Hainburg an der Donau
|Hainburg an der Donau|
Hainburg around 1900
|District||Bruck an der Leitha|
|• Mayor||Karl Kindl|
|• Total||25.05 km2 (9.67 sq mi)|
|Elevation||161 m (528 ft)|
|Population (1 January 2014)|
|• Density||240/km2 (630/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
Hainburg is located on the right bank of the Danube river, 4 km southwest of Devín (Slovakia), 12 km west of the Slovak capital Bratislava and 43 km east of the Austrian capital Vienna. It is part of the Industrial Quarter Industrieviertel in Lower Austria.
45.87% of the land is forested, 54.13% is used for agriculture and urban areas.
- The first settlers in the area were the Illyrians and the Celtic people, who lived on the Braunsberg hill. In the Roman era the area was under the influence of the nearby town of Carnuntum, the capital of the province of Pannonia Superior, where Marcus Aurelius once resided.
- Emperor Henry III ordered a castle built here in 1050.
- The town had 2 gates, 15 towers, and a 2.5 km wall in the 13th century.
- The castle in 1108 belonged to the Babenbergers.
- In the second half of the 12th century, the ransom received from Richard the Lionheart built the castle along with the Viennese gate around 1220 to 1225. The lower part wasn't built until 1267 to 1268 by Ottokar II of Bohemia.
- On February 11, 1252, Ottokar II, later the King of Bohemia, married the last Babenberger Margaret of Austria.
- In Battle of Dürnkrut in 1278 Ottokar II lost the castle to the Habsburgs.
- In 1482 after a several months siege the castle was occupied by Hungarian King Matthias Corvinus and his Black Army.
- In 1629, the castle belonged to the city.
- On July 11, 1683, the Second Ottoman Campaign destroyed the city along with the castle.
- In 1709, Count Löwenberg rebuilt the castle.
- Here Joseph Haydn the composer came as a six-year-old child to learn the rudiments of music from his relative Josef Mathias Franck, and to sing as a choirboy from 1737–1740. There is a Haydn Fountain on the Hauptplatz in the town.
- Hainburg gained a garrison in the 19th century.
- Since the end of the First World War, Hainburg has been the easternmost town in Austria.
- In 1984, protesters against plans to put a power station in the Hainburger Au of the Danube forced the government of Austria to withdraw.
- Today, it is part of the Danube-Auen National Park.
Sites of interest
- Castle hill
- Danube-Auen National Park, floodplain forest
- Braunsberg, hill with Celtic fortress
- Wienertor (Vienna Gate): built in the 13th century, largest still existing medieval gate in Europe. Today it contains the city museum.
- The Philippus-und-Jakobus-Kirche, a catholic church, was built in 1263 and rebuilt in the Baroque style in 1683
- Protestant Church, opened in April 2011, newly built by the Austrian architect group Coop Himmelb(l)au
Economics and infrastructure
In 2001, there were 242 businesses and 29 agricultural and forestry businesses. There were 2,512 employed persons. The productivity rate was 45.07%. There were 70 unemployed persons.
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