Pilgrims at the Great Mosque of Mecca on Hajj in 2010
|Location(s)||Makkah (Saudi Arabia)|
|Part of a series on|
The Hajj (//; Arabic: حَجّ Ḥaǧǧ "pilgrimage"; sometimes also spelt Hadj, Hadji or Haj in English) is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the holiest city for Muslims. It is a mandatory religious duty for Muslims that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by all adult Muslims who are physically and financially capable of undertaking the journey, and can support their family during their absence.
The literal meaning of the word Hajj is known to be "heading to a place for the sake of visiting". In Islamic terminology, Hajj is a pilgrimage made to the Kaaba, the "House of Allah", in the sacred city of Mecca in Saudi Arabia. The rites of Hajj are performed over five or six days, beginning on the eighth and ending on the thirteenth day of Dhu al-Hijjah, the last month of the Islamic calendar. It is one of the Five Pillars of Islam, alongside Shahadah, Salat, Zakat and Sawm. The Hajj is the second largest annual gathering of Muslims in the world, after the Arba'een Pilgrimage in Karbala, Iraq. The state of being physically and financially capable of performing the Hajj is called istita'ah, and a Muslim who fulfills this condition is called a mustati. The Hajj is a demonstration of the solidarity of the Muslim people, and their submission to God (Allah). The word Hajj means "to attend a journey", which connotes both the outward act of a journey and the inward act of intentions.
The pilgrimage occurs from the 8th to 12th (or in some cases 13th) of Dhu al-Hijjah, the last month of the Islamic calendar. Because the Islamic calendar is lunar and the Islamic year is about eleven days shorter than the Gregorian year, the Gregorian date of Hajj changes from year to year. In 2020 CE (1441 AH), Dhu al-Hijjah extends from 22 July to 19 August.
The Hajj is associated with the life of Islamic prophet Muhammad from the 7th century AD, but the ritual of pilgrimage to Mecca is considered by Muslims to stretch back thousands of years to the time of Abraham. During Hajj, pilgrims join processions of millions of people, who simultaneously converge on Mecca for the week of the Hajj, and perform a series of rituals: each person walks counter-clockwise seven times around the Kaaba (the cube-shaped building and the direction of prayer for the Muslims), trots (walks briskly) back and forth between the hills of Safa and Marwah seven times, then drinks from the Zamzam Well, goes to the plains of Mount Arafat to stand in vigil, spends a night in the plain of Muzdalifa, and performs symbolic stoning of the devil by throwing stones at three pillars. After the sacrifice of their animal, the Pilgrims then are required to shave their head. Then they celebrate the three-day global festival of Eid al-Adha.
Muslims may also undertake an Umrah (Arabic: عُمرَة), or "lesser pilgrimage" to Mecca at other times of the year. But this is not a substitute for the Hajj and Muslims are still obligated to perform the Hajj at some other point in their lifetime if they have the means to do so.
In 2017, the number of pilgrims coming from outside the Saudi Arabia to perform Hajj was officially reported as 1,752,014 and 600,108 Saudi Arabian residents bringing the total number of pilgrims to 2,352,122.
The letter in Arabic: حج [ħædʒ, ħæɡ] similar to the Hebrew: חג ḥag [χaɡ], which means "holiday", from the triliteral Semitic root ח-ג-ג. The meaning of the verb is "to circle, to go around". Judaism uses circumambulation in the Hakafot ritual during Hoshanah Rabbah at the end of the Festival of Sukkot and on Simchat Torah; traditionally, Jewish brides circumambulate their grooms during the wedding ceremony under the chuppah. From this custom, the root was borrowed for the familiar meaning of holiday, celebration and festivity. In the Temple, every festival would bring a sacrificial feast. Similarly in Islam, the person who commits the Hajj to Mecca has to circle around the Kaaba and to offer sacrifices.
The present pattern of Hajj was established by Muhammad. However, according to the Quran, elements of Hajj trace back to the time of Abraham. According to Islamic tradition, Abraham was ordered by God to leave his wife Hajar and his son Ishmael alone in the desert of ancient Mecca. In search of water, Hajara desperately ran seven times between the two hills of Safa and Marwah but found none. Returning in despair to Ishmael, she saw the baby scratching the ground with his leg and a water fountain sprang forth underneath his foot. Later, Abraham was commanded to build the Kaaba (which he did with the help of Ishmael) and to invite people to perform pilgrimage there. The Quran refers to these incidents in verses 2:124–127 and 22:27–30.[n 1] It is said that the archangel Gabriel brought the Black Stone from Heaven to be attached to the Kaaba.
In pre-Islamic Arabia, a time known as jahiliyyah, the Kaaba became surrounded by pagan idols. In 630 AD, Muhammad led his followers from Medina to Mecca, cleansed the Kaaba by destroying all the pagan idols, and then consecrated the building to Allah. In 632 AD, Muhammad performed his only and last pilgrimage with a large number of followers, and instructed them on the rites of Hajj. It was from this point that Hajj became one of the five pillars of Islam.
During the medieval times, pilgrims would gather in big cities of Syria, Egypt, and Iraq to go to Mecca in groups and caravans comprising tens of thousands of pilgrims, often under state patronage. Hajj caravans, particularly with the advent of the Mamluk Sultanate and its successor, the Ottoman Empire, were escorted by a military force accompanied by physicians under the command of an amir al-hajj. This was done to protect the caravan from Bedouin robbers or natural hazards,[n 2] and to ensure that the pilgrims were supplied with the necessary provisions. Muslim travelers like Ibn Jubayr and Ibn Battuta have recorded detailed accounts of Hajj-travels of medieval time. The caravans followed well-established routes called in Arabic darb al-hajj, lit. "pilgrimage road", which usually followed ancient routes such as the King's Highway.
Timing of Hajj
The date of Hajj is determined by the Islamic calendar (known as Haji calendar or AH), which is based on the lunar year. Every year, the events of Hajj take place in a ten-day period, starting on 1 and ending on 10 Dhu al-Hijjah, the twelfth and last month of the Islamic calendar. Among these ten days, the 9th Dhul-Hijjah is known as Day of Arafah, and this day is called the day of Hajj. Because the Islamic calendar is lunar and the Islamic year is about eleven days shorter than the Gregorian year, the Gregorian date for Hajj changes from year to year. Thus, each year in the Gregorian calendar, the pilgrimage starts eleven days (sometimes ten days) earlier. This makes it possible for the Hajj season to fall twice in one Gregorian year, and it does so every 33 years. The last time this phenomenon occurred was 2006.
The table below shows the Gregorian dates of Hajj of recent years (the dates correspond to 9 Dhul-Hijjah of Hijri calendar). Prospective dates are approximate:
|1432||2011, 5 November|
|1433||2012, 25 October|
|1434||2013, 14 October|
|1435||2014, 3 October|
|1436||2015, 23 September|
|1437||2016, 11 September|
|1438||2017, 31 August|
|1439||2018, 20 August|
|1440||2019, 10 August|
|1441||2020, 30 July|
|1442||2021, 19 July|
|1443||2022, 8 July|
Fiqh literature describes in detail the manners of carrying out the rites of Hajj, and pilgrims generally follow handbooks and expert guides to successfully fulfill the requirements of Hajj. In performing the rites of Hajj, the pilgrims not only follow the model of Muhammad, but also commemorate the events associated with Abraham.
When the pilgrims reach the appropriate Miqat (depending on where they have come from), they are believed to enter into a state of holiness – known as Ihram – that consists of wearing two white seamless cloths for the male, with the one wrapped around the waist reaching below the knee and the other draped over the left shoulder and tied at the right side; wearing ordinary dress for the female that fulfills the Islamic condition of public dress with hands and face uncovered;[page needed] taking ablution; refraining from certain activities such as clipping the nails, shaving any part of the body, having sexual relations; using perfumes, damaging plants, killing animals, covering head (for men) or the face and hands (for women); getting married; or carrying weapons. The Ihram is meant to show equality of all pilgrims in front of God: there is no difference between the rich and the poor.
Donning such unsewn white garments entirely is believed to distance man from material ostentation, and engross him in a world of purity and spirituality, since clothes are believed to show individuality and distinction and create superficial barriers that separate individuals. The garments of Ihram are seen as the antithesis of that individualism. Ihram clothing is also a reminder of shrouds worn after death.
First day of Hajj: 8th Dhu al-Hijjah
On the 8th Dhu al-Hijjah, the pilgrims are reminded of their duties. They again don the Ihram garments and confirm their intention to make the pilgrimage. The prohibitions of Ihram start now.
The 8th day of Dhu al-Hijjah coincides with the Tarwiyah Day. The name of Tarwiyah refers to a narration of Ja'far al-Sadiq. He described the reason that there was any water at Mount Arafat in the 8th day of Dhu al-Hijjah. If pilgrims wanted to stay at Arafat, he would have prepared water from Mecca and carried it by themselves to there. So they told each other drink enough. Finally, this day called Tarwiyah that means to quench thirst in the Arabic language. The Tarwiyah Day is the first day of Hajj ritual. Also at this day, Husayn ibn Ali began to go to Karbala from Mecca. Muhammad nominated to Tarwiyah Day as one of the four chosen days.
Tawaf and sa'ay
The ritual of Tawaf involves walking seven times counterclockwise around the Kaaba. Upon arriving at Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (Arabic: المَسجِد الحَرَام, The Sacred Mosque), pilgrims perform an arrival tawaf either as part of Umrah or as a welcome tawaf. During tawaf, pilgrims also include Hateem – an area at the north side of the Kaaba – inside their path. Each circuit starts with the kissing or touching of the Black Stone (Hajar al- Aswad). If kissing the stone is not possible because of the crowds, they may simply point towards the stone with their hand on each circuit. Eating is not permitted but the drinking of water is allowed, because of the risk of dehydration. Men are encouraged to perform the first three circuits at a hurried pace, known as Ramal, and the following four at a more leisurely pace.[page needed]
The completion of Tawaf is followed by two Rakaat prayers at the Place of Abraham (Muqam Ibrahim), a site near the Kaaba inside the mosque. However, again because of large crowds during the days of Hajj, they may instead pray anywhere in the mosque. After prayer, pilgrims also drink water from the Zamzam well, which is made available in coolers throughout the Mosque.
Although the circuits around the Kaaba are traditionally done on the ground level, Tawaf is now also performed on the first floor and roof of the mosque because of the large crowds.
This rite is actually the manifestation of Tawhid, the Oneness of God. The heart and soul of the pilgrim should move around Kaaba, the symbol of the House of Allah, in a way that no worldly attraction distracts him from this path. Only Tawhid should attract him. Tawaf also represents Muslims' unity. During Tawaf, everyone encircles Kaaba collectively.
Tawaf is followed by sa'ay, running or walking seven times between the hills of Safa and Marwah, located near the Kaaba. Previously in open air, the place is now entirely enclosed by the Sacred Mosque, and can be accessed via air-conditioned tunnels. Pilgrims are advised to walk the circuit, though two green pillars mark a short section of the path where they run. There is also an internal "express lane" for the disabled. After sayee, the male pilgrims shave their heads and women generally clip a portion of their hair, which completes the Umrah.
After the morning prayer on the 8th of Dhu al-Hijjah, the pilgrims proceed to Mina where they spend the whole day and offer noon (Note: On Friday, Friday Prayer is Offered, instead of Dhuhr Prayer, at Mina), afternoon, evening, and night prayers. The next morning after morning prayer, they leave Mina to go to Arafat.
Second day: 9th Dhu al-Hijjah
On 9th Dhu al-Hijjah before noon, pilgrims arrive at Arafat, a barren and plain land some 20 kilometers east of Mecca, where they stand in contemplative vigil: they offer supplications, repent on and atone for their past sins, and seek mercy of God, and listen to sermon from the Islamic scholars who deliver it from near Jabal al-Rahmah (The Mount of Mercy) from where Muhammad is said to have delivered his last sermon. Lasting from noon through sunset, this is known as 'standing before God' (wuquf), one of the most significant rites of Hajj. At Masjid al-Namirah, pilgrims offer noon and afternoon prayers together at noon time. A pilgrim's Hajj is considered invalid if they do not spend the afternoon on Arafat.
Pilgrims must leave Arafat for Muzdalifah after sunset without praying maghrib (sunset) prayer at Arafat. Muzdalifah is an area between Arafat and Mina. Upon reaching there, pilgrims perform Maghrib and Isha prayer jointly, spend the night praying and sleeping on the ground with open sky, and gather pebbles for the next day's ritual of the stoning of the Devil (Shaytan).
Third day: 10th Dhu al-Hijjah
After returning from Muzdalifah, the Pilgrims spend the night at Mina.
Back at Mina, the pilgrims perform symbolic stoning of the devil (Ramy al-Jamarat) by throwing seven stones from sunrise to sunset at only the largest of the three pillars, known as Jamrat al-Aqabah.[self-published source?] The remaining two pillars (jamarah) are not stoned on this day. These pillars are said to represent Satan. Pilgrims climb ramps to the multi-levelled Jamaraat Bridge, from which they can throw their pebbles at the jamarat. Because of safety reasons, in 2004 the pillars were replaced by long walls, with catch basins below to collect the pebbles.
After the casting of stones, animals are slaughtered to commemorate the story of Ibrahim and Ismael. Traditionally the pilgrims slaughtered the animal themselves, or oversaw the slaughtering. Today many pilgrims buy a sacrifice voucher in Mecca before the greater Hajj begins, which allows an animal to be slaughtered in the name of God (Allah) on the 10th, without the pilgrim being physically present. Modern abattoirs complete the processing of the meat, which is then sent as charity to poor people around the world. At the same time as the sacrifices occur at Mecca, Muslims worldwide perform similar sacrifices, in a three-day global festival called Eid al-Adha.
After sacrificing an animal, another important rite of Hajj is shaving head or trimming hair (known as Halak). All male pilgrims shave their head or trim their hair on the day of Eid al Adha and women pilgrims cut the tips of their hair.
On the same or the following day, the pilgrims re-visit the Sacred Mosque in Mecca for another tawaf, known as Tawaf al-Ifadah, an essential part of Hajj. It symbolizes being in a hurry to respond to God and show love for Him, an obligatory part of the Hajj. The night of the 10th is spent back at Mina.
Fourth day: 11th Dhu al-Hijjah
Starting from noon to sunset on the 11 Dhu al-Hijjah (and again the following day), the pilgrims again throw seven pebbles at each of the three pillars in Mina. This is commonly known as the "Stoning of the Devil".
Fifth day: 12th Dhu al-Hijjah
On 12 Dhu al-Hijjah, the same process of stoning of the pillars as of 11 Dhu al-Hijjah takes place. Pilgrims may leave Mina for Mecca before sunset on the 12th
Last day at Mina: 13th Dhu al-Hijjah
If unable to leave on the 12th before sunset or opt to stay at free will, they must perform the stoning ritual again on the 13th before returning to Mecca.
Finally, before leaving Mecca, pilgrims perform a farewell tawaf called the Tawaf al-Wadaa. 'Wadaa' means 'to bid farewell'. The pilgrims circle the Kaaba seven times counter-clockwise, and if they can, attempt to touch or kiss the Kaaba.
Journey to Medina
Though not a part of Hajj, pilgrims may choose to travel to the city of Medina and the Al-Masjid an-Nabawi (Mosque of the Prophet), which contains Muhammad's tomb. The Quba Mosque and Masjid al-Qiblatayn are also usually visited.
Arrangement and facilities
Most of the Hajj related issues are handled by Ministry of Hajj and Umrah. Making necessary arrangements each year for the growing number of pilgrims poses a logistic challenge for the government of Saudi Arabia, which has, since the 1950s, spent more than $100 billion to increase pilgrimage facilities. Major issues like housing, transportation, sanitation, and health care have been addressed and improved greatly by the government by introducing various development programs, with the result that pilgrims now enjoy modern facilities and perform various rites at ease. The Saudi government often sets quotas for various countries to keep the pilgrims' number at a manageable level, and arranges huge security forces and CCTV cameras to maintain overall safety during Hajj. Various institutions and government programs, such as the Haj subsidy offered in Pakistan or the Tabung Haji based in Malaysia assist pilgrims in covering the costs of the journey. For the 2014 Hajj, special Hajj information desks were set up at Pakistani airports to assist the pilgrims.
The Saudi government employs technology to protect the safety, and enhance the experience, of the pilgrim's journey. Recently, the Ministry of Hajj and Umrah has introduced the Hajj pilgrims' e-bracelet program that stores pilgrims essential data which helps to provide them with the necessary support. In 2018, SAFCSP organized the Hajj Hackathon event in Jeddah, west of Saudi Arabia, with 2,950 participants from over 100 countries. The event aims at exploring the use of technology to provide solutions for Hajj pilgrims. In 2019, the "Fatwa Robot" service was launched to provide pilgrims with fatwas and other religious advice. Two interactive apps were launched by Hajj authorities to provide pilgrims with a range of services through their smartphones. The services, which are available in nine languages, help pilgrims in finding emergency service centers, holy sites, currency exchanges, restaurants, and accommodation.
To enter Saudi Arabia to participate in the Hajj, visa requirements exist. Saudi Arabia's Ministry of Hajj and Umrah is planning to ease visas issuance by enabling Hajj and Umrah pilgrims to obtain e-visa within minutes through campaigns and companies. For the upcoming Umrah season, Umra visas can be electronically issued within 24 hours via a special platform established by the Ministry of Haj and Umrah. For passengers traveling from the United States of America, they must purchase a package from a licensed Hajj agency. People from other Arab Gulf ( GCC ) countries do not need a visa to enter Saudi Arabia and vice versa. It should be remembered, people with Saudi visas are not allowed to enter the Hajj unless they are a muslim.
Makkah Route Initiative
Makkah Route Initiative is an initiative made by the Saudi government to facilitate the pilgrims entries to Saudi Arabia by completing it in the airports of their countries. The initiative has been implemented since 2018 by The Saudi Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In 2019, the initiative is planned to provide service to around 225,000 pilgrims from airports in Malaysia, Indonesia, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Tunisia. The provided services include:
- Issuance of visas.
- Making sure that the pilgrims' health conditions comply with the requirements and to make certain that the potential pilgrims have take preventive measures related to the epidemiological situation in the world.
- Codifying and sorting luggage at the pilgrims' airports and delivering them to the pilgrims' hotels directly upon arrival.
Green Haj Camp
In 2019, Saudi Arabia launched an environment-friendly hajj initiative. The project is implemented in 30 camps in Mina where pilgrims are encouraged to sort out their wastes. Moreover, the proceeds are used for charitable purposes. The project has a number of objectives as follows:
- Decreasing the environmental harms.
- Improving the management system of solid waste.
- Preserving pilgrims and camps safety.
Traditionally, the pilgrimage to Mecca was mainly an overland journey using camels as a means of transport. During the second half of the nineteenth century (after 1850s), steamships began to be used in the pilgrimage journey to Mecca, and the number of pilgrims traveling on sea route increased. This continued for some time, until air travel came to predominate; Egypt introduced the first airline service for Hajj pilgrims in 1937. Today, many airlines and travel agents offer Hajj packages, and arrange for transportation and accommodation for the pilgrims. King Abdulaziz International Airport in Jeddah and Prince Mohammad Bin Abdulaziz Airport in Medina have dedicated pilgrim terminals to assist the arrival of pilgrims. Other international airports around the world, such as Indira Gandhi in New Delhi, Rajiv Gandhi International Airport in Hyderabad, Jinnah in Karachi and Soekarno-Hatta in Jakarta also have dedicated terminals or temporary facilities to service pilgrims as they depart and return home. During Hajj, many airlines run extra flights to accommodate the large number of pilgrims.
During official Hajj days, pilgrims travel between the different locations by metro, bus or on foot. The Saudi government strictly controls vehicles access into these heavily congested areas. However, the journey could take many hours due to heavy vehicular and pedestrian traffic. In 2010, the Saudi government started operating the Al Mashaaer Al Mugaddassah Metro line as an exclusive shuttle train for pilgrims between Arafat, Muzdalifa and Mina. The service, which operates only during the seven days of Hajj, shortens the travel time during the critical "Nafrah" from Arafat to Muzdalifah to minutes. Due to its limited capacity, the use of the metro is not open to all pilgrims.
Modern crowd-control problems
Pilgrim numbers have greatly increased in recent years, which has led to numerous accidents and deaths due to overcrowding. The first major accident during Hajj in modern times occurred in 1990, when a tunnel stampede led to the death of 1,462 people. Afterwards, various crowd-control techniques were adopted to improve safety. Because of large crowds, some of the rituals have become more symbolic. For example, it is no longer necessary to kiss the Black Stone. Instead, pilgrims simply point at it on each circuit around the Kaaba. Also, the large pillars used for pebble throwing were changed into long walls in 2004 with basins below to catch the stones. Another example is that animal sacrifice is now done at slaughterhouses appointed by the Saudi authorities, without the pilgrims being present there. In the 70s and 80s, a number of deaths occurred, this was because of a stampede or a siege.
Despite safety measures, incidents may happen during the Hajj as pilgrims are trampled or ramps collapse under the weight of the many visitors. During 2015 Hajj, a stampede resulted in 769 deaths and injuries to 934 others, according to the Saudi authorities. A report from Associated Press totalled at least 1470 fatalities from official reports from other countries, making it the most deadly such episode to date. Concerns were raised in 2013 and 2014 about the spread of MERS because of mass gatherings during the Hajj. Saudi Health Minister Abdullah Al-Rabia said authorities have detected no cases of MERS among the pilgrims so far. He also said that, despite few cases of MERS, Saudi Arabia was ready for the 2014 pilgrimage.[needs update]
In November 2017, Saudi authorities banned selfies at the two holy sites. In February 2020, Saudi Arabia has temporarily banned foreign pilgrims from entering Mecca and Medina to prevent the spread of coronavirus in the Kingdom. It later temporarily suspended the pilgrimage of Umrah.
To the Muslims, Hajj is associated with religious as well as social significance. The obligation for performing this pilgrimage is only fulfilled if it is done on the eighth to twelfth day of the last month of the Islamic calendar. If in a given year, an adult Muslim is in good health and his life and wealth is safe, they must perform the Hajj in the same year. Delaying it is considered sinful unless the delay is caused by reasons beyond their control.
Apart from being an obligatory religious duty, the Hajj is seen to have a spiritual merit that provides the Muslims with an opportunity of self-renewal. Hajj serves as a reminder of the Day of Judgment when Muslims believe people will stand before God. Hadith literature (sayings of Muhammad) articulates various merits a pilgrim achieves upon successful completion of their Hajj.[n 3] After successful pilgrimage, pilgrims can prefix their names with the title 'Al-Hajji', and are held with respect in Muslim society. However, Islamic scholars suggest Hajj should signify a Muslim's religious commitment, and should not be a measurement of their social status. Hajj brings together and unites the Muslims from different parts of the world irrespective of their race, colour, and culture, which acts as a symbol of equality.
A 2008 study on the impact of participating in the Islamic pilgrimage found that Muslim communities become more positive and tolerant after Hajj experience. Titled Estimating the Impact of the Hajj: Religion and Tolerance in Islam's Global Gathering and conducted in conjunction with Harvard University's John F. Kennedy School of Government, the study noted that the Hajj "increases belief in equality and harmony among ethnic groups and Islamic sects and leads to more favorable attitudes toward women, including greater acceptance of female education and employment" and that "Hajjis show increased belief in peace, and in equality and harmony among adherents of different religions."
There were tens of thousands of pilgrims, from all over the world. They were of all colors, from blue-eyed blondes to black-skinned Africans. But we were all participating in the same ritual, displaying a spirit of unity and brotherhood that my experiences in America had led me to believe never could exist between the white and the non-white. America needs to understand Islam, because this is the one religion that erases from its society the race problem. You may be shocked by these words coming from me. But on this pilgrimage, what I have seen, and experienced, has forced me to rearrange much of my thought patterns previously held.
Hajj and the Saudi economy
In 2014, Saudi Arabia was expected to have earned up to $8.5 billion from Hajj. Saudi Arabia's highest source of revenue after oil and gas is Hajj and the country is expected to depend more on Hajj as the amounts of available oil and gas for sale decline.
Furthermore, the increase of religious tourism from about 12 million Muslims annually to almost 17 million by 2025 has given rise to increasing luxury hotel businesses in the area to accommodate pilgrims. The Abraj al-Bait firm intends to build hotels, shopping malls and apartments which is claimed to be an estimated value of three billion dollars. According to The Embassy of Saudi Arabia, the Saudi government are working towards establishing programs which promote sanitation, housing, transportation, and welfare as the amount of visiting pilgrims increases.
Most pilgrims, from countries such as the United States, Australia and United Kingdom decide to purchase Hajj Packages from licensed hajj agencies in their countries. This helps direct the flow of traffic into the Kingdom and allows for pilgrims to work directly with a business responsible for their services instead of dealing directly with Saudi Arabia's government.
Number of pilgrims per year
There has been a substantial increase in the number of pilgrims during the last 92 years, and the number of foreign pilgrims has increased by approximately 2,824 percent, from 58,584 in 1920 to 1,712,962 in 2012. Because of development and expansion work at Masjid al-Haram, the authority restricted the number of pilgrims in 2013.
Between 1940 and 1945, foreign pilgrims were restricted from arriving in Saudi Arabia as a result of World War II; all pilgrimages from 2020 onwards will be severely restricted as the country deals with the coronavirus pandemic.
The following number of pilgrims arrived in Saudi Arabia each year to perform Hajj:
|Gregorian year||Hijri year||Local pilgrims||Foreign pilgrims||Total|
|2005||1425||1,030,000 (approx.)||1,534,769||2,560,000 (approx.)|
Differences between the Hajj and Umrah
- Both are Islamic pilgrimages, the main difference is their level of importance and the method of observance.
- Hajj is one of the Five Pillars of Islam. It is obligatory for every Muslim once in their lifetime, provided they are physically fit and financially capable.
- Hajj is performed over specific days during a designated Islamic month. However, Umrah can be performed at any time.
- Although they share common rites, Umrah can be performed in less than a few hours while Hajj is more time-consuming, and involves more rituals.
Hajj is one of the most important acts of faith a Muslim can commit. The act is one of the Five Pillars of Islam and is considered mandatory for those who practice Islam. As presented above, the pilgrimage is entrenched in traditions and codified by a multitude of holy texts. Muslims are bound in a contract with Allah and Hajj is one of the payments which Allah requires of his followers.
For this reason, those who are unable to undertake Hajj themselves, are permitted to send another in their place under specific circumstances. First, the person who sends someone in their place must be unable to undertake Hajj themselves because of an incurable sickness or old age. If the sickness may be cured, the follower of Allah must go when they are able. Also, Hajj Badal may be performed on a person's behalf if they are already deceased. This act is considered a form of vicarious atonement. In this case, one of the Five Pillars of Islam can be completed for a Muslim who was not able to fulfill their duties while living.
Like the requirements for the person who is having Hajj being completed on their behalf, there are also requirements for those who are carrying out the act. When the person committing the act enters the Ihram—the holy garb worn during Hajj—they must acknowledge the person who they are representing. Also, when the Ihram is donned, the Hajj can only be for the single person who they represent and not for themselves. Another qualifications is that the present person must be Muslim and in good standing with the Islamic community. Because there are multiple distinct types of Hajj, the person performing the ceremony in another's place must attend the type which is desired by the unable. Lastly, if the person is still alive, then the performer of the Hajj Badal must ask for the permission of the person they hope to represent.
The basis of Hajj Badal can be found in the writings of Abd Allah ibn Abbas who recorded Muhammad's words. When approached by a woman from Juhayan, this exchange occurred between the two: "My mother vowed to go for Hajj, but she died before she did so. Can I perform Hajj on her behalf?" The Prophet replied: "Yes, perform Hajj on her behalf. Do you not think if your mother owed a debt that you would pay it off for her? Fulfil her debt to Allah; for Allah is more deserving that what is owed to him should be paid." (Hadith No.77, narrated by Ibn Abbas) Other instances of recorded conversation which solidified the act were recorded by other Islamic scholars such as Abdullah bin Az-Zubair and Al-Fadl ibn 'Abbas.
However, the validity of Hajj Badal has been questioned by other Islamic scholars. The Ulama, a large body of Islamic scholars, oppose Hajj Badal because of its imitation of Christian beliefs. Also, the Qur’an contains phrases which state that no man can truly bear the responsibility of others. Hajj Badal is an act which shifts the Islamic duty of a person to another which contradicts the teaching of the Qur’an. Hadiths, which are supposed sayings of Muhammed, cannot contradict the Qur’an according to Usool-e-Fiqh—the guiding Jurisprudence principles of Islam.
Another reason why Hajj Badal is criticized stems from lack of consistency. Out of the Five Pillars of Islam, none are subject to vicarious atonement. If prayer, Kalima, fasting, or Zakat are not able to be atoned for vicariously, then why can Hajj. Permitting vicarious atonement harms the strictness of performing Islamic traditions on the living and could harm the religion as a whole.
Lastly, passages in the Qur’an—specifically 22:28—stress the importance of witnessing the traditions of Hajj with one's own eyes. Hajj Badal effectively prevents a follower of Islam from partaking in the ceremonies. This contradiction with the word of the Qur’an is another reason why Islamic scholars disapprove of the practice.
The Mount of Mercy in Arafat during ḤajjPilgrims supplicating.
- Glossary of Islam
- Hajj and Pilgrimage Organization (Iran)
- Incidents during the Hajj
- List of largest peaceful gatherings in history
- Disavowal of Polytheists in Hajj
- The verses read: "And remember that Abraham was tried by his Lord with certain commands, which he fulfilled.... Remember We made the House a place of assembly for men and a place of safety; and take ye the station of Abraham as a place of prayer; and We covenanted with Abraham and Ishmael, that they should sanctify My House for those who compass it round, or use it as a retreat, or bow, or prostrate themselves (therein in prayer).... And remember Abraham and Ishmael raised the foundations of the House (2:124–127)" and "And proclaim the Pilgrimage among men: they will come to thee on foot and (mounted) on every kind of camel, through deep and distant mountain highways, that they may witness the benefits (provided) for them, and celebrate the name of Allah, through the Days appointed, over the cattle which He has provided for them (for sacrifice): then eat ye thereof and feed the distressed one, the needy. Then let them complete the rites prescribed for them, perform their vows, and (again) circumambulate the Ancient House." (22:27–29)
- Ibn Jubayr noted the skeletons of the faithful who had died of thirst en route. In the 17th century, a group of Egyptian pilgrims lost over 1,500 people and 900 camels. In 1924 around one-fifth of a group of Syrian pilgrims died and two years later, 12,000 are thought to have died during the journey. [Islam in the World by Malise Ruthven. Granta Publications, 2006. p. 2. ISBN 1-86207-906-4.]
- For example, one such Hadith says: Narrated Abu Huraira: The Prophet (p.b.u.h) said, "Whoever performs Hajj for Allah's pleasure and does not have sexual relations with his wife, and does not do evil or sins then he will return (after Hajj free from all sins) as if he were born anew." Sahih al-Bukhari, 2:26:596
- "Hajj". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
- Mohammad Taqi al-Modarresi (26 March 2016). The Laws of Islam (PDF). Enlight Press. p. 471. ISBN 978-0-9942409-8-9. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
- Long, Matthew (2011). Islamic Beliefs, Practices, and Cultures. Marshall Cavendish Corporation. p. 86. ISBN 978-0-7614-7926-0. Retrieved 2 September 2014.
- Nigosian, S. A. (2004). Islam: Its History, Teaching, and Practices. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press. p. 110. ISBN 0-253-21627-3.
- Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs - Islam Archived 2 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine See drop-down essay on "Islamic Practices"
- "Hajj, The Holy Pilgrimage".
- Sim, David (21 November 2016). "Arbaeen: Millions of Shia Muslims gather in Karbala in world's largest annual pilgrimage". Retrieved 14 November 2017.
- Nigosian, S. A. (2004). Islam: Its History, Teaching, and Practices. Indiana: Indiana University Press. p. 111. ISBN 0-253-21627-3.
- Hooker, M. B. (2008). Indonesian Syariah: Defining a National School of Islamic Law. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 228. ISBN 978-981-230-802-3. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- Adelowo, E. Dada, ed. (2014). Perspectives in Religious Studies: Volume III. Ibadan: HEBN Publishers Plc. p. 395. ISBN 978-978-081-447-2.
- 13th of Zil Hajj, heliohost.org
- "ihram". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "Ihram – Summary". Hajj Portal. Archived from the original on 21 July 2008. Retrieved 20 November 2013.
- Karen Armstrong (2002). Islam: A Short History. Modern Library Chronicles (Revised Updated ed.). Modern Library. pp. 10–12. ISBN 0-8129-6618-X.
- Anisa Mehdi; John Bredar (2003). "Inside Makkah" (video documentary)
|url=(help). National Geographic Society.
- "Eid ul Adha". BBC. 7 September 2009. Retrieved 30 December 2012.
- Sahih Bukhari-hadith No-732-733
- "Saudi Arabia to move from oil, earn more from Hajj". Russia: RT. 25 March 2016.
- Matt Stefon, ed. (2010). Islamic Beliefs and Practices. New York City: Britannica Educational Publishing. p. 73. ISBN 978-1-61530-060-0.
- "Haj Statistics". General Authority for Statistics, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. 2017. Archived from the original on 20 June 2018.
- חג to circle, circumscribe; go around, Academic Dictionaries and Encyclopedias
- Jastrow, Marcus. Jastrow Dictionary Vol 1 (PDF). p. 424.
- Moše Flôrenṭîn (2005). Late Samaritan Hebrew: 100 Linguistic Analysis of Its Different Types. BRILL. p. 138. ISBN 978-90-04-13841-4.
- "Hajj". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2014. Retrieved 12 August 2014.
- Haykal, Muhammad Husayn (1994). The Life of Muhammad. The Other Press. p. 29. ISBN 978-983-9154-17-7.
- Peters, F. E. (1994). The Hajj: The Muslim Pilgrimage to Mecca and the Holy Places. New Jersey: Princeton University Press. pp. 4–7. ISBN 0-691-02120-1.
- Al Mubarakpuri, Safi ur Rahman (2002). "Religions of the Arabs". The Sealed Nectar: Biography of the Noble Prophet. Darussalam. p. 45. ISBN 9960-899-55-1.
- Husayn Haykal, Muhammad (2008). The Life of Muhammad. Selangor: Islamic Book Trust. pp. 439–40. ISBN 978-983-9154-17-7.
- Juan E. Campo, ed. (2009). Encyclopedia of Islam. Facts On File. p. 494. ISBN 978-0-8160-5454-1 https://books.google.com/books?id=OZbyz_Hr-eIC&lpg=PP1&dq=isbn%3A1438126964&pg=PA494#v=onepage&q&f=false. Missing or empty
- Peters, F. E. (1994). The Hajj: The Muslim Pilgrimage to Mecca and the Holy Places. Princeton University Press. p. 164. ISBN 978-0-691-02619-0.
- Juan E. Campo, ed. (2009). Encyclopedia of Islam. Facts On File. p. 283. ISBN 978-0-8160-5454-1 https://books.google.com/books?id=OZbyz_Hr-eIC&lpg=PP1&dq=isbn%3A1438126964&pg=PA283#v=onepage&q&f=false. Missing or empty
- Singer, Amy (2002), Constructing Ottoman Beneficence: An Imperial Soup Kitchen in Jerusalem, SUNY Press, p. 141, ISBN 978-0-7914-5351-3
- Philipp, Thomas (1998), The Mamluks in Egyptian Politics and Society, Cambridge University Press, pp. 102–104, ISBN 978-0-521-59115-7
- Peters, F. E. (1994). The Hajj: The Muslim Pilgrimage to Mecca and the Holy Places. Princeton University Press. p. 71. ISBN 978-0-691-02619-0.
- Harrison, David, ed. (2001). Tourism and the Less Developed World: Issues and Case Studies. CABI. p. 156. ISBN 978-0-85199-433-8. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- Reynolds, Gabriel said (2012). The Emergence of Islam: Classical Traditions in Contemporary Perspective. Fortress Press. p. 33. ISBN 978-1-4514-0812-6.
- Sheikh, Aziz, ed. (2008). Caring for Muslim Patients. Radcliffe Publishing. p. 95. ISBN 978-1-85775-812-2. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
- "Principal Islamic Days of Observance according to Umm al-Qura Calendar". The Umm al-Qura Calendar of Saudi Arabia. 2014. Retrieved 24 November 2014.
- Penprase, Bryan E (2010). The Power of Stars: How Celestial Observations Have Shaped Civilization. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 142. ISBN 978-1-4419-6803-6.
- "Hajj celebrated by Muslims in Mecca - video". The Guardian. 15 October 2013. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
- "Hajj today". The Daily Star. 14 October 2013. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
- "Islamic State militants are enemies of humanity: Saudi Grand Mufti". Dawn. 3 October 2014. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
- "Hajj Performed: 2 million pilgrims pray for world peace". The Daily Star. 24 September 2015. Retrieved 26 September 2015.
- "Rituals of the hajj – World – Dunya News".
- Hilleary, Cecily. "Muslims Mark Most Important Day of Hajj in Saudi Arabia".
- "Hajj 2017: When is it and how long does it take?". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 22 August 2017.
- van Gent, Robert Harry. "The Umm al-Qura Calendar of Saudi Arabia".
- Juan E. Campo, ed. (2009). Encyclopedia of Islam. Facts On File. p. 282. ISBN 978-0-8160-5454-1 https://books.google.com/books?id=OZbyz_Hr-eIC&lpg=PP1&dq=isbn%3A1438126964&pg=PA282#v=onepage&q&f=false. Missing or empty
- Neusner, Jacob (2000). World Religions in America: An Introduction. Westminster John Knox Press. p. 178. ISBN 978-0-664-25839-9. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- Mohamed, Mamdouh N. (1996). Hajj to Umrah: From A to Z. Amana Publications. ISBN 0-915957-54-X.
- "The Philosophy of Hajj Rituals". 29 August 2017.
- Reyshahri, Mohammad. "Hajj in Quran and Hadith". lib.eshia.
- "the reason for naming Tarwiyah day". farsnews. 22 September 2015. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
- Reyshahri, Mohammad. "Enclopedia of Imam husain based on quran and Hadith". lib.eshia.
- Long, Matthew (2011). Islamic Beliefs, Practices, and Cultures. Marshall Cavendish Corporation. p. 89. ISBN 978-0-7614-7926-0. Retrieved 2 September 2014.
- Long, David E. (1979). The Hajj Today: A Survey of the Contemporary Pilgrimage to Makkah. SUNY Press. p. 16. ISBN 0-87395-382-7.
- Long, David E. (1979). The Hajj Today: A Survey of the Contemporary Pilgrimage to Makkah. SUNY Press. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-87395-382-5.
- Adelowo, E. Dada, ed. (2014). Perspectives in Religious Studies: Volume III. Ibadan: HEBN Publishers Plc. p. 401. ISBN 978-978-081-447-2.
- "Pilgrims complain of Zamzam water shortage in Makkah". Arab News. 7 July 2014. Retrieved 7 September 2014.
- "Hajj". Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia. Archived from the original on 15 August 2014. Retrieved 12 August 2014.
- Adelowo, E. Dada, ed. (2014). Perspectives in Religious Studies: Volume III. Ibadan: HEBN Publishers Plc. p. 403. ISBN 978-978-081-447-2.
- Long, David E. (1979). The Hajj Today: A Survey of the Contemporary Pilgrimage to Makkah. p. 19. ISBN 0-87395-382-7.
- Sahih Muslim-Hadith No 2941.2944
- Sahih Bukhari Hadith No: 732,733, and 734
- al-Hasani, Abu Qanit al-Sharif (2009). The Guiding Helper: Main Text and Explanatory Notes. Lulu.com. p. 220. ISBN 978-1-4452-3791-6.
- "easyhajj.co.uk". easyhajj.co.uk. Archived from the original on 11 August 2011. Retrieved 19 December 2011.
- Nigosian (2004). Islam: Its History, Teaching, and Practices. Indiana University Press. p. 112. ISBN 0-253-21627-3.
- Islamic Beliefs, Practices, and Cultures. Marshall Cavendish Corporation. 2011. p. 90. ISBN 978-0-7614-7926-0. Retrieved 2 September 2014.
- Gad-el-Hak, Mohamed, ed. (2008). Large-Scale Disasters: Prediction, Control, and Mitigation. Cambridge University Press. p. 54. ISBN 978-1-139-47229-6. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
- "Hajj: pilgrimage to Mecca". BBC. 8 September 2009. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- Long (1979). The Hajj Today: A Survey of the Contemporary Pilgrimage to Makkah. p. 21. ISBN 0-87395-382-7.
- Sahih Muslim Hadith no:2985,2994
- Norani Noridin; Nordin Yusof (2008). A life that matters: a spiritual experience. The Other Press. p. 32. ISBN 978-967-5062-02-5.
- "Dhaka seeks reconsidering 20pc cut in Hajj pilgrims quota". The Daily Star. 19 February 2014. Retrieved 2 September 2014.
- "Hajj pilgrimage 2011: by numbers". The Daily Telegraph. 3 November 2011. Retrieved 1 September 2014.
- "History of Haj Announcement India". Government of Uttar Pradesh, India.
- "First Hajj flight leaves for Jeddah". The News International. 29 August 2014. Retrieved 3 September 2014.
- "Hajj safety: Saudi Arabia introduces hi-tech bracelets for all pilgrims". Al Arabiya. Retrieved 8 May 2019.
- "With 2,950 participants from 100 countries, Hajj Hackathon makes Guinness Record". Al Arabiya. Retrieved 8 May 2019.
- "Saudi Arabia looks to technology to make hajj pilgrims safer – Huff Point". Retrieved 8 May 2019.
- "Saudi ministry offers Hajj hotline and 'Fatwa Robot' service". Arab News. 11 August 2019. Retrieved 13 August 2019.
- "Hajj chiefs launch two smart apps to help pilgrims". Arab News. 7 August 2019. Retrieved 13 August 2019.
- umrahexpert. "Hajj Visa | Umrah Expert". www.umrahexpert.co.uk. Retrieved 30 May 2017.
- "Hajj And Umra Visa Requirements | kingdom of Saudi Arabia – Ministry of Foreign Affairs". embassies.mofa.gov.sa (in Arabic). Retrieved 25 May 2017.
- "Entry requirements – Saudi Arabia travel advice – GOV.UK". Government of the United Kingdom. Retrieved 25 May 2017.
- "Visa Requirements for Hajj from UK – Umrah Expert BlogUmrah Expert Blog". umrahexpert.co.uk. Retrieved 25 May 2017.
- "Hajj and Umrah e-visas to be issued in minutes". EZ Hajj Groups. 12 March 2019. Retrieved 15 April 2019.
- "e-visa for Umrah in less than 24 hours". Saudigazette. 17 August 2019. Retrieved 22 August 2019.
- "Mecca Road Initiative launches for second year to ease Hajj journey". Al Arabiya. Retrieved 15 July 2019.
- "Nearly 37,000 Hajj pilgrims arrive in Saudi Arabia via Makkah Route initiative". Arab News. 14 July 2019. Retrieved 15 July 2019.
- "Makkah Route: Health services presented to Hajjis in their home countries". Arab News. 21 July 2019. Retrieved 30 July 2019.
- "Saudi Arabia expands 'Green Haj'". Gulf News. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
- Tagliacozzo, Eric; Toorawa, Shawkat, eds. (2016). The Hajj: Pilgrimage in Islam. New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 178. ISBN 978-1-107-61280-8.
- Elfenbein, Caleb Heart Iyer (2008). Differentiating Islam: Colonialism, Sayyid Qutb, and Religious Transformation in Modern Egypt. p. 209. ISBN 978-0-549-98771-0. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
- Long, David E. (1979). The Hajj Today: A Survey of the Contemporary Pilgrimage to Makkah. SUNY Press. p. 48. ISBN 0-87395-382-7.
- Miller, M. B. (2006). "Pilgrims' Progress: The Business of the Hajj". Past & Present. 191 (1): 189–228. doi:10.1093/pastj/gtj009. ISSN 0031-2746.
- Harrison, David, ed. (2001). Tourism and the Less Developed World: Issues and Case Studies. CABI. p. 157. ISBN 978-0-85199-433-8. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
- "Air Travel". Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia. 2013. Archived from the original on 10 October 2014. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
- "Pilgrims Start Arriving From India, Pakistan as Haj Terminal Is Officially Opened". Arab News. Retrieved 26 February 2013.
- "New Delhi Indira Gandhi International Airport (DEL) Information". World Guides. TravelSmart Ltd. 2014. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
- "Glance at major hajj-related incidents in Saudi Arabia". Associated Press. 11 September 2015. Archived from the original on 10 October 2015. Retrieved 10 October 2015.
- "Rituals of Haj Sacrifice". Consulate General of India, Jeddah. 3 October 2013. Archived from the original on 28 January 2016. Retrieved 24 October 2015.
- "The Saudi Project for Use of Hajj Meat". ADAHI. Archived from the original on 21 October 2015. Retrieved 24 October 2015.
- "Hajj 2016: Saudi Arabia introduces bracelets for safety". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 15 August 2016.
- "Saudi crush was deadliest hajj tragedy ever". Associated Press. 10 October 2015. Archived from the original on 10 October 2015. Retrieved 10 October 2015.
- "Hajj stampede: Saudis face growing criticism over deaths". BBC. 25 September 2015. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
- Katz, Andrew (16 October 2013). "As the Hajj Unfolds in Saudi Arabia, A Deep Look Inside the Battle Against MERS". Time. Retrieved 17 October 2013.
- Eaves, Elisabeth (9 June 2014). "WHO's Maurizio Barbeschi Talks About MERS and Mass Events". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
- Branswell, Helen (7 November 2013). "Spain reports its first MERS case; woman travelled to Saudi Arabia for Hajj". The Vancouver Sun. The Canadian Press. Retrieved 12 November 2013.
- Barasheed, Osamah; Rashid, Harunor; Heron, Leon; Ridda, Iman; Haworth, Elizabeth; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan; Dwyer, Dominic E.; Booy, Robert (November 2014). "Influenza Vaccination Among Australian Hajj Pilgrims: Uptake, Attitudes, and Barriers". Journal of Travel Medicine. 21 (6): 384–390. doi:10.1111/jtm.12146. PMID 25145836.
- "Hajj pilgrimage to continue despite deadly MERS Epidemic". news.biharprabha.com. Indo-Asian News Service. Retrieved 23 April 2014.
- "Selfie at Mecca at Median banned by Saudi Kingdom". theindependent.in. 26 November 2017.
- "Coronavirus: Saudi Arabia suspends entry for pilgrims visiting holy sites". BBC News. 27 February 2020.
- Shahul H Ebrahim, MD, PhD, Ziad A Memish, MD, FRCPC, 28 February 2020. Saudi Arabia`s measures to curb the COVID-19 outbreak: temporary suspension of the Umrah pilgrimage, Journal of Travel Medicine, https://doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taaa029
- Sheikh, Aziz, ed. (2008). Caring for Muslim Patients. Radcliffe Publishing. p. 96. ISBN 978-1-85775-812-2. Retrieved 2 September 2014.
- Musharraf 2012, pp. 204–205. sfn error: no target: CITEREFMusharraf2012 (help)
- Powell, William (1982). Saudi Arabia and Its Royal Family. Lyle Stuart. p. 113. ISBN 978-0-8184-0326-2. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
- Andrea Schulte-Peevers (2010). Oman, UAE & Arabian Peninsula. Lonely Planet. p. 67. ISBN 978-1-74179-145-7.
- Kremer, Michael; Khwaja, Asim Ijaz; Clingingsmith, David (April 2008). "Estimating the Impact of the Hajj: Religion and Tolerance in Islam's Global Gathering". Papers.ssrn.com. SSRN 1124213. Cite journal requires
- Malcolm X; Alex Haley (1999). The Autobiography of Malcolm X. Ballantine Books. p. 346. ISBN 978-0-345-35068-8. Retrieved 26 February 2013.
- "Saudi Arabia: $8.5 billion income from hajj expected". Al-Arabiya English.
- Butt, Riazat (14 November 2010). "Mecca makeover: how the hajj has become big business for Saudi Arabia". The Guardian.
- "US Hajj Company: For Hajj & Umrah Packages". EZ Hajj Groups.
- McCarthy, Niall. "Chinese New Year: The World's Largest Human Migration Is About To Begin". Forbes.
- "Number of foreign Hajis grows by 2,824 percent in 92 years". The News International. Archived from the original on 2 November 2012. Retrieved 9 October 2016.
- "Reduction in Hajj 2013 Quota" (Press release). Ministry of External Affairs, Government of India. 8 July 2013. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
- "Saudi Arabia cuts Hajj Quota for foreign pilgrims by 20 percent". Yahoo News. 19 June 2013. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
- Tagliacozzo, Eric; Toorawa, Shawkat, eds. (2016). The Hajj: Pilgrimage in Islam. New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 132. ISBN 978-1-107-61280-8.
- Harrison, David, ed. (2001). Tourism and the Less Developed World: Issues and Case Studies. CABI Publishing. p. 156. ISBN 978-0-85199-433-8.
- "Record number of pilgrims arrive for 1417 Hajj". Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia. 15 April 1997. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
- "Final statistics for Hajj 1418 pilgrims". Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia. 8 April 1998. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
- "Ministry of Pilgrimage figures released for 1420 Haj". Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia. 20 March 2000. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
- "Successful culmination of Hajj 1421". Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia. 9 March 2001. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
- "Tragic deaths reported in crowding at Mina". Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia. 11 February 2003. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
- "Culmination of 1424 Hajj witnesses stampede deaths". Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia. 1 February 2004. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
- "Hajj proceeding without incident". Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia. 30 January 2004. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
- "Prince Abdulmajeed declares Hajj 1425 a success". Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia. 25 January 2005. Retrieved 30 July 2009.
- "Number of Hajj pilgrims tops 2 million". Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia. 10 January 2006. Retrieved 16 January 2015.
- "More than 2.3 million pilgrims perform the Hajj this year". Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia. 30 December 2006. Retrieved 30 July 2009.
- "More than 1.7 million pilgrims have arrived in Saudi Arabia for the Hajj". Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia. 17 December 2007. Retrieved 30 July 2009.
- "How Many Attended the Hajj?". Crossroads Arabia. 23 December 2007. Archived from the original on 25 December 2007.
- "Record number of pilgrims arrive for Hajj". Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia. 6 December 2008. Archived from the original on 12 June 2010. Retrieved 30 July 2009.
- "2,521,000 million pilgrims participated in Hajj 1430". Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia. 29 November 2009. Archived from the original on 12 June 2010. Retrieved 8 December 2009.
- "2.8 million pilgrims participated in Hajj 1431". Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia. 18 November 2010. Archived from the original on 15 December 2010. Retrieved 28 December 2010.
- "2,927,717 pilgrims performed Hajj this year". Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia. 6 November 2011. Archived from the original on 28 June 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
- "3,161,573 pilgrims perform Hajj this year". Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia. 27 October 2012. Archived from the original on 26 April 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- "2018-1439 Hajj Statistics" (PDF). General Authority for Statistics Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
- "1,379,531 pilgrims from 188 countries arrived for Hajj". Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia. 13 October 2013. Archived from the original on 21 February 2014. Retrieved 13 February 2014.
- "Small increase in foreign pilgrims". Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia. 2 October 2014. Archived from the original on 9 October 2014. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
- "1,384,941 foreign pilgrims participated in Hajj". Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia. 22 September 2015. Retrieved 15 February 2017.
- "Saudi Arabia says Hajj 2016 receives 1.8 million pilgrims". Al Arabiya English. 12 September 2016. Retrieved 15 February 2017.
- "Haj Statistics". General Authority of Statistics, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. 22 August 2018. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
- "Around 2.5 million pilgrims take part in Hajj this year". Arab News. 10 August 2019. Retrieved 13 August 2019.
- Gannon, Martin Joseph; Baxter, Ian W. F.; Collinson, Elaine; Curran, Ross; Farrington, Thomas; Glasgow, Steven; Godsman, Elliot M.; Gori, Keith; Jack, Gordon R. A. (11 June 2017). "Travelling for Umrah: destination attributes, destination image, and post-travel intentions" (PDF). The Service Industries Journal. 37 (7–8): 448–465. doi:10.1080/02642069.2017.1333601. ISSN 0264-2069.
- Edgar, Scott. "The Five Pillars of Islam in the Hadith." Studia Antiqua 2, no. 1 (2002). https://scholarsarchive.byu.edu/studiaantiqua/
- "Pillars of Islam – Oxford Islamic Studies Online". oxfordislamicstudies.com. Retrieved 24 July 2018.
- "Hajj Badal - Belief - Islamic Shariah - Alukah.net". en.alukah.net. Retrieved 24 July 2018.
- "Types of Hajj". Al-Islam.org. 27 August 2015. Retrieved 25 July 2018.
- "Guidelines and rulings on Hajj al-badal (proxy Hajj) - islamqa.info". islamqa.info. Retrieved 24 July 2018.
- "Hadith by Ibn Abbas from Sahih Bukhari | ahadith.co.uk". ahadith.co.uk. Retrieved 25 July 2018.
- "The Book of Hajj – Sunan an-Nasa'i – Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad". sunnah.com. Retrieved 25 July 2018.
- "HAJJ_E_BADAL". irfi.org. Retrieved 25 July 2018.
- "The Principles of Jurisprudence (usul al-fiqh)". Al-Islam.org. 11 May 2015. Retrieved 25 July 2018.
- "The Five Pillars of Islam". global.oup.com. Retrieved 25 July 2018.
- "Surah Al-Haj [22:28]". Surah Al-Haj [22:28]. Retrieved 25 July 2018.
- Bianchi, Robert R. (2004). Guests of God: Pilgrimage and Politics in the Islamic World. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-517107-5.
- Hammoudi, Abdellah (2006). A Season in Mecca: Narrative of a Pilgrimage. Hill and Wang. ISBN 978-0-8090-7609-3.
- Khan, Qaisra, "Hajj & 'Umra", in Muhammad in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of God (2 vols.), edited by C. Fitzpatrick and A. Walker, Santa Barbara, ABC-CLIO, 2014, Vol. I, pp. 239–245.
- Patler, Nicholas (2017). From Mecca to Selma: Malcolm X, Islam, and the Journey tnto the American Civil Rights Movement. http://theislamicmonthly.com/mecca-to-selma/: The Islamic Monthly.
- Trojanow, Ilija (2007). Mumbai to Mecca: A Pilgrimage to the Holy Sites of Islam. Haus Publishing. ISBN 978-1-904950-29-5.
- Parvez Sharma (2016). A Sinner in Mecca (DVD, videodisc) (in English and Arabic). Web site: http://asinnerinmecca.com/. Haram Films. OCLC 976505435. A documentary on Mecca during the Hajj.CS1 maint: others (link)
- Hajj & Umrah – Journey of a Lifetime -an e-book
- Hajj – The Pilgrimage -Resource on Hajj
- Hajj Information Center -An online Hajj resource from IslamiCity
- Mapping Faith: The Pilgrimage to Mecca -CNN interactive feature
- Virtual Hajj by PBS
- The Hajj Goes High Tech -Time magazine photo essay
- Sequence of Hajj explained through Google Earth
- The Rites of Hajj and Umrah & Islamic Terminology
- Complete Information About Hajj
- Hajj, sacrifice, cutting of hairs and nails
- Hajj – Pilgrimage to Mecca – Day of Arafat
- Hajj – Stages Of Hajj (Infographic)