|Cultural origins||Late 1970s and early 1980s, Los Angeles and New York City|
Glam metal (also known as hair metal and often used synonymously with pop metal) is a subgenre of heavy metal which features pop-influenced hooks and guitar riffs, and borrows from the fashion of 1970s glam rock.
Glam metal can be traced back to music acts like Alice Cooper, Boston, Cheap Trick, Kiss, The New York Dolls, and Van Halen. It arose in the late 1970s and early 1980s in the United States, particularly on the Los Angeles Sunset Strip music scene, pioneered by bands such as Mötley Crüe, Ratt, Quiet Riot, Stryper, Bon Jovi, and Dokken. It was popular throughout the 1980s and the beginning of the 1990s, bringing to prominence bands including Poison, Skid Row, Cinderella, and Warrant. Glam metal was associated with flashy clothing and makeup. Poison, for example, had long shaggy or backcombed hair, accessories, metal studs, leather and make-up during their live performances.
Glam metal lost mainstream interest in the early 1990s as the perceived excesses of glam metal created a backlash against the genre. A factor in the decline of glam metal was the rise of grunge in the early 1990s, which had a stripped-down aesthetic and a complete rejection of the glam metal visual style. Glam metal has enjoyed a revival since the late 1990s with reunions of many popular acts from the genre's 1980s heyday, as well as the retro styling of newer bands including The Darkness from the United Kingdom and Steel Panther from Los Angeles.
Characteristics and terminology
Musically, glam metal combines a traditional heavy metal sound with elements of hard rock and punk rock, adding pop-influenced catchy hooks and guitar riffs. Like other heavy metal songs of the 1980s, they often feature shred guitar solos. They also include extensive use of harmonies, particularly in the characteristic power ballads – slow, emotional songs that gradually build to a strong finale. These were among the most commercially successful singles in the genre and opened it up to a wider audience that would not have been attracted to traditional heavy metal. Lyrical themes often deal with love and lust, with songs often directed at a particular woman.
Aesthetically glam metal draws heavily on the glam rock or glitter rock of the 1970s, often with very long backcombed hair, use of make-up, gaudy clothing and accessories (chiefly consisting of tight denim or leather jeans, spandex, and headbands). The visual aspects of glam metal appealed to music television producers, particularly MTV, whose establishment coincided with the rise of the genre. Glam metal performers became infamous for their debauched lifestyles of drugs, strippers and late-night parties, which were widely covered in the tabloid press.
Sociologist Deena Weinstein points to the large number of terms used to describe more commercial forms of heavy metal, which she groups together as lite metal. These include, beside glam metal: melodic metal, false metal, poodle bands, nerf metal, pop metal or metal pop, the last of which was coined by critic Philip Bashe in 1983 to describe bands such as Van Halen and Def Leppard. AllMusic distinguishes pop metal, which refers to the whole pop-tinted hard rock and heavy metal scene of the 1980s (including Def Leppard, Bon Jovi, Europe), from hair metal, the characteristics of which are flashy clothing and heavy makeup (as embodied by Poison, and Mötley Crüe). Use of the derogatory term hair metal started in the early 1990s, as grunge gained popularity at the expense of 1980s metal. In the "definitive metal family tree" of his documentary Metal: A Headbanger's Journey, anthropologist Sam Dunn differentiates pop metal, which includes bands like Def Leppard, Europe, and Whitesnake, from glam metal bands that include Mötley Crüe and Poison.
Music journalist Stephen Davis claims the influences of the style can be traced back to acts like Aerosmith, Kiss, Boston, Cheap Trick, and The New York Dolls. Kiss and to a lesser extent Alice Cooper, were major influences on the genre. Finnish band Hanoi Rocks, heavily influenced themselves by the New York Dolls, have been credited with setting a blueprint for the look of hair metal.
Van Halen has been seen as highly influential on the movement, emerging in 1978 from the Los Angeles music scene on Sunset Strip, with a sound based around the lead guitar skills of Eddie Van Halen. He popularized a playing technique of two‐handed hammer‐ons and pull‐offs called tapping, showcased on the song "Eruption" from the album Van Halen. This sound, and lead singer David Lee Roth's stage antics, would be highly influential on glam metal, although Van Halen would never fully adopt a glam aesthetic. Def Leppard, often categorized with the New Wave of British heavy metal, released their second album High 'n' Dry in 1981, mixing glam rock with heavy metal, and helping to define the sound of hard rock for the decade.
Mainstream success (1981–91)
First wave (1981–85)
In the early 1980s, a number of bands from across the United States began to move towards what would become the glam metal sound. Starting in 1981, Mötley Crüe (from Los Angeles) released their first album Too Fast for Love, Dokken (also from Los Angeles) released their first Breaking the Chains, and Kix (from western Maryland) released their first album the self-titled Kix. In 1982, Night Ranger (from San Francisco) released their initial album Dawn Patrol which reached the top 40 ranking in the United States. 1983 was the breakout year for glam metal music; Quiet Riot's 1983 debut Metal Health was the first glam metal album, and arguably the first heavy metal album, to reach number one in the Billboard music charts and to help open the doors for additional mainstream success by subsequent metal music bands. Additionally, Night Ranger's second album in 1983 Midnight Madness was also a breakthrough album that included the top five single "Sister Christian". Also, in 1983, a larger wave of glam metal albums began appearing; Mötley Crüe released its second album Shout at the Devil, Def Leppard released its third album Pyromania, Killer Dwarfs (from Canada) released their self-titled album Killer Dwarfs, Kix released its second album Cool Kids, Lita Ford released her initial album Out for Blood, and the band Kiss released its glam-sounding Lick It Up. Def Leppard's album Pyromania, which was certified 10x platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA), reached number two on the Billboard 200. The singles "Foolin'", "Photograph", and "Rock of Ages", helped by the emergence of MTV, reached the Top 40. Def Leppard's Pyromania style was widely emulated, particularly by the emerging Californian scene.
The most active glam metal music scene was starting to appear in clubs on the Sunset Strip in Los Angeles, including The Trip, the Whisky a Go Go, and the Starwood. These clubs began to avoid booking punk rock bands because of fears of violence and began booking many area metal bands, usually on a "pay to play" basis, thus creating a vibrant scene for hard rock music. An increasing numbers of metal bands were able to produce debut albums in 1984, including Ratt (from Los Angeles) with its breakthrough album Out of the Cellar, Bon Jovi (from New Jersey) with its initial self-titled album Bon Jovi, Great White with its self-titled Great White, Black 'n Blue (from Portland Oregon) with its self-titled album Black 'n Blue, Autograph with its first album Sign In Please, and W.A.S.P. with its self-titled debut album W.A.S.P.. Also, in 1984, Lita Ford put out her second album called Dancin' on the Edge, Quiet Riot released its follow-up album to Metal Health called Condition Critical, Dokken released its second album called Tooth and Nail, and Kiss released its very glam-sounding album called Animalize.
All of these bands played a part in the developing the overall look and sound of glam metal during the early 1980s. In 1985, many more commercially successful glam metal albums began to appear. Mötley Crüe released Theatre of Pain, Ratt's second album Invasion of Your Privacy, Dokken's third album Under Lock and Key, Stryper's first release Soldiers Under Command, Bon Jovi's second release 7800° Fahrenheit, and Autograph's second album That's The Stuff. Los Angeles continued to foster the most important scene around the Sunset Strip, with groups like London, which had originally formed as a glam rock band in the 1970s, and had seen future members of Mötley Crüe, Cinderella and Guns N' Roses pass through its ranks, finally releasing their début album Non Stop Rock in 1985 as well.
Second wave (1986–91)
By the mid-1980s, glam metal had begun to become a major mainstream success in America with many of these band's music videos appearing on heavy rotation on MTV often at the top of MTV's daily dial countdown, and some of the bands appeared on the channel's shows such as Headbanger's Ball, which became one of the most popular programs with over 1.3 million views a week. The groups also received heavy rotation on radio stations such as KNAC in Los Angeles.
1986 was a significant year for glam metal music as one of the most commercially significant releases of the era was put out by Bon Jovi with Slippery When Wet which mixed hard rock with a pop sensitivity, and spent a total of eight weeks at the top of the Billboard 200 album chart, selling over 12 million copies in the United States. It became the first hard rock album to spawn three top ten singles, two of which reached number one. The album has been credited with widening the audience for the genre, particularly by appealing to women as well as the traditional male dominated audience, and opening the door to MTV and commercial success for other bands at the end of the decade.
The Swedish band Europe released the anthemic album The Final Countdown which reached the top ten in several countries, including the U.S. and while the title single reached number one in 26 countries. Stryper made their mainstream breakthrough in 1986 with the release of their platinum album To Hell with the Devil and brought Christian lyrics to their hard rock music style and glam metal looks. Two Pennsylvania bands, with Harrisburg's Poison and Philadelphia's Cinderella released multi-platinum début albums, respectively Look What the Cat Dragged In and Night Songs in 1986. Van Halen released 5150 their first album with Sammy Hagar on lead vocals, which was number one in the U.S. for three weeks and sold over six million copies. Additionally, some established hard rock bands of the era such as the Scorpions, Whitesnake, Aerosmith, Kiss, Alice Cooper, and Judas Priest began incorporating glam metal elements into their sounds and images, as the genre's popularity skyrocketed in 1985-86.
Glam metal bands continued their run of commercial success in 1987 with Mötley Crüe releasing Girls, Girls, Girls and Def Leppard releasing Hysteria producing a hard rock record of seven hit singles. Another of the greatest successes of the era was Guns N' Roses, originally formed from a fusion of bands L.A. Guns and Hollywood Rose, who released the best-selling début of all time, Appetite for Destruction. With a "grittier" and "rawer" sound than most glam metal it produced three top 10 hits, including the number one "Sweet Child O' Mine". Such was the dominance of the style that Californian hardcore punk band T.S.O.L. moved towards a glam metal sound in this period. Also in 1987, L.A. band Faster Pussycat released their debut self-titled album eponymous début and Dokken released the successful Back for the Attack.
In the last years of the decade the most notable successes were New Jersey (1988) by Bon Jovi, OU812 (1988) by Van Halen, while Open Up and Say... Ahh! (1988) by Poison, spawned number one hit single "Every Rose Has Its Thorn", and eventually sold eight million copies worldwide. Britny Fox from Philadelphia and Winger from New York released their eponymous débuts in 1988. In 1989 Mötley Crüe produced their most commercially successful album, the multi-platinum number one Dr. Feelgood. In the same year eponymous débuts included Danger Danger from New York, Dangerous Toys from Austin, Texas, who provided more of a Southern rock tone to the genre, and Enuff Z'Nuff from Chicago who provided an element of psychedelia to their sound and visual style. L.A. débuts included Warrant with Dirty Rotten Filthy Stinking Rich (1989), and Skid Row with their eponymous album (1989), which reached number six in the Billboard 200, but they were to be one of the last major bands that emerged in the glam metal era. Glam metal entered the 1990s as one of the major commercial genres of popular music. In 1990 débuts for Slaughter, from Las Vegas with Stick It to Ya and FireHouse, from North Carolina, with their eponymous album reached number 18 and number 21 on the Billboard 200 respectively, but it would be the peak of their commercial achievement. Guns N' Roses' Use Your Illusion I and Use Your Illusion II (both in 1991) and Van Halen's For Unlawful Carnal Knowledge (1991) showcased the genre's popularity.
The 1988 film The Decline of Western Civilization Part II: The Metal Years captured the Los Angeles scene of successful and aspiring bands. It also highlighted the excesses of glam metal, particularly the scene in which W.A.S.P. guitarist Chris Holmes was interviewed while drinking vodka on a floating chair in a swimming pool as his mother watched. As a result, it has been seen as helping to create a backlash against the genre. In the early 1990s glam metal's popularity rapidly declined after nearly a decade of success. Successful bands lost members that were key to their songwriting and/or live performances, such as Mötley Crue's frontman Vince Neil, Poison guitarist C.C. DeVille, Def Leppard guitarist Steve Clark and Guns N' Roses guitarist Izzy Stradlin. Several music writers and musicians began to deride glam metal acts as "hair farmers," hinting at the soon-to-be-popularized term "hair metal". Another reason for the decline in popularity of the style may have been the declining popularity of the power ballad. While its use, especially after a hard-rocking anthem, was initially a successful formula, in the late 1980s and early 1990s audiences lost interest in this approach.
One significant factor in the decline was the rise of grunge music from Seattle, with bands including Alice in Chains, Pearl Jam and Soundgarden. This was particularly obvious after the success of Nirvana's Nevermind (1991), which combined elements of hardcore punk and heavy metal into a dirty sound that made use of heavy guitar distortion, fuzz and feedback, along with darker lyrical themes, a stripped-down aesthetic and a complete rejection of the glam metal visual style and performance. Many major labels felt they had been caught off-guard by the surprise success of grunge and began turning over their personnel in favor of younger staffers more versed in the new scene. As MTV shifted its attention to the new style, glam metal bands found themselves relegated increasingly to late night airplay, and Headbanger's Ball was cancelled at the end of 1994, while KNAC went over to Spanish programming. Given glam metal's lack of a major format presence on radio, bands were left without a clear way to reach their audience. Other (earlier Hollywood) alternative rock bands like the Red Hot Chili Peppers and Jane's Addiction also helped supplant the popularity of the genre.
Some artists tried to alter their sound, while others struggled on with their original format. In 1995, Van Halen released Balance, a multi-platinum seller that would be the band's last with Sammy Hagar on vocals. In 1996, David Lee Roth returned briefly and his replacement, former Extreme singer Gary Cherone, left the band soon after the release of the commercially unsuccessful 1998 album Van Halen III. Van Halen would not tour or record again until 2004. Warrant released Ultraphobic in 1995, an album with more of an alternative/grunge approach, which had little commercial success.
Meanwhile, Guns N' Roses' classic-lineup was whittled away throughout the decade. Drummer Steven Adler was fired in 1990, guitarist Izzy Stradlin left in late 1991 after recording Use Your Illusion I and II with the band. Tensions between the other band members and lead singer Axl Rose continued after the release of the 1993 punk rock covers album "The Spaghetti Incident?". Guitarist Slash left in 1996, followed by bassist Duff McKagan in 1998. Axl Rose, the only remaining original member at that point, worked with a constantly changing lineup in recording Chinese Democracy- an album that would take over ten years to complete and see the band incorporate electronic rock, industrial rock and nu metal styles.
Revivals and nostalgia festivals (1997–present)
During both the late 1990s and the 2000s, glam metal began to have something of a revival. Some established acts who had managed to weather the storm enjoyed renewed popularity, others reformed and new bands emerged to emulate the glam metal style. Bon Jovi were still able to achieve a commercial hit with "It's My Life" (2000). They branched into country music with a version of their 2005 song "Who Says You Can't Go Home", which reached number one on the Hot Country Singles chart in 2006 and the rock/country album Lost Highway which reached number one in 2007. In 2009, Bon Jovi released The Circle, which marked a return to their hard rock sound and reached number one on the Billboard 200. Mötley Crüe reunited with Vince Neil to record the 1997 album Generation Swine and Poison reunited with guitarist C.C. DeVille in 1999, producing the mostly live Power to the People (2000); both bands began to tour extensively. There were reunions and subsequent tours from Van Halen (with Hagar in 2004 and then Roth in 2007). The long-awaited Guns N' Roses album Chinese Democracy was finally released in 2008, but only went platinum in the US, produced no hit singles, and failed to come close to the success of the band's late 1980s and early 1990s material. Europe's "Final Countdown" enjoyed a new lease of popularity as the millennium drew to a close and the band reformed. Other acts to reform included Ratt, Britny Fox, Stryper (annually), and Skid Row.
Beginning in 1999, Monster Ballads, a series of compilation albums that feature popular power ballads, usually from the glam metal genre, capitalized on the nostalgia, with the first volume going platinum. The VH1 sponsored Rock Never Stops Tour, beginning in 1998, has seen many glam metal bands take to the stage again, including on the inaugural tour: Warrant, Slaughter, Quiet Riot, FireHouse, and L.A. Guns. Slaughter also took part in the 1999 version with Ted Nugent, Night Ranger, and Quiet Riot. Poison and Cinderella toured together in 2000 and 2002, and in 2005 Cinderella headlined the Rock Never Stops Tour, with support from Ratt, Quiet Riot, and FireHouse. In 2007 the four-day-long Rocklahoma festival held in Oklahoma included glam metal bands Poison, Ratt and Twisted Sister. Warrant and Cinderella co-headlined the festival in 2008. Nostalgia for the genre was evidenced in the production of the glam metal themed musical Rock of Ages, which ran in Los Angeles in 2006 and in New York in 2008. It was made into a film released in 2012.
Glam metal experienced a partial resurgence around the turn of the century, due in part to increased interest on the Internet, with the successful 'Glam Slam Metal Jam' music festival taking place in the summer of 2000. By the early 2000s, a handful of new bands began to revive glam metal in one form or another. The Darkness's Permission to Land (2003), described as an "eerily realistic simulation of '80s metal and '70s glam", topped the UK charts, going quintuple platinum. One Way Ticket to Hell... and Back (2005) reached number 11. The band broke up in 2006, but reunited in 2011, releasing the album Hot Cakes the following year. Los Angeles band Steel Panther managed to gain a following by playing 1980s style glam metal. In Sweden the sleaze rock movement attempted to revive the genre, with bands including Vains of Jenna, Crashdïet and H.E.A.T Other new acts included Beautiful Creatures and Buckcherry. The latter's breakthrough album 15 (2006) went platinum in the U.S. and spawned the single "Sorry" (2007), which made the top 10 of the Billboard Hot 100. In France, the band Black Rain also managed to get some coverage, thanks to their work with legendary producer Jack Douglas. Bands known for their metalcore background such as Black Veil Brides and Blessed by a Broken Heart have changed their style to be glam metal inspired, both musically and visually, with Black Veil Brides adding a gothic spin to the traditional glam image.
- R. Moore, Sells Like Teen Spirit: Music, Youth Culture, and Social Crisis (New York, NY: New York University Press, 2009), ISBN 0-8147-5748-0, pp. 105–6.
- "Pop Metal". AllMusic. Archived from the original on 5 February 2012.
- C. Smith, 101 Albums that Changed Popular Music (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009), ISBN 0-19-537371-5, pp. 160–2.
- D. Bukszpan, The Encyclopedia of Heavy Metal (London: Barnes & Noble Publishing, 2003), ISBN 0-7607-4218-9, p. 63.
- G. T. Pillsbury, Damage Incorporated: Metallica and the Production of Musical Identity (New York, NY: CRC Press, 2006), ISBN 0-415-97374-0, p. 45.
- D. Weinstein, Heavy Metal: The Music and Its Culture (Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press, 2000), ISBN 0-306-80970-2, pp. 45–7.
- P. Auslander, Performing Glam Rock: Gender and Theatricality in Popular Music (Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 2006), ISBN 0-7546-4057-4, p. 232.
- D. Bukszpan, The Encyclopedia of Heavy Metal (London: Barnes & Noble Publishing, 2003), ISBN 0-7607-4218-9, p. 60.
- R. Walser, Running with the Devil: Power, Gender, and Madness in Heavy Metal Music (Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1993), ISBN 0-8195-6260-2, p. 13.
- R. Batchelor and S. Stoddart, The 1980s (London: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007), ISBN 0-313-33000-X, p. 121.
- "Hair metal", AllMusic. Retrieved November 2014.
- Metal – A Headbanger's Journey, DVD, ASIN B000FS9OZY (2005).
- S. Davis, Watch You Bleed: The Saga of Guns N' Roses (New York, NY: Gotham Books, 2008), ISBN 978-1-59240-377-6, p. 30.
- I. Ellis, Soft Skull Press, (Soft Skull Press, 2008), ISBN 1593762062
- B. Macdonald, J. Harrington and R. Dimery, Albums You Must Hear Before You Die (London: Quintet, 2006), ISBN 0-7893-1371-5, p. 508.
- S. T. Erlewine and G. Prato,"Van Halen", AllMusic. Retrieved 20 June 2010.
- V. Bogdanov, C. Woodstra and S. T. Erlewine, All Music Guide to Rock: the Definitive Guide to Rock, Pop, and Soul (Milwaukee, WI: Backbeat Books, 3rd edn., 2002), ISBN 0-87930-653-X, pp. 293–4.
- E. Rivadavia, "Quiet Riot", AllMusic. Retrieved 7 July 2010.
- S. T. Erlewine, "Night Ranger", AllMusic. Retrieved 7 July 2010.
- "American album certifications – Def Leppard – Pyromania". RIAA. Retrieved 17 November 2011.
- Pyromania: Def Leppard AllMusic. Retrieved 17 November 2011
- A. Chapman and L. Silber, Rock to Riches: Build Your Business the Rock & Roll Way (Capital Books, 2008), ISBN 1-933102-65-9, p. 151.
- D. Stone, "London", AllMusic. Retrieved 19 June 2010.
- C. Marshall, "Where do all the Videos Go?", Billboard, vol. 113, No. 25 June 23, 2001, ISSN 0006-2510, p. 32.
- M. Moses and D. Kaye, "What did you do in the war daddy?", Billboard, vol. 111, no. 23, 5 June 1999, ISSN 0006-2510, p. 82.
- "Bon Jovi - Chart history". Billboard.
- L. Flick, "Bon Jovi bounce back from tragedy", Billboard, 28 September 2002, vol. 114, No. 39, ISSN 0006-2510, p. 81.
- D. Nicholls, The Cambridge History of American Music (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998), ISBN 0-521-45429-8, p. 378.
- "RIAA – Gold & Platinum". RIAA. Archived from the original on 8 September 2015. Retrieved 24 June 2008.
- G. Prato, "Stryper", AllMusic. Retrieved 19 June 2010.
- B. Weber, "Poison", AllMusic. Retrieved 19 June 2010.
- W. Ruhlmann, "Cinderella", AllMusic. Retrieved 19 June 2010.
- Huey, Steve. "Judas Priest - Turbo". AllMusic. Retrieved 11 October 2015.
- "Def Leppard - Chart history". Billboard.
- S. T. Erlewine and G. Prato, "Guns N' Roses", AllMusic. Retrieved 19 June 2010.
- B. Torreano, "TSOL" AllMusic. Retrieved 7 July 2010.
- Garry Sharpe-Young, New Wave of American Heavy Metal (New Plymouth, New Zealand: Zonda, 2005), ISBN 0-9582684-0-1, p. 302.
- "Mötley Crüe". Billboard.
- S. T. Erlewine, "Bon Jovi", AllMusic. Retrieved 20 June 2010.
- "Poison Artist information", Billboard. Retrieved 18 June 2012.
- J. Ulrey, "Britny Fox", AllMusic. Retrieved 20 June 2010.
- S. T. Erlewine, "Winger", AllMusic. Retrieved 20 June 2010.
- V. Bogdanov, C. Woodstra and S. T. Erlewine, All Music Guide to Rock: the Definitive Guide to Rock, Pop, and Soul (Milwaukee, WI: Backbeat Books, 3rd edn., 2002), ISBN 0-87930-653-X, pp. 767–8.
- G. Prato, "Danger Danger", AllMusic. Retrieved 20 June 2010.
- G. Prato, "Dangerous Toys", AllMusic. Retrieved 20 June 2010.
- S. T. Erlewine, "Warrant", AllMusic. Retrieved 20 June 2010.
- B. Weber, "Skid Row", AllMusic. Retrieved 10 July 2010.
- S. Huey, "Slaughter", AllMusic. Retrieved 18 June 2010.
- S. T. Erlewine, "Firehouse", AllMusic. Retrieved 6 July 2010.
- E. Danville and C. Mott, The Official Heavy Metal Book of Lists (Fayetteville, AR: University of Arkansas Press, 2009), ISBN 0-87930-983-0, p. 16.
- M. G. Hurd, Women Directors and their Films (London: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007), ISBN 0-275-98578-4, p. 79.
- D. Thompson, (March 1994). "I Slept With Soundgarden and Other Chilling Confessions". Alternative Press. Retrieved 8 December 2006.
- Magnuson, Ann (February 1992). "SUB ZEP?". Spin. Retrieved 8 December 2006.
- C. Aaron, "Don't fight the power", Spin, vol. 17, No. 11, Nov 2001, ISSN 0886-3032, p. 90.
- "Grunge", AllMusic. Retrieved 18 June 2010.
- R. Moore, Sells Like Teen Spirit: Music, Youth Culture, and Social Crisis (New York, NY: New York University Press, 2009), ISBN 0-8147-5748-0, p. 117.
- "Guns 'N Roses, Gold and Platinum Database Search". Archived from the original on 8 September 2015. Retrieved 25 November 2009.
- "Rock group Europe plan comeback". BBC Home. 3 October 2003.
- S. T. Erlewine and G. Prato, "Ratt", AllMusic. Retrieved 19 June 2010.
- "Britny Fox", NME Artists. Retrieved 10 July 2010.
- C. Marshall, "From big hair and power ballads to Polish metal, every song has its niche", Billboard, vol. 112, no. 26, 24 June 2000, ISSN 0006-2510, p. 42.
- "'80s Rock Never Stops On Tour", Billboard. Retrieved 10 July 2010.
- Peters, Mitchell. "Hair-Metal Mania Strikes Again at Rocklahoma". Billboard. Retrieved 12 March 2008.
- "Hair Bands Unite in Oklahoma". nbc5i.com. Retrieved 12 March 2008.
- "Laura Bell Bundy Stars in 'Rock of Ages' Tuner in LA Jan 26 – Feb 18", BroadwayWorld.com, 30 November 2005.
- W. McBride, "Photo Coverage: 'ROCK OF AGES' Meets the Press", BroadwayWorld.com, 4 March 2009.
- "Rock of Ages", Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 23 June 2012.
- O. Pierce, "Hair metal grows back on the 'Net", The Seattle Times, 5 May 2008.
- H. Phares, "The Darkness: Permission to Land", AllMusic. Retrieved 11 June 2007.
- M. Brown, "Steel Panther", AllMusic. Retrieved 19 June 2010.
- M. Brown, "Vains of Jenna", AllMusic. Retrieved 19 June 2010.
- K. Ross Hoffman, "Crashdïet", AllMusic. Retrieved 11 February 2012.
- A. Eremenko, "H.E.A.T.", AllMusic. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
- J. Loftus, "Beautiful Creatures", AllMusic. Retrieved 20 June 2010.
- J. Ankeny, "Buckcherry", AllMusic. Retrieved 19 June 2010.
- Jean-Charles Desgroux, 10 of the best rock bands from France , Team Rock. Retrieved 16 April 2017.
- Jason Lymangrover, Falling in Reverse "Set the World on Fire Review", AllMusic. Retrieved 18 June 2012.
- Eduardo Rivadavia, "Blessed by a Broken Heart", AllMusic. Retrieved 21 February 2012.
- McGrath, Hali (30 March 2011). "In Pictures: Black Veil Brides in San Francisco". SoundSpike. Retrieved 11 November 2012.
- Auslander, P., Performing Glam Rock: Gender and Theatricality in Popular Music (Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 2006), ISBN 0-7546-4057-4.
- Batchelor, R., and Stoddart, S., The 1980s (London: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007), ISBN 0-313-33000-X.
- Bogdanov, V., Woodstra, C., and Erlewine, S. T., All Music Guide to Rock: the Definitive Guide to Rock, Pop, and Soul (Milwaukee, WI: Backbeat Books, 3rd edn., 2002), ISBN 0-87930-653-X.
- Bukszpan, D., The Encyclopedia of Heavy Metal (London: Barnes & Noble Publishing, 2003), ISBN 0-7607-4218-9.
- Chapman, A., and Silber, L., Rock to Riches: Build Your Business the Rock & Roll Way (Capital Books, 2008), ISBN 1-933102-65-9.
- Danville, E., and Mott, C., The Official Heavy Metal Book of Lists (Fayetteville, AR: University of Arkansas Press, 2009), ISBN 0-87930-983-0.
- Davis, S., Watch You Bleed: The Saga of Guns N' Roses (New York, NY: Gotham Books, 2008), ISBN 978-1-59240-377-6.
- Hurd, M. G., Women Directors and their Films (London: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007), ISBN 0-275-98578-4.
- Macdonald, B., Harrington, J., and Dimery, R., Albums You Must Hear Before You Die (London: Quintet, 2006), ISBN 0-7893-1371-5.
- Moore, R., Sells Like Teen Spirit: Music, Youth Culture, and Social Crisis (New York, NY: New York University Press, 2009), ISBN 0-8147-5748-0.
- Nicholls, D., The Cambridge History of American Music (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998), ISBN 0-521-45429-8.
- Smith, C., 101 Albums that Changed Popular Music (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009), ISBN 0-19-537371-5.
- Walser, R., Running with the Devil: Power, Gender, and Madness in Heavy Metal Music (Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1993), ISBN 0-8195-6260-2.
- Weinstein, D., Heavy Metal: The Music and Its Culture (Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press, 2000), ISBN 0-306-80970-2.
- Weinstein, D., "Rock critics need bad music", in C. Washburne and M. Derno, eds, Bad Music: the Music we Love to Hate (London: Routledge, 2004), ISBN 0-415-94366-3.