Haitian immigrants housed in makeshift accommodation in Brasileia in Acre in 2014 . Photo: Luciano Bridges / SECOM - Public Photos
|Regions with significant populations|
|Porto Velho, Brasiléia, Manaus, São Paulo and Curitiba|
|Portuguese, French, Haitian Creole, Spanish|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Haitian people, Haitian American, Haitian Canadian, Haitian Chilean Haitian Cuban, Haitian Bahamian|
A Haitian Brazilian (Portuguese: Haitiano-Brasileiro, French: Haïtien Brésilien, Haitian Creole: Ayisyen-Brezilyen) is a Brazilian person of full, partial, or predominantly Haitian ancestry, or a Haitian-born person residing in Brazil.
Haitian immigration to Brazil is a migratory phenomenon that gained large after the earthquake that rocked the country Caribbean on January 13 of 2010 that killed more than 300,000 people and left nearly 300 thousand internally displaced.
The presence of Haitians in Brazil was negligible before the political instability that affected the country in 2003/2004. Since then, the presence of military peacekeepers UN (mostly Brazilian), Haitians have come to see in Brazil a reference point, a fact that was reinforced after the earthquake, which triggered the great migratory wave that started in 2010 .
Numbers in the Federal Police. From January to September of the year 2011 were 6000, says delegate PF Carlos Frederico Santos Ribeiro Portella. In 2012, there were 2,318 Haitians who entered illegally.
Illegal Haitians arrive in Brasilia bus and are advised to seek the station of PF requesting refuge by filling out a questionnaire in their own language and being interviewed by police. The PF dispatches a preliminary protocol that makes the "asylum seekers", getting the same rights as Brazilian citizens, such as health and education. They can also take work papers, passport and CPF, being officially registered in the country.
After registration at the PF, the following documentation to the National Committee for Refugees ( Conare ) and the National Immigration Council ( CNIg ), opening a process for evaluating the granting of permanent residence in humanitarian, valid for up to 5 years .
Officially, the Haitians are not considered refugees by Brazilian law, which means that the refuge can be granted only to those who prove to be suffering persecution for reasons of race, religion, nationality, social group or political opinion in his country. Due to the large influx of Haitians to Brazil, the government made an exception and gives them a different visa, treating them that other illegal immigrants differently.
Legal and institutional deadlock
This occurred before the bureaucratic process required by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs for foreigners entering the country. The opening of diplomatic dialogue with the governments of Peru and Ecuador to visa requirements of immigrants would solve 90% of the problem of illegal immigration.
Besides the Haitians, people from other countries are starting to use the border between Assis Brasil and the Peruvian city of Iñapari as a gateway to Brazil. Coming from countries such as Senegal, Nigeria, the Dominican Republic and Bangladesh, they began to share with Haitians shelter mounted on Brasileia.
Haitians living abroad sent remittances in 2012 amounted to 22% of the annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Haiti, according to the Intelligence Agency of the United States of America ( CIA ). Before the 2010 earthquake, which destroyed the country's infrastructure and caused a wave of immigration to Brazil, the impact of remittances in GDP did not reach 16%.
According to the World Bank, the value of international remittances to Haiti reached $1.82 billion last year. Before the quake, not less than U.S. $1.3 billion. The Central Bank of Brazil says it has no value sent by individuals or legal there since 2010, but Haitians working in Brazil said they send, on average, $500 a month for family.
- Haitianos no Brasil - Jornal O Globo (Portuguese)
- Entrada diária de haitianos triplica e quadro preocupa, diz governo do Acre - G1 (Portuguese)
- Triplica em 2013 número de haitianos ilegais que entram pelo Acre - G1 (Portuguese)
- Acre decreta situação de emergência social por causa de surto de imigração - G1 (Portuguese)
- Imigração ilegal ao Brasil movimenta economia haitiana pós terremoto - G1 (Portuguese)