Halazone

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Halazone
4-(dichlorosulfamoyl)benzoic acid.svg
Names
Other names
  • Pantocide
  • p-sulfondichloramidobenzoic acid
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChEMBL
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.001.140
EC Number 201-253-1
UNII
UN number 1479
Properties
C7H5Cl2NO4S
Molar mass 270.08 g·mol−1
Appearance Fine white powder with an odor of chlorine[2]
Melting point 213 °C [3]; 196 °C with decomposition.[4]
less than 1 g/L at 70° F [2]
Hazards
GHS pictograms The exclamation-mark pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)
GHS signal word Warning
H315, H319
P264, P280, P302+352, P305+351+338, P321, P332+313, P337+313, P362
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Halazone (4-((dichloroamino)sulfonyl)benzoic acid) is a chemical compound with the formula can be written as C
7
H
5
Cl
2
NO
4
S
, or (HOOC)(C
6
H
4
)(SO
2
)(NCl
2
)
. It has been widely used to disinfect drinking water.

Other names for this compound include p-sulfondichloramidobenzoic acid, 4-(dichlorosulfamoyl)benzoic acid, and Pantocide.

Uses[edit]

Halazone tablets have been used to disinfect water for drinking, especially where treated tap water is not available. A typical dosage is 4 mg/L.[5][6]

Halazone tablets were commonly used during World War II by U.S. soldiers for portable water purification, even being included in accessory packs for C-rations until 1945.[7]

Halazone has largely been replaced in that use by sodium dichloroisocyanurate. The primary limitation of halazone tablets was the very short usable life of opened bottles, typically 3 days or less, unlike iodine-based tablets which have a usable open bottle life of 3 months.[citation needed]

Dilute halazone solutions (4 to 8 ppm of available chlorine) has also been used to disinfect contact lenses,[8] and as a spermicide.

Mechanism of action[edit]

Halazone's disinfecting activity is mainly due to the hypochlorous acid (HClO) released by hydrolysis of the chlorine-nitrogen bonds when the product is dissolved in water: [8]

(R1)(R2)NCl + H
2
O
HOCl + (R1)(R2)NH

The hypochlorous acid is a powerful oxidizer and chlorinating agent that destroys or denatures many organic compounds.

Production[edit]

Halazone can be prepared by chlorination of p-sulfonamidobenzoic acid.[4]

Another synthesis route is the oxidation of dichloramine-T with potassium permanganate in a mild alkaline medium.[4]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b PubChem: "Halazone". Accessed on 2018-06-18.
  2. ^ a b NTP (1992), cited by PubChem
  3. ^ Jean-Claude Bradley: Open Melting Point Dataset. Quoted by Chemspider.
  4. ^ a b c Saljoughian, M; Sadeghi, M. T (1986). "An improved procedure for the synthesis ofp-(dichlorosulfamoyl)benzoic acid (Halazone)". Monatshefte f�r Chemie Chemical Monthly. 117 (4): 553. doi:10.1007/BF00810903.  replacement character in |journal= at position 14 (help)
  5. ^ Gripo Laboratories: "Water purification range: Halazone USP based Chlorine Tablets". Product page, accessed on 2018-06-18
  6. ^ Precise Health Care PVT LTD: "Halazone tablets". Product page, accessed on 2018-06-18
  7. ^ Hlavatá, L; Aguilaniu, H; Pichová, A; Nyström, T (2003). "The oncogenic RAS2val19 mutation locks respiration, independently of PKA, in a mode prone to generate ROS". The EMBO Journal. 22 (13): 3337–3345. doi:10.1093/emboj/cdg314. PMC 165639Freely accessible. 
  8. ^ a b Rosenthal, Ruth Ann; Schlitzen, Ronald L; McNamee, Linda S; Dassanayake, Nissanake L; Amass, Roger (1992). "Antimicrobial activity of organic chlorine releasing compounds". Journal of the British Contact Lens Association. 15 (2): 81. doi:10.1016/0141-7037(92)80044-Z.