Halifax (UK Parliament constituency)
for the House of Commons
Boundary of Halifax in West Yorkshire.
Location of West Yorkshire within England.
|County||1832–1974: West Riding of Yorkshire
1974–present: West Yorkshire
|Electorate||69,126 (December 2010)|
|Major settlements||Halifax, Sowerby Bridge|
|Member of parliament||Holly Lynch (Labour)|
|Number of members||1832–1918: Two
|European Parliament constituency||Yorkshire and the Humber|
- 1 Boundaries
- 2 History
- 3 Constituency profile
- 4 Members of Parliament
- 5 Elections
- 5.1 Elections in the 2010s
- 5.2 Elections in the 2000s
- 5.3 Elections in the 1990s
- 5.4 Elections in the 1980s
- 5.5 Elections in the 1970s
- 5.6 Elections in the 1960s
- 5.7 Elections in the 1950s
- 5.8 Elections in the 1940s
- 5.9 Elections in the 1930s
- 5.10 Elections in the 1920s
- 5.11 Elections in the 1910s
- 5.12 Elections in the 1900s
- 6 See also
- 7 Notes and references
- 8 Sources
1918-1983: The County Borough of Halifax.
1983-2010: The Metropolitan Borough of Calderdale wards of Illingworth, Mixenden, Northowram and Shelf, Ovenden, St John's, Skircoat, Sowerby Bridge, Town, and Warley.
2010-present: The Metropolitan Borough of Calderdale wards of Illingworth and Mixenden, Northowram and Shelf, Ovenden, Park, Skircoat, Sowerby Bridge, Town, and Warley.
The parliamentary borough was granted in the Great Reform Act 1832 and returned from that year until 1918 two members. A county borough recognized the density of the developed area in 1888 which provided most functions for inhabitants, retaining the West Yorkshire ceremonial county. The municipal or county borough was under a mayor, 5 aldermen and 45 councillors and had an area of 13,967 acres (56.52 km2).
At the time of the Norman Conquest, Halifax formed part of the extensive manor of Wakefield, which belonged to the king, but in the 13th century was in the hands of John Earl de Warrenne aka. Earl of Surrey (1231-1304).[n 3] The prosperity of the town began with the first woollen products workshop established here in 1414, when there are said to have been only thirteen houses, which before the end of the 16th century had increased to 520. Camden, about the end of the 17th century, wrote that the people are very industrious, so that though the soil about it be barren and improfitable, not fit to live on, they have so flourished ... by the clothing trade that they are very rich and have gained a reputation for it above their neighbours. The manufacturing standards and trade were improved by the arrival of certain merchants and clothworkers driven from the Spanish Netherlands by the persecution of the Duke of Alva.
Halifax was a borough by prescription[n 4] rather than a medieval parliamentary borough, its privileges[n 5] growing up with the increased prosperity brought by the cloth trade, but it was not incorporated until 1848. From 1832 until 1918 the town's property-qualifying residents paying scot and lot returned two members to parliament.[n 6]
The town in the Pennines is relatively affluent, not afflicted by the high levels of unemployment, underemployment and crime seen in a few wards of the Yorkshire and Humber region but most constituents have modest incomes and there is some social housing dependency in certain wards. Since 1987 the MP has been in the Labour Party, before that date for four years it was held by a Conservative MP, but generally since the Second World War it has been a Labour seat.
Members of Parliament
MPs since 1918
Representation reduced to one member, 1918
|1910s – 1920s – 1930s – 1940s – 1950s – 1960s – 1970s – 1980s – 1990s – 2000s – 2010s|
Elections in the 2010s
|Liberal Democrat||Mohammad Ilyas||1,629||3.7||-15.4|
|Labour Co-op||Linda Riordan||16,278||37.4||-4.4|
|Liberal Democrat||Elisabeth Wilson||8,335||19.1||+1.2|
|Independent Voice for Halifax||Diane Park||722||1.7||N/A|
Elections in the 2000s
|Labour Co-op||Linda Riordan||16,579||41.8||−7.2|
|Liberal Democrat||Michael Taylor||7,100||17.9||+3.3|
|National Front||Thomas Holmes||191||0.5||N/A|
|Labour Co-op hold||Swing||−3.3|
|Liberal Democrat||John Durkin||5,878||14.6||+2.6|
Elections in the 1990s
|Liberal Democrat||Edgar Waller||6,059||12.0|
|Liberal Democrat||Ian R. Howell||7,364||12.7||−2.6|
|Independent Nationalist||Ron Pearson||649||1.1||+1.1|
Elections in the 1980s
|Social Democratic||Laurence Cockcroft||8,758||15.36|
|Labour gain from Conservative||Swing|
|Labour||Shirley Catherine Wynne Summerskill||20,452||37.43|
|Social Democratic||F. Cockroft||11,868||21.72|
|Conservative gain from Labour||Swing|
Elections in the 1970s
|Labour||Shirley Catherine Wynne Summerskill||21,416||43.79|
|National Front||B. Wadsworth||455||0.93|
|Labour||Shirley Catherine Wynne Summerskill||20,976||44.27|
|Labour||Shirley Catherine Wynne Summerskill||20,970||40.93|
|Labour||Shirley Catherine Wynne Summerskill||24,026||49.33|
|Conservative||G Anthony Turner||23,828||48.93|
|Ind. Labour Party||Alistair Graham||847||1.74|
Elections in the 1960s
|Labour||Shirley Catherine Wynne Summerskill||25,391||50.28|
|Conservative||G Anthony Turner||19,689||38.99|
|Liberal||Derek Arthur Carlin||5,423||10.74|
|Labour||Shirley Catherine Wynne Summerskill||23,143||43.76|
|Conservative||Maurice Victor Macmillan||22,085||41.75|
|Labour gain from Conservative||Swing|
Elections in the 1950s
|Conservative||Maurice Victor Macmillan||29,212||52.25|
|Labour||Peter David Shore||26,697||47.75|
|Conservative||Maurice Victor Macmillan||28,306||51.39|
|Conservative gain from Labour||Swing|
|Conservative||Charles Henry Lucas||29,670||49.37|
|Conservative||Charles Henry Lucas||20,456||33.88|
|National Liberal||R.H. Blackburn||1,551||2.57|
- Blackburn was a vice-president of the Bradford Conservative Association. He was nominated after the Conservative and Liberal associations in the division had failed to reach agreement on the proposal for a joint anti-Labour candidate.
Elections in the 1940s
|Labour gain from Conservative||Swing||+11.3|
Elections in the 1930s
|Labour||Arthur William Longbottom||21,471||39.5||+9.8|
|Labour||Arthur William Longbottom||16,601||29.7||−12.5|
|Independent Liberal||Frank Sykes||2,578||4.6||N/A|
|Conservative gain from Labour||Swing||+24.2|
Elections in the 1920s
|Labour||Arthur William Longbottom||22,776||42.2||−0.6|
|Liberal||George Elliott Dodds||15,823||28.1||−2.8|
|Labour||Arthur William Longbottom||17,536||42.8|
|Labour gain from Liberal||Swing|
|Speaker||John Henry Whitley||unopposed||n/a||n/a|
Elections in the 1910s
|Liberal||John Henry Whitley||22,136||84.6||N/A|
|Socialist Labour Party||Arthur McManus||4,046||15.4||N/A|
|Liberal||John Henry Whitley||8,778||33.4|
|Conservative||John Herbert Lacy Baldwin||4,602|
|Conservative||James Francis Wallace Galbraith||4,420|
|Liberal||John Henry Whitley||9,504|
|Conservative||James Francis Wallace Galbraith||4,754|
Elections in the 1900s
|Liberal||John Henry Whitley||9,354|
|Liberal Unionist||Savile Brinton Crossley||5,041|
|Labour gain from Liberal Unionist||Swing|
|Liberal Unionist||Savile Brinton Crossley||5,931||29.6|
|Liberal||John Henry Whitley||5,543|
|Ind. Labour Party||James Parker||3,276|
|Liberal Unionist hold||Swing|
Notes and references
- A borough constituency (for the purposes of election expenses and type of returning officer)
- As with all constituencies, the constituency elects one Member of Parliament (MP) by the first past the post system of election at least every five years.
- See Sandal Castle and Wakefield Castle
- Legally, the doctrine of prescription (law), as opposed to "by grant", means obtained by long use
- Among the curious customs of Halifax was the Gibbet Law, which was probably established by a prescriptive right to protect the wool trade, and gave the inhabitants the power of executing any one taken within their liberty, who, when tried by a jury of sixteen of the frith-burgesses, was found guilty of the theft of any goods of the value of more than 13d. The executions took place on market days on a hill outside the town, the gibbet somewhat resembling a guillotine. The first execution recorded under this law took place in 1541, and the right was exercised in Halifax longer than in any other town, the last execution taking place in 1650. In 1635 the king granted the inhabitants of Halifax licence to found a workhouse in a large house given to them for that purpose by Nathaniel Waterhouse, and incorporated them under the name of the master and governors. Nathaniel Waterhouse was appointed the first master, his successors being elected every year by the twelve governors from among themselves.
- In 1607 David Waterhouse, lord of the manor of Halifax, obtained a grant of two markets there every week on Friday and Saturday and two fairs every year, each lasting three days, one beginning on 24 June, the other on 11 November. Later these fairs and markets were confirmed with the addition of an extra market on Thursday to Sir William Ayloffe, baronet, who had succeeded David Waterhouse as lord of the manor. The market rights were sold to the Markets Company in 1810 and purchased from them by the corporation in 1853.
- "Electorate Figures - Boundary Commission for England". 2011 Electorate Figures. Boundary Commission for England. 4 March 2011. Retrieved 13 March 2011.
- Lewis, Samuel (1848). "Halifax". A Topographical Dictionary of England. Institute of Historical Research. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
- 2001 Census
- Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "H" (part 1)[self-published source][better source needed]
- "Election Data 2015". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
- "Halifax". BBC News. Retrieved 13 May 2015.
- "Election Data 2010". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 26 July 2013. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
- "Election Data 2005". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- "Election Data 2001". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- "Election Data 1997". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- "Election Data 1992". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- "Politics Resources". Election 1992. Politics Resources. 9 April 1992. Retrieved 2010-12-06.
- "Election Data 1987". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- "Election Data 1983". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- The Times House of Commons, 1950
- At the 1931 general election, the local Liberal Association chose not to field a candidate against the National Government; Sykes stood as an "Independent Liberal" candidate
- British parliamentary election results, 1885-1918 (Craig)
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "article name needed". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- Victoria County History, Yorkshire
- T. Wright, The Antiquities of the Town of Halifax (Leeds, 1738)
- John Watson, The History and Antiquities of the Parish of Halifax (London, 1775)
- John Crabtree, A Concise History of the Parish and Vicarage of Halifax (Halifax and London, 1836).
- Craig, F. W. S. (1983) . British parliamentary election results 1918-1949 (3rd ed.). Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. ISBN 0-900178-06-X.
|Parliament of the United Kingdom|
Penrith and Cockermouth
|Constituency represented by the Speaker