Hale Boggs

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Hale Boggs
Hale Boggs.png
House Majority Leader
In office
January 3, 1971 – January 3, 1973[1]
DeputyTip O'Neill
SpeakerCarl Albert
Preceded byCarl Albert
Succeeded byTip O'Neill
House Majority Whip
In office
January 10, 1962 – January 3, 1971
LeaderJohn William McCormack
Preceded byCarl Albert
Succeeded byTip O'Neill
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Louisiana's 2nd district
In office
January 3, 1947 – January 3, 1973
Preceded byPaul H. Maloney
Succeeded byLindy Boggs
In office
January 3, 1941 – January 3, 1943
Preceded byPaul H. Maloney
Succeeded byPaul H. Maloney
Personal details
Born
Thomas Hale Boggs

(1914-02-15)February 15, 1914
Long Beach, Mississippi, U.S.
DiedDisappeared October 16, 1972(1972-10-16) (aged 58)
Alaska, U.S.
Declared dead in absentia
(1972-12-29)December 29, 1972
Political partyDemocratic
Spouse(s)Lindy Claiborne
ChildrenBarbara
Tommy
Cokie
EducationTulane University (BA, LLB)
Military service
Allegiance United States
Branch/service United States Navy
Years of service1943-1946
RankEnsign
Battles/warsWorld War II

Thomas Hale Boggs Sr. (February 15, 1914 – disappeared October 16, 1972) was an American Democratic politician and a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from New Orleans, Louisiana. He was the House majority leader and a member of the Warren Commission.

In 1972, while he was still majority leader, Boggs was on a fundraising drive in Alaska when the twin engine airplane in which he was travelling with Alaska congressman Nick Begich and two others, disappeared while flying from Anchorage to Juneau, Alaska.

Early life and education[edit]

Boggs was born in Long Beach in Harrison County on the Mississippi Gulf Coast, the son of Claire Josephine (Hale) and William Robertson "Will" Boggs.[2] Boggs was educated at Tulane University where he received a bachelor's degree in journalism in 1934 and a law degree in 1937. He first practiced law in New Orleans but soon became a leader in the movement to break the power of the political machine of U.S. Senator Huey Pierce Long Jr., who was assassinated in 1935. Long had previously broken the power of New Orleans politicians in 1929.[3][4]

Career[edit]

U.S. House[edit]

A Democrat, Boggs was elected to the U.S. House for the Second District and served from 1941 to 1943. At the time he was elected he was, at twenty-six, the youngest member of Congress. After an unsuccessful re-election bid in 1942, Boggs joined the United States Navy as an ensign. He served the remainder of World War II.

Gubernatorial bid[edit]

After the war, Boggs began his political comeback. He was again elected to Congress in 1946 and was then re-elected thirteen times, once just after he disappeared, but before he was presumed dead. In 1951, Boggs launched an ill-fated campaign for governor of Louisiana. Leading in the polls early in the campaign, he was soon put on the defensive when another candidate, Lucille May Grace, at the urging of long-time Louisiana political boss Leander Perez, questioned Boggs' membership in the American Student Union in the 1930s. By 1951, the ASU was thought to be a Communist front. Boggs avoided the question and attacked both Grace and Perez for conducting a smear campaign against him. In his book, The Big Lie, author Garry Boulard suggests strongly that Boggs was a member of the ASU but tried to cover up that fact in the different political climate of the early 1950s.

Boggs finished third in the balloting for governor early in 1952. The Boggs candidate for lieutenant governor, C.E. "Cap" Barham of Ruston, prevailed in a runoff election against future Governor John McKeithen. The Boggs choice for register of state lands, Ellen Bryan Moore of Baton Rouge, won the office vacated by Lucille May Grace. Moore defeated Mary Evelyn Dickerson, future state treasurer in the second McKeithen administration. Two other Boggs candidates were defeated, including State Senator Chester J. Coco of Marksville for attorney general, who lost to Fred S. LeBlanc, the former mayor of Baton Rouge, and Douglas Fowler of Coushatta, defeated by Allison Kolb of Baton Rouge,[5] who later switched to Republican affiliation.

Boggs won the gubernatorial endorsement of the Shreveport Times, which hailed the representative for having stopped the Truman administration from "altering oil-depletion allowances in federal taxation, thus blocking... efforts to tie a millstone around the neck of the petroleum industry of Louisiana."[6]The Times, in a dig at Miss Grace, also cited Boggs' fight in Congress as early as 1941 against communism and subversion in government.[6] Other newspapers supporting Boggs were the since defunct Monroe Morning World and the functioning Monroe News-Star.[7]

Senator Russell B. Long endorsed Boggs, but many in the Long faction had preferred Judge Carlos Spaht of Baton Rouge, who ultimately lost the runoff election to another judge, Robert F. Kennon of Minden, whom Russell Long had narrowly defeated in the special Senate election in 1948.[8]

The New Orleans Times-Picayune endorsed not Boggs for governor but instead the fourth-place primary candidate, James M. McLemore, a wealthy cattleman and auction barn owner from Alexandria.[9] Lionel Ott, a member of the New Orleans City Council, was the McLemore choice for lieutenant governor; Kennon's preference for lieutenant governor was Elmer David Conner (1905-1965) of Jennings, who in 1952 became the new administration's director of commerce and industry. Both Ott and Conner were eliminated in the primary.

As a young member of the House of Representatives, Boggs joined 101 fellow congressmen (99 southern "Dixiecrats" and two Republicans) in signing the Declaration of Constitutional Principles, in opposition to racial integration in public places. The drafting of the document was in response to the 1954 Supreme Court decision Brown v. Board of Education.

The Boggs Act of 1952, sponsored by Hale Boggs, set mandatory sentences for drug-related offenses. A first-offense conviction for marijuana possession carried a minimum sentence of 2 to 10 years with a fine of up to $20,000.[10]

Later House elections[edit]

In 1960, the Republican Elliot Ross Buckley, a cousin of William F. Buckley Jr., challenged Boggs but got only 22,818 votes (22 percent) to the incumbent's 81,034 ballots (78 percent). The Kennedy-Johnson ticket easily won in Louisiana that year.

In 1962, 1964, and 1968, David C. Treen, a Metairie lawyer who became the first Louisiana Republican governor in 1980, challenged Boggs for reelection. Treen built on Buckley's efforts in the first contest, and Goldwater's momentum in Louisiana helped in the second race. It was in the 1968 election, however, that Treen fared the best: 77,633 votes (48.8 percent) to Boggs's 81,537 ballots (51.2 percent). Treen attributed Boggs's victory to the supporters of former Alabama Governor George C. Wallace Jr., who ran for president on the American Independent Party ticket. Treen said that Wallace supporters "became very cool to my candidacy. We couldn't really believe they would support Boggs, but several Democratic organizations did come out for Wallace and Boggs, and he received just enough Wallace votes to give him the election.""Republican officials seemed convinced that fraudulent votes in some Orleans Parish precincts benefited Boggs and that Treen may have actually won the election.[citation needed]

President Lyndon B. Johnson with House Majority Whip Boggs

During his tenure in Congress, Boggs was an influential member. After Brown v. Board of Education, he signed the 1956 Southern Manifesto condemning desegregation. Boggs voted against the Civil Rights Acts of 1957,[11] 1960,[12] and 1964,[13] but voted in favor of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Civil Rights Act of 1968.[14][15] He was instrumental in passage of the interstate highway program in 1956.

Hale Boggs on 24 September 1964 at the White House as a member of the Warren Commission presenting their report on the assassination of President John F. Kennedy to President Lyndon Johnson

Boggs was the youngest member of the Warren Commission that investigated the assassination of John F. Kennedy from 1963 to 1964.[16] Boggs has been reported to have differing positions regarding the Warren report. Based upon Office of the House Historian and Clerk of the House Office of Art and Archives, Politico reports that "Boggs dissented from the commission's majority report which supported the single bullet thesis — pointing to a lone assassin. Boggs said he "had strong doubts about it."[citation needed] But in a 1966 appearance on Face the Nation, Boggs defended the Commission's findings and stated that he did not doubt that Lee Harvey Oswald killed Kennedy.[17][18] He said that all the evidence indicated that Kennedy was shot from behind and that the argument that one bullet hit both Kennedy and Texas Governor John Connally was "very persuasive."[18] Boggs took issue with the assertions of Warren Commission critics and stated that it was "human nature" that "many people would prefer to believe there was a conspiracy."[17][18] It is unknown why his position was stated in such opposite terms but conspiracy theorists have pondered that difference as significant.

In the 1979 novel "The Matarese Circle" author Robert Ludlum portrayed Boggs as having been killed to stop his probe into the assassination."[19]

He served as majority whip from 1962 to 1971 and as majority leader from January 1971 to his disappearance. As the whip, he ushered much of President Johnson's Great Society legislation through Congress.

On August 22, 1968, while Secretary of State Dean Rusk was testifying in a hearing concerning the Vietnam War, Boggs interrupted the session to announce the invasion of Czechoslovakia by the troops of the Soviet Union, after hearing of a recent Radio Prague broadcast telling the Czechoslovaks not to take any action against the occupying forces. That caused Secretary Rusk, who was previously unaware of the situation, to excuse himself immediately, mid-testimony, to attend to the issue of the invasion.[20] (Source: Walter Cronkite: The Way It Was: The 1960s)

In April 1971, he made a speech on the floor of the House in which he strongly attacked Federal Bureau of Investigation Director J. Edgar Hoover and the whole of the FBI.

That led to a conversation on April 6, 1971 between President Richard M. Nixon and the Republican minority leader, Gerald R. Ford, Jr.. Nixon said that he could no longer take counsel from Boggs as a senior member of Congress. In the recording of this call, Nixon asked Ford to arrange for the House delegation to include an alternative to Boggs. Ford speculated that Boggs is on pills as well as alcohol.[21]

Later that month, Boggs went even further: "Over the postwar years, we have granted to the elite and secret police within our system vast new powers over the lives and liberties of the people. At the request of the trusted and respected heads of those forces, and their appeal to the necessities of national security, we have exempted those grants of power from due accounting and strict surveillance."

Disappearance in Alaska[edit]

Disappearance and search[edit]

As majority leader, Boggs often campaigned for others, including Representative Nick Begich of Alaska. On October 16, 1972, Boggs was aboard a twin engine Cessna 310 with Representative Begich, who was facing a possible tight race in the November 1972 general election against the Republican candidate, Don Young, when it disappeared during a flight from Anchorage to Juneau. Also on board were Begich's aide, Russell Brown; and the pilot, Don Jonz;[22] the four were heading to a campaign fundraiser for Begich.

The search for the missing aircraft and four men included the US Coast Guard, Navy, Army, Air Force, Civil Air Patrol and civilian fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters.[23]

The Cessna was required to carry an emergency locator transmitter per Alaska state law and federal law.

No emergency transmission signal determined to be from the plane was heard during the search. In its report on the incident, the National Transportation Safety Board stated that the pilot's portable emergency transmitter, permissible in lieu of a fixed transmitter on the plane, was found in an aircraft at Fairbanks, Alaska. The report also notes that a witness saw an unidentified object in the pilot's briefcase that resembled, except for color, the portable emergency transmitter. The safety board concluded that neither the pilot nor aircraft had an emergency location transmitter.[24]

On November 24, 1972, the search was suspended after 39 days. Neither the wreckage of the plane nor the pilot's and passengers' remains were ever found. After a hearing and seven minute jury deliberation, his death certificate was signed by Judge Dorothy Tyner.[25]

After Boggs and Begich were re-elected posthumously that November, House Resolution 1 of January 3, 1973, officially recognized Boggs's presumed death and opened the way for a special election. The same was done for Begich.

In 2019, Boggs' unexplained disappearance was mentioned in the fictional television series The Blacklist season 7 episode 14 "Twamie Ullulaq", which is set in the Alaska Triangle.

In summer 2020, Boggs' disappearance was investigated in a podcast produced by iHeartMedia called Missing in Alaska.[26][27]

Personal life[edit]

In 1973, Boggs' wife since 1938, Lindy, was elected as a Democrat to the 93rd Congress, by special election, to the second district seat left vacant by her husband's death.[28] She was reelected to the eight succeeding Congresses (March 20, 1973 – January 3, 1991) and retired after the 1990 election.[29][30] In 1997, President Bill Clinton appointed Lindy Boggs U.S. Ambassador to the Holy See, in which capacity she served until 2001.[31]

Hale and Lindy Boggs had four children: Cokie Roberts,[32] who was a U.S. TV and public-radio journalist and the wife of journalist Steven V. Roberts; Thomas Hale Boggs Jr., who was a Washington, D.C.-based lawyer and lobbyist; Barbara Boggs Sigmund, who served as mayor of Princeton, New Jersey; and William Robertson Boggs, who died as an infant on December 28, 1946. In 1982, Sigmund lost a bid for the Democratic nomination for the U.S. Senate to Frank Lautenberg.

Boggs was a practicing Catholic.[33]

Tributes[edit]

The Hale Boggs Memorial Bridge, which spans the Mississippi River in St. Charles Parish, is named in memory of the former congressman. The visitor center at Portage Glacier in Southcentral Alaska (located within Chugach National Forest) is named the Begich, Boggs Visitor Center. Boggs Peak which is four miles north of the visitor center is also named for him. The Hale Boggs Federal Complex, at 500 Poydras Street in New Orleans, is also named after him.

In 1993, Boggs was among thirteen politicians, past and present, inducted into the first class of the new Louisiana Political Museum and Hall of Fame in Winnfield.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ As Boggs was missing and not officially declared dead until January, he formally retained an office after his disappearance.
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ "The courage of his convictions: Hale Boggs and civil rights | Tulane University Digital Library". digitallibrary.tulane.edu. Retrieved 2020-07-23.
  4. ^ Ferrell, Thomas H.; Haydel, Judith (1994). "Hale and Lindy Boggs: Louisiana's National Democrats". Louisiana History: The Journal of the Louisiana Historical Association. 35 (4): 389–402. ISSN 0024-6816.
  5. ^ "Boggs '52 ticket listed", Minden Herald, October 19, 1951, p. 1
  6. ^ a b Shreveport Times, editorial, December 2, 1951
  7. ^ Minden Press-Herald, December 7, 1951
  8. ^ "Senator Russell Long to Speak Here Dec. 15 at 9:30", Minden Press, December 14, 1951, p. 1
  9. ^ Minden Press, January 11, 1952, p. 13
  10. ^ "Marijuana timeline". PBS. Retrieved 2014-07-31. Cite has empty unknown parameter: |coauthors= (help)
  11. ^ "HR 6127. CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1957". GovTrack.us.
  12. ^ "HR 8601. PASSAGE".
  13. ^ "H.R. 7152. PASSAGE".
  14. ^ "TO PASS H.R. 6400, THE 1965 VOTING RIGHTS ACT".
  15. ^ "TO PASS H.R. 2516, A BILL TO ESTABLISH PENALTIES FOR INTERFERENCE WITH CIVIL RIGHTS. INTERFERENCE WITH A PERSON ENGAGED IN ONE OF THE 8 ACTIVITIES PROTECTED UNDER THIS BILL MUST BE RACIALLY MOTIVATED TO INCUR THE BILL'S PENALTIES".
  16. ^ "Sketches of 7 on Oswald Panel; General Counsel Rankin Plays Active Role". Chicago Tribune. 118 (272) (Final ed.). September 28, 1964. Section 1, page 8. Retrieved June 15, 2017.
  17. ^ a b "Another Member of The Warren Commission Defends Findings". Lodi News-Sentinel. Lodi, California. UPI. November 28, 1966. p. 8. Retrieved March 26, 2015.
  18. ^ a b c "Boggs Says Assassination Data Complete". Sarasota Journal. Sarasota, Florida. AP. November 28, 1966. p. 28. Retrieved March 26, 2015.
  19. ^ "Hale Boggs' plane vanishes in Alaska: Oct. 16, 1972".
  20. ^ "U.S. Receives News of Soviet Invasion of Czechoslovakia — History.com Audio". History.com. Archived from the original on 9 September 2014. Retrieved 7 September 2014.
  21. ^ Woodward, Bob (29 December 2006). "Transcripts show Ford, Nixon were close allies". Sun-Sentinel. Fort Lauderdale, Florida.
  22. ^ "Hale Boggs — Missing in Alaska". Famous Missing Aircraft. Check-Six. Retrieved 2007-04-15.
  23. ^ National Transportation Safety Board Report NTSB-AAR-73-1, January 31, 1973; Aircraft Accident Report, Pan Alaska Airways, Ltd., Cessna 310C, N1812H, Missing Between Anchorage and Juneau, Alaska, October 16, 1972; p. 3.
  24. ^ National Transportation Safety Board Report NTSB-AAR-73-1, January 31, 1973; pp. 6–8.
  25. ^ "Alaska Jury Declares Bogg Died on Flight". The New York Times. February 8, 1973. p. 46.
  26. ^ "New Podcast 'Missing In Alaska' Takes On 50-Year-Old Mysterious Plane Disappearance". Insideradio.com. Retrieved 2020-07-23.
  27. ^ Brean, Henry. "New podcast explores Alaskan mystery with Tucson twist". Arizona Daily Star. Retrieved 2020-07-23.
  28. ^ Boggs, Lindy, with Katherine Hatch. Washington Through a Purple Veil: Memoirs of a Southern Woman. New York: Harcourt Brace and Co., 1994.
  29. ^ Ferrell, Thomas H., and Judith Haydel. "Hale and Lindy Boggs: Louisiana's National Democrats." Louisiana History 35 (Fall 1994): 389-402.
  30. ^ Boggs, Lindy, with Katherine Hatch. Washington Through a Purple Veil: Memoirs of a Southern Woman. New York: Harcourt Brace and Co., 1994.
  31. ^ Lewis, Michael. Having Her Say at The See. (2000, June 4). New York Times, p. 662.
  32. ^ Bobby Allyn and Scott Neuman, "Cokie Roberts, Pioneering Female Journalist Who Helped Shape NPR, Dies at 75," NPR,September 17, 2019, 10:31 AM ET
  33. ^ Robert, Cokie (2008). "Cokie Roberts". In Kennedy, Kerry (ed.). Being Catholic Now: Prominent Americans Talk about Change in the Church and the Quest for Meaning. New York: Three Rivers Press. p. 26. ISBN 9780307346858.

References[edit]

  • Boulard, Garry (2001), The Big Lie - Hale Boggs, Lucille May Grace and Leander Perez in 1951-52
  • Maney, Patrick J. "Hale Boggs: The Southerner as National Democrat" in Raymond W Smock and Susan W Hammond, eds. Masters of the House: Congressional Leadership Over Two Centuries (1998) pp 33–62.
  • Strahan, Randall. "Thomas Brackett Reed and the Rise of Party Government" in Raymond W Smock and Susan W Hammond, eds. Masters of the House: Congressional Leadership Over Two Centuries (1998) pp 223–259.
  • "Boggs, Thomas Hale, Sr., (1914–1972)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 2007-04-15.

External links[edit]

U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by
Paul H. Maloney
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Louisiana's 2nd congressional district

1941–1943
Succeeded by
Paul H. Maloney
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Louisiana's 2nd congressional district

1947–1973
Succeeded by
Lindy Boggs
Preceded by
Mike Mansfield
Chair of the House Campaign Expenditures Committee
1951–1953
Succeeded by
C. W. Bishop
Preceded by
Carl Albert
House Majority Whip
1962–1971
Succeeded by
Tip O'Neill
Preceded by
John J. McFall
House Majority Leader
1971–1973
Party political offices
Preceded by
Carl Albert
House Democratic Deputy Leader
1962–1971
Succeeded by
Tip O'Neill
House Democratic Leader
1971–1973