The Hailufeng Soviet (i.e.Hai[feng]-Lufeng Soviet) was the first Chinese Soviet territory, established in November 1927, by Peng Pai with Ye Ting's remnant troops from the Nanchang Uprising. After the arduous August–September Little Long March and the near-rout at the Battle of Shantou these troops were much diminished and were directed by the ComIntern to lie low in the deep countryside and to avoid any further battles.
^avoid any further battles: Actually, the Directive arrived in the Nanchang Mutineers' camp in late September just prior to the battle, sent (or possibly delivered) from Hong Kong by Zhang Tailei. The troops available for stationing in the new Soviet were thus much less than the Comintern planned. (Lescot, Patrick, Empire Rouge, Belfond (Paris: 1999), p. 95.)
^Schwartz, Benjamin, Chinese Communism and the Rise of Mao, Harper & Row (New York: 1951), p. 102-103