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Hallacas con pan de jamon, Venezuelan food.jpg
Hallaca and Pan de jamón
Alternative namesAyaca, Hayaca, Guanimo, Tamal, Pasteles en Hojas
Region or stateLatin America
Main ingredientscornmeal dough or cassava dough, meat (beef, pork, chicken), raisins, capers, olives
VariationsPasteles, Guanime, Alcapurrias

Hallaca (Spanish pronunciation: [aˈʎaka], [aˈʝaka]; alt. spelling, hayaca and ayaca[1]) is a Venezuelan dish. It consists of corn dough stuffed with a stew of beef, pork, or chicken and other ingredients such as raisins, capers, and olives[2] Like some tamales, hallacas are folded in plantain leaves, tied with strings, and boiled; The dish is traditionally served during the Christmas season and has several regional variants in Venezuela. It has been described as a national dish of Venezuela.[1] A characteristic of the hallaca is the delicate corn dough made with consommé or broth and lard colored with annatto. Hallacas are also commonly consumed in eastern Cuba[3][4] parts of Colombia, and Ecuador.


Hallaca is a Mesoamerican tamal-like dish that goes by various names and spread throughout the Spanish kingdoms in the Americas as far south as Argentina in the decades following the conquest.[citation needed]


According to Adolfo Ernst, the word hallaca evolved from the indigenous Guarani language, stemming from the verb ayua or ayuar, meaning "to mix or blend". From there, the construction ayuaca (mixed things) devolved to ayaca and ultimately to hayaca or hallaca (using Spanish silent "h" when written). Another version presumes that the word comes from an aboriginal language of the West of the country, whose meaning is "wrapping" or "bojote".The earliest use of the word in the modern sense is in a 1781 document of Italian missionary linguist Filippo Salvatore Gilii.[citation needed]


A prepared hallaca. Wrapped inside the banana leaves and cooked, without the leaves ready to be served.

Hallaca is a staple of Venezuelan Christmas celebrations[5] and its preparation is practically limited to that time of the year.[citation needed] The dish is also an icon of Venezuelan multicultural heritage, as its preparation includes European ingredients (such as raisins, almonds and olives), indigenous ingredients (corn meal colored with annatto seeds and onions), and African ingredients (smoked plantain leaves used for wrapping).[citation needed]

In contrast to Venezuelan tradition, hallacas are popular year-round in Ecuador, and several variants exist across the country's different regions. Along with humitas, they are a staple of traditional Ecuadorian cuisine.

In Aruba and Curaçao, two islands just off the coast of Falcón state, Venezuela, it is called 'ayaca' or 'ayaka'. The ingredients are pork and chicken stew, or pork or chicken stew, capers, raisins, cashews, bellpepper, pickled baby onions, prunes, and olives. The dough is made from white cornmeal, and the ayaca leaves first spread with lard or oil. Cooked meat and other ingredients are then wrapped in ayaca leaves, tied with string and then boiled for about 2 hours. Flavors in the ayaca vary from family to family, and some add madam Jeanet peppers (very hot).

Probably it came to the island by immigrants, or the recipe was borrowed. Like many things from other cultures, it has become a part of the Aruban and Curaçaoan Christmas food traditions adopted as in Trinidad.

In Puerto Rico, the hayaca or hallaca used to be a popular part of the local gastronomy. The hayaca from Puerto Rico is not made with corn nor fried, boiled or steamed. It is baked, traditionally, in open-wood-fire to a smokey and toasted outer layer. Different from other cultures, the unique mix of ingredients like the cassava, milk, annatto, banana leaf and interesting style of open-wood-fire cooking, suggests that this local version might have been introduced by a combination of the Taíno tribes and either African slaves or Spaniards during the Spanish colonization. Because of the long and elaborate process and skills that takes to prepare, the hayaca is now rarely available but still found, mostly in coastal, family-owned restaurants and other small establishments known as "kioscos" where there are still strong ties to native heritage and classic slow cooking skills.


Fillings set out prior to hallaca making. Hallacas are one of the most common traditions during Venezuelan Christmas.
Filling of the Hallaca before being wrapped in the banana leaves.

The traditional hallaca is made by extending a plantain leaf, greasing it with a spoonful of annatto-colored cooking oil and spreading on it a round portion of corn dough (roughly 30 cm), which is then sprinkled with various fillings. While no two families make hallacas in quite the same way, the most common fillings include a mix of stewed (or rare) meats (pork, poultry, beef, lard, crisp or pork rind), raisins and pitted green olives.[citation needed] Pepper-filled olives are becoming more popular nowadays. People in Los Llanos add boiled eggs and pieces of red pepper. Others might add chickpeas, nuts and almonds.[citation needed]

The filled dough is then skillfully wrapped in an oblong fashion and tied with string in a typical square mesh before its cooking in boiling water.[citation needed] Afterwards, it is picked from the pail with a fork, unwrapped and served on its own plantain leaves with chicken salad, pan de jamón (ham filled bread) or plain bread. In the Andean region, the filling is cooked with the rest of the hallaca, while in the rest of the country it is usually cooked beforehand.

The ideal hallaca has a silky golden-reddish glow. In taste, it aims to balance the saltiness of the meats and olives with the sweetness of the raisins and of the dough itself.[citation needed]

After making a number of hallacas, the remaining portion of ingredients is occasionally mixed together in order to obtain a uniform dough.[citation needed] The dough undergoes the same hallaca wrap and cooking preparation, although typically smaller in size and much fewer in number. The result is the bollo, which may be offered as a lighter option to the hallaca at breakfast, lunch, or dinner.[citation needed]

After cooking, hallacas can be frozen for several weeks with no change in flavor. It not unusual for some families to eat hallacas as late as May or June of the next year.[citation needed]

Ingredients differ from region to region and from family to family. It is not uncommon to find hallacas with chickpeas, tomato, bell pepper, pickled vegetables, and garlic.[citation needed] Potatoes are included in the Andean variation. Also, some of the traditional ingredients may be substituted by local variants such as fish and lobster (East Coast) and plantain dough (Maracaibo).[citation needed]


Hallaca-making requires many hours of intense work, so hallacas are typically made all in one go, in large enough quantities to last the entire holiday season (from a few dozen to several hundred). Hallaca making is a logistical feat and an economic stretch for many. The most important Venezuelan newspapers usually carry stories in their Economics sections at the beginning of December noting the rise in the cost of making hallacas.[citation needed]

Hallaca-making reunites family members at holiday time. It is a job joyfully done by whole families together, marking the start of the holiday festivities.[citation needed] However, the most important part of "hallaca-preparation" is that it represents one of the strongest holiday family traditions in Venezuela, comparable perhaps to Thanksgiving in United States.[citation needed]

The hallaca making party tends to be matriarchal, with grandmothers and/or mothers leading the preparation. Foreigners in Venezuela in December are often struck by how often they are offered hallacas.[citation needed]

Friendly rivalry over whose hallacas are the best is part of the Venezuelan holiday culture, leading to the popular saying la mejor hallaca es la que hace mi mamá  – the best hallaca is the one my mother makes – an expression of familism.[citation needed] This expression was immortalized in a holiday song by Venezuelan pop singer Raquel Castaño.[1]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Kijac, M.B. (2003). The South American Table: The Flavor and Soul of Authentic Home Cooking from Patagonia to Rio de Janeiro, with 450 Recipes. NYM Series. Harvard Common Press. p. 84. ISBN 978-1-55832-249-3. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
  2. ^ Albala, K. (2011). Food Cultures of the World Encyclopedia. Food Cultures of the World Encyclopedia. Greenwood. p. 1-PA102. ISBN 978-0-313-37626-9. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
  3. ^ Garth, Hanna 2013 Food and Identity in the Caribbean. London: Bloomsbury.
  4. ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=_yQ6DwAAQBAJ&pg=PR20&dq=hallaca+cuba&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiMwLGBqvbeAhWC8oMKHcz7CqEQ6AEILzAB#v=onepage&q=hallaca%20cuba&f=false
  5. ^ Schuetz, K. (2009). Venezuela. Exploring Countries. Bellwether Media. p. 23. ISBN 978-1-61211-587-0. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
  1. ^ Rosenblat, Ángel. (Venezuela Analysis, ???). hallaca.asp "hallaca". Retrieved 9 January 2005.
  2. ^ Castillo, Efrain. Revista Estampas (???) "Decanos de la Navidad" Retrieved 8 April 2012