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Hakhshara (Hebrew: הַכְשָׁרָה; also transliterated Hakhsharah, Hachshara or Hakhsharah) is a Hebrew word that literally means "preparation". The term is used for training programs and agricultural centres in Europe and elsewhere. At these centers Zionist youth would learn technical skills necessary for their emigration to Israel and subsequent life in kibbutzim.[1] Such camps existed before World War II, and still exist today.

List of Hakhshara centres[edit]

Pre-war Germany[edit]



Pre-war Poland[edit]

Pre-war Lithuania[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Almogi, Yosef (1982). Total Commitment. Associated University Presses. p. 13. ISBN 9780845347492. The aim of such training programs— collectively called Hakhshara ("preparation") in Hebrew — was to prepare young Jews for settlement in Israel.
  2. ^ Geschichte vor Ort: Erinnerungskultur im Land Brandenburg für die Zeit von 1933 bis 1990, Ministerium für Wissenschaft, Forschung und Kultur, Brandenburg, 2009, page 44
  3. ^ "Schniebinchen, Germany, 1938, Youngsters conversing through a window, at a camp for training for Aliyah (immigration to Eretz Israel). - The Sonnenfeld collection of photos documenting Jewish life in prewar Germany". Retrieved 2012-05-17.
  4. ^ Stolpersteine Hamburg, Betti Frank, née Levi, born 1894[1]
  5. ^ Office of Survivor Affairs - Nina Merrick
  6. ^ U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, A young woman works in a kibbutz hachshara in Westerbork in The Netherlands. Photograph Number: 43171
  7. ^ Skla on the River Zbrucz: A History of the Former Skala Jewish Community, Skala Research Group and Skala Benevolent Society, 2009, pp. 304, 306
  8. ^ [2]