (Master's thesis). National Central University. Retrieved 11 September 2019.
  • Teng, Shengyu (2015). "Word Formation in Chinese Dialects: A Case Study of Hailu Hakka". Chinese Lexical Semantics. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Vol. 9332. pp. 281–293. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-27194-1_29. ISBN 978-3-319-27193-4.
  • Wu, Wei; Zhan, Bohui (2012). B2—1 广东省的汉语方言. 中国语言地图集 [Language Atlas of China] (in Chinese). Vol. 汉语方言卷 (2nd ed.). Beijing: Commercial Press. pp. 160–165. ISBN 978-7-100-07054-6.
  • Xie, Liuwen; Huang, Xuezhen (2012). B1—17 客家话. 中国语言地图集 [Language Atlas of China] (in Chinese). Vol. 汉语方言卷 (2nd ed.). Beijing: Commercial Press. pp. 116–124. ISBN 978-7-100-07054-6.
  • 101-102年度台灣客家民眾客語使用狀況 (PDF) (in Chinese). Hakka Affairs Council. November 2013. Retrieved 11 September 2019.
  • 客家語拼音方案使用手冊 [Usage Manual for the Hakka Romanization System] (PDF) (in Chinese). Ministry of Education, Republic of China (Taiwan). November 2012. Retrieved 11 September 2019.