Halloween (1978 film)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Halloween (1978) theatrical poster.jpg
Theatrical release poster
Directed by John Carpenter
Produced by Debra Hill
Written by
  • John Carpenter
  • Debra Hill
Music by John Carpenter
Cinematography Dean Cundey
Edited by
Falcon International Productions
Distributed by Compass International Pictures
Release date
  • October 25, 1978 (1978-10-25)
Running time
91 minutes[1]
Country United States
Language English
Budget $300,000–325,000[2][3][4]
Box office $60–70 million[2][3]

Halloween is a 1978 American slasher film directed and scored by John Carpenter, co-written with producer Debra Hill, and starring Donald Pleasence and Jamie Lee Curtis in her film debut. Originally a single film, it is the first installment in the Halloween franchise. The film tells the story of serial killer Michael Myers as he stalks and kills teenage babysitters on Halloween night. The film predominately focuses on Michael who was committed to a sanitarium as a child for the murder of his older sister, Judith Myers. Fifteen years later, he escapes to stalk and kill the people of the fictional town of Haddonfield, Illinois while being chased by his former psychiatrist, Samuel Loomis.[5]

Halloween was produced on a budget of $300,000 and grossed $47 million at the box office in the United States[4] and $23 million internationally for a total of $70 million worldwide,[3] selling almost 30 million tickets in 1978. It became one of the most profitable independent films.[4] Primarily praised for its direction and musical score, many critics credit the film as the first in a long line of slasher films inspired by Alfred Hitchcock's Psycho (1960). In 2006, the film was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant".[6]

Some critics have suggested that Halloween may encourage sadism and misogyny by audiences identifying with its villain.[7] Others have suggested the film is a social critique of the immorality of youth and teenagers in 1970s America, with many of Myers' victims being sexually promiscuous substance abusers,[8] while the lone heroine is depicted as innocent and pure, hence her survival. Carpenter dismisses such analyses.[9][10]


In 1963, on Halloween night in the Midwestern United States town of Haddonfield, Illinois, Michael Myers, dressed in a clown costume and mask, inexplicably stabs his older sister Judith to death with a kitchen knife in their home. He is subsequently hospitalized at Warren County's Smith's Grove Sanitarium. Fifteen years later, on October 30, 1978, Michael's child psychiatrist, Dr. Sam Loomis, and his colleague, Marion Chambers, arrive at Smith's Grove Sanitarium to take Michael to court. Michael escapes from the sanitarium, stealing Loomis’ car. Returning home to Haddonfield, Michael kills a mechanic for his uniform and steals a white mask, a couple of knives, and some rope from a local store.

The next day, on Halloween, Michael stalks high school student Laurie Strode after she and Tommy Doyle drop off a key at his former house, so her father can sell it. Throughout the day, Laurie notices Michael following her, but her friends Annie Brackett and Lynda Van der Klok dismiss her concerns. Loomis arrives in Haddonfield in search of Michael, knowing his intentions. After discovering that Judith Myers' headstone has been stolen from the local cemetery, Loomis meets with Annie's father, Sheriff Leigh Brackett. The two begin their search at Michael's house, where Loomis tries to warn the skeptical sheriff about the danger Michael poses, explaining that Michael is pure evil and capable of further violence, despite years of catatonia. Sheriff Brackett patrols the streets while Loomis waits and watches the house, expecting Michael to return there.

Later that night, Laurie goes over to babysit Tommy, while Annie babysits Lindsey Wallace just across the street, unaware that Michael is watching them. When Annie's boyfriend, Paul, calls her to come and pick him up, she takes Lindsey over to the Doyle house to spend the night with Laurie and Tommy. Annie is just about to leave in her car when Michael, who stowed away in the back seat, strangles her before slitting her throat, killing her.

Soon after, Lynda and her boyfriend Bob Simms arrive at the Wallace house. After having sex, Bob goes downstairs to get a beer for Lynda, but Michael stabs him with a knife which pins him to the wall, killing him. Michael then poses as Bob in a ghost costume and confronts Lynda, who teases him, having no effect. Lynda calls Laurie; just as Laurie picks up, Michael strangles Lynda to death with the telephone cord. Meanwhile, Loomis discovers the stolen car and begins combing the streets.

Suspicious, Laurie goes over to the Wallace house. There, she finds the corpses of Annie, Bob, and Lynda in an upstairs bedroom, as well as Judith Myers' headstone.[11] Horrified, Laurie cowers in the hallway, when Michael suddenly appears and attacks her, slashing her arm. Barely escaping, Laurie races back to the Doyle house. Michael gets in and attacks her again, but Laurie manages to fend him off long enough for Tommy and Lindsey to escape. Laurie defends herself by stabbing him with a knitting needle, a metal hanger, and his own knife, but Michael re-animates and attacks Laurie. Loomis sees the two children fleeing the house, and goes to investigate, finding Michael and Laurie fighting upstairs. Loomis shoots Michael six times, knocking him off the balcony; when Loomis goes to check Michael's body, he finds it missing. Unsurprised, Loomis stares off into the night, while Laurie begins sobbing in terror. Places where Michael had previously been are shown as his breathing is heard, indicating he could be anywhere, and the last view is of the Myers house.



After viewing Carpenter's film Assault on Precinct 13 (1976) at the Milan Film Festival, independent film producer Irwin Yablans and financier Moustapha Akkad sought out Carpenter to direct a film for them about a psychotic killer that stalked babysitters.[12] In an interview with Fangoria magazine, Yablans stated, "I was thinking what would make sense in the horror genre, and what I wanted to do was make a picture that had the same impact as The Exorcist."[13] Carpenter and his then-girlfriend Debra Hill began drafting a story originally titled The Babysitter Murders, but, as Carpenter told Entertainment Weekly, Yablans suggested setting the movie on Halloween night and naming it Halloween instead.[14]

Akkad agreed to put up $300,000 for the film's budget, which was considered low at the time[12] (Carpenter's previous film, Assault on Precinct 13, had an estimated budget of $100,000). Akkad worried over the tight, four-week schedule, low budget, and Carpenter's limited experience as a filmmaker, but told Fangoria, "Two things made me decide. One, Carpenter told me the story verbally and in a suspenseful way, almost frame for frame. Second, he told me he didn't want to take any fees, and that showed he had confidence in the project". Carpenter received $10,000 for directing, writing, and composing the music, retaining rights to 10 percent of the film's profits.[15]

Because of the low budget, wardrobe and props were often crafted from items on hand or that could be purchased inexpensively. Carpenter hired Tommy Lee Wallace as production designer, art director, location scout and co-editor. Wallace created the trademark mask worn by Michael Myers throughout the film from a Captain Kirk mask purchased for $1.98.[12] Carpenter recalled how Wallace "widened the eye holes and spray-painted the flesh a bluish white. In the script it said Michael Myers's mask had 'the pale features of a human face' and it truly was spooky looking. I can only imagine the result if they hadn't painted the mask white. Children would be checking their closet for William Shatner after Tommy got through with it."[14] Hill adds that the "idea was to make him almost humorless, faceless—this sort of pale visage that could resemble a human or not."[16] Many of the actors wore their own clothes, and Curtis' wardrobe was purchased at J. C. Penney for around a hundred dollars.[12]

The limited budget also dictated the filming location and time schedule. Halloween was filmed in 20 days in the spring of 1978 in South Pasadena, California, Garfield Elementary School in Alhambra, and the cemetery at Sierra Madre, California. An abandoned house owned by a church stood in as the Myers house. Two homes on Orange Grove Avenue (near Sunset Boulevard) in Hollywood were used for the film's climax.[17] The crew had difficulty finding pumpkins in the spring, and artificial fall leaves had to be reused for multiple scenes. Local families dressed their children in Halloween costumes for trick-or-treat scenes.[12]

In August 2006, Fangoria reported that Synapse Films had discovered boxes of negatives containing footage cut from the film. One was labeled "1981" suggesting that it was additional footage for the television version of the film. Synapse owner Don May, Jr. said, "What we've got is pretty much all the unused original camera negative from Carpenter's original Halloween. Luckily, Billy [Kirkus] was able to find this material before it was destroyed. The story on how we got the negative is a long one, but we'll save it for when we're able to showcase the materials in some way. Kirkus should be commended for pretty much saving the Holy Grail of horror films."[18] It was later reported, "We just learned from Sean Clark, long time Halloween genius, that the footage found is just that: footage. There is no sound in any of the reels so far, since none of it was used in the final edit."[19]


It took approximately 10 days to write the script. Yablans and Akkad ceded most of the creative control to writers Carpenter and Hill (whom Carpenter wanted as producer), but Yablans did offer several suggestions. According to a Fangoria interview with Hill, "Yablans wanted the script written like a radio show, with 'boos' every 10 minutes."[16] Hill explained that the script took three weeks to write and much of the inspiration behind the plot came from Celtic traditions of Halloween such as the festival of Samhain. Although Samhain is not mentioned in the plot of the first film, Hill asserts that:

...the idea was that you couldn't kill evil, and that was how we came about the story. We went back to the old idea of Samhain, that Halloween was the night where all the souls are let out to wreak havoc on the living, and then came up with the story about the most evil kid who ever lived. And when John came up with this fable of a town with a dark secret of someone who once lived there, and now that evil has come back, that's what made Halloween work.[16]

Hill wrote most of the female characters' dialogue,[9] while Carpenter drafted Loomis' speeches on the soullessness of Michael Myers. Many script details were drawn from Carpenter's and Hill's adolescence and early careers. The fictional town of Haddonfield, Illinois was derived from Haddonfield, New Jersey, where Hill grew up, and most of the street names were taken from Carpenter's hometown of Bowling Green, Kentucky. Laurie Strode was the name of one of Carpenter's old girlfriends and Michael Myers was the name of an English producer who had previously entered, with Yablans, Assault on Precinct 13 in various European film festivals.[12] In Halloween, Carpenter pays homage to Alfred Hitchcock with two characters' names: Tommy Doyle is named after Lt. Det. Thomas J. Doyle (Wendell Corey) from Rear Window (1954), and Dr. Loomis' name was taken from Sam Loomis (John Gavin) from Psycho, the boyfriend of Marion Crane (Janet Leigh, who is the real-life mother of Jamie Lee Curtis). Sheriff Leigh Brackett shared the name of a Hollywood screenwriter.

"I met this six year old child with this blank, pale, emotionless face, and the blackest eyes; the devil's eyes [...] I realized what was living behind that boy's eyes was purely and simply...evil."

— Loomis' description of a young Michael was inspired by John Carpenter's experience with a real life mental patient.[9]

Carpenter's inspiration for the "evil" that Michael would embody came when he was in college. While on a class trip at a mental institution in Kentucky, Carpenter visited "the most serious, mentally ill patients". Among those patients was a young boy around twelve to thirteen years-old. The boy gave this "schizophrenic stare", "a real evil stare", which Carpenter found "unsettling", "creepy", and "completely insane". Carpenter's experience would inspire the characterization that Loomis would give of Michael to Sheriff Brackett in the film.[9]


Jamie Lee Curtis, in her feature film debut, plays Laurie Strode, the heroine of the film.

The cast of Halloween included veteran actor Donald Pleasence and then-unknown actress Jamie Lee Curtis. The low budget limited the number of big names that Carpenter could attract, and most of the actors received very little compensation for their roles. Pleasence was paid the highest amount at $20,000, Curtis received $8,000, and Nick Castle earned $25 a day.[12] The role of Dr. Loomis was originally intended for Peter Cushing, who had recently appeared as Grand Moff Tarkin in Star Wars (1977); Cushing's agent rejected Carpenter's offer due to the low salary. Christopher Lee was also approached for the role; he too turned it down, although the actor would later tell Carpenter and Hill that declining the role was the biggest mistake he made during his career. Yablans then suggested Pleasence, who agreed to star because his daughter Lucy, a guitarist, had enjoyed Assault on Precinct 13 for Carpenter's score.[9] American audiences were primarily acquainted with Pleasence due to his portrayal of the villain Ernst Stavro Blofeld in the James Bond film You Only Live Twice (1967).[20]

In an interview, Carpenter admits that "Jamie Lee wasn't the first choice for Laurie. I had no idea who she was. She was 19 and in a TV show at the time, but I didn't watch TV." He originally wanted to cast Anne Lockhart, the daughter of June Lockhart from Lassie, as Laurie Strode. However, Lockhart had commitments to several other film and television projects.[14] Hill says of learning that Jamie Lee was the daughter of Psycho actress Janet Leigh, "I knew casting Jamie Lee would be great publicity for the film because her mother was in Psycho."[16] Halloween was Curtis' feature film debut and launched her career as a "scream queen" horror star. Another relatively unknown actress, Nancy Kyes (credited in the film as Nancy Loomis), was cast as Laurie's friend Annie Brackett, daughter of Haddonfield sheriff Leigh Brackett (Charles Cyphers). Kyes had previously starred in Assault on Precinct 13 (as had Cyphers) and happened to be dating Halloween's art director Tommy Lee Wallace when filming began.[21] Carpenter chose P. J. Soles to play Lynda Van Der Klok, another friend of Laurie's, best remembered in the film for dialogue peppered with the word "totally." Soles was an actress known for her supporting role in Carrie (1976) and her minor part in The Boy in the Plastic Bubble (1976). According to one source, "Carpenter realized she had captured the aura of a happy go lucky teenage girl in the 70s."[22]

The role of "The Shape" — as the masked Michael Myers character was billed in the end credits — was played by Nick Castle, who befriended Carpenter while they attended the University of Southern California. After Halloween, Castle became a director, taking the helm of films such as The Last Starfighter (1984), The Boy Who Could Fly (1986), Dennis the Menace (1993), and Major Payne (1995).[23]


Historian Nicholas Rogers notes that film critics contend that Carpenter's direction and camera work made Halloween a "resounding success".[24] Roger Ebert remarks, "It's easy to create violence on the screen, but it's hard to do it well. Carpenter is uncannily skilled, for example, at the use of foregrounds in his compositions, and everyone who likes thrillers knows that foregrounds are crucial ...."[25] The opening title, featuring a jack-o'-lantern placed against a black backdrop, sets the mood for the entire film. The camera slowly moves toward the jack-o'-lantern's left eye as the main title theme plays. After the camera fully closes in, the jack-o'-lantern's light dims and goes out. Film historian J.P. Telotte says that this scene "clearly announces that [the film's] primary concern will be with the way in which we see ourselves and others and the consequences that often attend our usual manner of perception".[26] During the conception of the plot, Yablans instructed "that the audience shouldn't see anything. It should be what they thought they saw that frightens them".[16] Carpenter seemingly took Yablans' advice literally, filming many of the scenes from Michael Myers's point-of-view that allowed audience participation. Carpenter is not the first director to employ this method or use of a steadicam; for instance, the first scene of Psycho offers a voyeuristic look at lovers in a seedy hotel. Telotte argues, "As a result of this shift in perspective from a disembodied, narrative camera to an actual character's eye ... we are forced into a deeper sense of participation in the ensuing action".[27] Along with the 1974 Canadian horror film Black Christmas, Halloween made use of seeing events through the killer's eyes.[citation needed]

This scene features Michael (right), who pins Bob (left) to the door and observes his dying motions. Remaining relatively un-graphic, this scene displays the use of lighting to create its atmosphere rather than graphic blood and violence.

The first scene of the young Michael's voyeurism is followed by the murder of Judith seen through the eye holes of Michael's clown costume mask. According to one commentator, Carpenter's "frequent use of the unmounted first-person camera to represent the killer's point of view ... invited [viewers] to adopt the murderer's assaultive gaze and to hear his heavy breathing and plodding footsteps as he stalked his prey".[28] Another technique that Carpenter adapted from Alfred Hitchcock's Psycho (1960) was suspense with minimal blood and gore. Hill comments, "We didn't want it to be gory. We wanted it to be like a jack-in-the box."[16] Film analysts refer to this as the "false startle" or "the old tap-on-the-shoulder routine" in which the stalkers, murderers, or monsters "lunge into our field of vision or creep up on a person."[29] Carpenter worked with the cast to create the desired effect of terror and suspense. According to Curtis, Carpenter created a "fear meter" because the film was shot out-of-sequence and she was not sure what her character's level of terror should be in certain scenes. "Here's about a 7, here's about a 6, and the scene we're going to shoot tonight is about a 9½", remembered Curtis. She had different facial expressions and scream volumes for each level on the meter.[30]

Carpenter's direction for Castle in his role as Myers was minimal. For example, when Castle asked what Myers' motivation was for a particular scene, Carpenter replied that his motivation was to walk from one set marker to another.[9] The documentary titled Halloween Un-masked, featured in the 22nd anniversary DVD of Halloween, John Carpenter states he also instructed Castle to tilt his head a couple of times as if he was observing the corpse, particularly in the scene when Myers impaled one of his victims against a wall.[9]


Another major reason for the success of Halloween is the moody musical score, particularly the main theme. Lacking a symphonic soundtrack, the film's score consists of a piano melody played in a 10/8 or "complex 5/4" meter composed and performed by director John Carpenter. It took Carpenter three days to compose the entire score for the film. Critic James Berardinelli calls the score "relatively simple and unsophisticated", but admits that "Halloween's music is one of its strongest assets".[31] Carpenter stated in an interview, "I can play just about any keyboard, but I can't read or write a note."[14] In the end credits, Carpenter bills himself as the "Bowling Green Philharmonic Orchestra" for performing the film's score, but he did receive assistance from composer Dan Wyman, a music professor at San José State University.[12][32]

Some songs can be heard in the film, one being an untitled song performed by Carpenter and a group of his friends who formed a band called The Coupe De Villes. The song is heard as Laurie steps into Annie's car on her way to babysit Tommy Doyle.[12] Another song, "(Don't Fear) The Reaper" by classic rock band Blue Öyster Cult, appears in the film.[33]

The soundtrack was first released in the United States in October 1983, by Varèse Sarabande/MCA.[citation needed] It was subsequently released on Compact Disc in 1985, re-released in 1990, and again in 2000.[citation needed] On the film's 40th anniversary, coinciding with the release of Anthology: Movie Themes 1974–1998, a remix of the theme by Trent Reznor and Atticus Ross was released.[34]


Ad, The Village Voice, Nov. 6, 1978: only known, published window for date of film's New York City premiere ("Held over...2nd week")[35]

Theatrical run[edit]

Halloween premiered on October 25, 1978 in Kansas City, Missouri (at the AMC Midland/Empire) and sometime afterward in Chicago, Illinois, and in New York City. It had its Los Angeles debut October 27, 1978.[35][36] It opened in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, on November 22, 1978.[37] The film grossed $47 million in the United States[4] and an additional $23 million internationally, making the theatrical total $70 million.[3]

On September 7, 2012, the official Halloween Movies Facebook page announced that the original Halloween would be theatrically re-released starting October 25, 2013 in celebration of the film's 35th anniversary in 2013. A new documentary was screened before the film at all locations, entitled, You Can't Kill the Boogeyman: 35 Years of Halloween, written and directed by HalloweenMovies.com webmaster Justin Beahm.[38][39]

Television rights[edit]

In 1980, the television rights to Halloween were sold to the National Broadcasting Company (NBC) for $4 million. After a debate among Carpenter, Hill and NBC's Standards and Practices over censoring of certain scenes, Halloween appeared on television for the first time in October 1981.[16] To fill the two-hour time slot, Carpenter filmed twelve minutes of additional material during the production of Halloween II. The newly filmed scenes include Dr. Loomis at a hospital board review of Michael Myers and Dr. Loomis talking to a then-6-year-old Michael at Smith's Grove, telling him, "You've fooled them, haven't you, Michael? But not me." Another extra scene features Dr. Loomis at Smith's Grove examining Michael's abandoned cell after his escape and seeing the word "Sister" scratched into the door. Finally, a scene was added in which Lynda comes over to Laurie's house to borrow a silk blouse before Laurie leaves to babysit, just as Annie telephones asking to borrow the same blouse. The new scene had Laurie's hair hidden by a towel, since Curtis was by then wearing a much shorter hairstyle than she had worn in 1978.[citation needed]

Home video releases[edit]

Since Halloween's premiere, it has been released in several home video formats, including VHS, LaserDisc, DVD, UMD and Blu-ray. Early VHS versions were released by Media Home Entertainment and Blockbuster Video issued a commemorative edition in August 3, 1995. Anchor Bay Entertainment (succeder in-interest to Media Home Entertainment and Video Treasures) has released several restored editions of Halloween on VHS and DVD, including "Halloween: Unmasked"; a documentary produced and directed by Mark Cerulli which featured an array of interviews with original Halloween cast and crew including Jamie Lee Curtis, Debra Hill, John Carpenter, Nick Castle and others. The most recent release of the film is the 2007 single-disc restored version, with improved picture and sound quality.[40] Anchor Bay has also released an "extended edition" of Halloween that features the original theatrical release with the scenes that were shot for the broadcast TV version edited in at their proper places.[41] In 2003, the film was released on a two-disc "25th Anniversary edition" with improved DiviMax picture and audio, along with an audio commentary by John Carpenter, Jamie Lee Curtis and Debra Hill, the A Cut Above The Rest documentary, On Location: 25 Years Later featurette, the trailer, TV spots, radio spots, poster and still gallery, and DVD-ROM content. In 2007, the movie was released on Blu-ray as well, marking the film's first ever Blu-ray release. The Blu-ray features a commentary track by Carpenter, Hill and Curtis, the trailer, TV spots, radio spots, fast film facts and the documentary Halloween: A Cut Above the Rest.[36] In 2008, a "30th Anniversary commemorative set" was released, containing the film on DVD and Blu-ray along with the "extended edition", disc one of the 25 Years of Terror documentary DVD and the sequels: Halloween 4: The Return of Michael Myers and Halloween 5: The Revenge of Michael Myers, including a replica Michael Myers mask. The DVD release was THX certified. The film has made $18,500,000 in home video rentals.[citation needed]

On June 6, 2013, it was announced that a second, 35th anniversary, Blu-ray release for Halloween is in the works and that John Carpenter and Jamie Lee Curtis have recorded a new commentary.[42] On June 11, it was announced that Dean Cundey is supervising a new high-definition transfer.[43] On July 22, the official cover art for the 35th anniversary Blu-ray release was revealed including the new special features such as the all-new high definition transfer by Cundey, the new commentary track by Carpenter and Curtis as well as a new 7.1 audio mix, the original mono audio mix, a new featurette with Curtis titled "The Night She Came Home", an "On-Location" featurette, the trailer, television and radio spots and the additional scenes from the extended television version. The 35th-anniversary release earned a Saturn Award for Best Classic Film Release.[44]


Critical response[edit]

Upon its initial release, Halloween performed well with little advertising—relying mostly on word-of-mouth, but many critics seemed uninterested or dismissive of the film. Pauline Kael wrote a scathing review in The New Yorker suggesting that "Carpenter doesn't seem to have had any life outside the movies: one can trace almost every idea on the screen to directors such as Hitchcock and Brian De Palma and to the Val Lewton productions" and claiming that "Maybe when a horror film is stripped of everything but dumb scariness—when it isn't ashamed to revive the stalest device of the genre (the escaped lunatic)—it satisfies part of the audience in a more basic, childish way than sophisticated horror pictures do."[45] The first glowing review by a prominent film critic came from Tom Allen of The Village Voice in November 1978. Allen noted that the film was sociologically irrelevant but ceded that the Hitchcock-like technique was effective and "the most honest way to make a good schlock film". Allen pointed out the stylistic similarities to Psycho and George A. Romero's Night of the Living Dead (1968).[35][46] The following month, Voice lead critic Andrew Sarris wrote a follow-up feature on cult films, citing Allen's appraisal of Halloween and saying in the lead sentence that the film "bids fair to become the cult discovery of 1978. Audiences have been heard screaming at its horrifying climaxes".[47] Roger Ebert gave the film similar praise in his 1979 review in the Chicago Sun-Times[48] and selected it as one of his top ten films of 1978.[49] Once-dismissive critics were impressed by Carpenter's choice of camera angles and simple music, and surprised by the lack of blood and graphic violence.[31] On review aggregate website Rotten Tomatoes, the film has an approval rating of 93% based on 54 reviews, with an average rating of 8.5/10. The site's critical consensus reads, "Scary, suspenseful, and viscerally thrilling, Halloween set the standard for modern horror films."[50]

Many compared the film with the work of Alfred Hitchcock, although TV Guide calls comparisons made to Psycho "silly and groundless"[51] and critics in the late 1980s and early 1990s blame the film for spawning the slasher subgenre, which they felt had rapidly descended into sadism and misogyny.[52] Almost a decade after its premiere, Mick Martin and Marsha Porter critiqued the first-person camera shots that earlier film reviewers had praised and later slasher-film directors utilized for their own films (for example, 1980's Friday the 13th). Claiming it encouraged audience identification with the killer, Martin and Porter pointed to the way "the camera moves in on the screaming, pleading, victim, 'looks down' at the knife, and then plunges it into chest, ear, or eyeball. Now that's sick."[7]

Years after its debut, Halloween enjoys a reputation as a classic[50] and is considered by many as one of the best films of 1978.[49][53][54][55][56]

Themes and analysis[edit]

Many criticisms of Halloween and other slasher films come from postmodern academia. Some feminist critics, according to historian Nicholas Rogers, "have seen the slasher movies since Halloween as debasing women in as decisive a manner as hard-core pornography."[52] Critics such as John Kenneth Muir state that female characters such as Laurie Strode survive not because of "any good planning" or their own resourcefulness, but sheer luck. Although she manages to repel the killer several times, in the end, Strode is rescued in Halloween and Halloween II only when Dr. Loomis arrives to shoot Myers.[57]

On the other hand, other feminist scholars such as Carol J. Clover argue that despite the violence against women, slasher films turned women into heroines. In many pre-Halloween horror films, women are depicted as helpless victims and are not safe until they are rescued by a strong masculine hero. Despite the fact that Loomis saves Strode, Clover asserts that Halloween initiates the role of the "final girl" who ultimately triumphs in the end. Strode fights back against Myers and severely wounds him. Had Myers been a normal man, Strode's attacks would have killed him; even Loomis, the male hero of the story, who shoots Michael repeatedly at near point blank range with a large caliber handgun, cannot kill him.[58]

Aviva Briefel argued that moments such as when Michael's face was temporarily revealed are meant to give pleasure to the male viewer. Briefel further argues that these moments are masochistic in nature and give pleasure to men because they are willingly submitting themselves to the women of the film; they submit themselves temporarily because it will make their return to authority even more powerful.[59] Critics, such as Pat Gill, see Halloween as a critique of American social values. She remarks that parental figures are almost entirely absent throughout the film, noting that when Laurie is attacked by Michael while babysitting, "No parents, either of the teenagers or of the children left in their charge, call to check on their children or arrive to keen over them."[60]

Another major theme found in the film is the dangers of pre-marital sex. Clover believes that killers in slasher films are fueled by a "psychosexual fury"[61] and that all the killings are sexual in nature. She reinforces this idea by saying that "guns have no place in slasher films" and when examining the film I Spit on Your Grave she notes that "a hands-on killing answers a hands-on rape in a way that a shooting, even a shooting preceded by a humiliation, does not."[62] Equating sex with violence is important in Halloween and the slasher genre according to Pat Gill, who made a note of this in her essay "The Monstrous Years: Teens, Slasher Films, and the Family". She remarks that Laurie's friends "think of their babysitting jobs as opportunities to share drinks and beds with their boyfriends. One by one they are killed... by Michael Myers an asylum escapee who years ago at the age of six murdered his sister for preferring sex to taking care of him."[60]

The danger of suburbia is another major theme that runs throughout the movie and the slasher genre itself, Pat Gill states that slasher films "seem to mock white flight to gated communities, in particular the attempts of parents to shield their children from the dangerous influences represented by the city".[63] Halloween and slasher films, generally, are supposed to represent the underside of suburbia. Michael Myers was raised in a suburban household and after he escapes the mental hospital he returns to his hometown to kill again; Myers is a product of the suburban environment.[63]

Carpenter himself dismisses the notion that Halloween is a morality play, regarding it as merely a horror movie. According to Carpenter, critics "completely missed the point there". He explains, "The one girl who is the most sexually uptight just keeps stabbing this guy with a long knife. She's the most sexually frustrated. She's the one that's killed him. Not because she's a virgin but because all that sexually repressed energy starts coming out. She uses all those phallic symbols on the guy."[9][10]


Halloween was nominated for the Saturn Award for Best Horror Film by the Academy of Science Fiction, Fantasy & Horror Films in 1979, but lost to The Wicker Man (1973).[64] In 2001, Halloween ranked #68 on the American Film Institute TV program 100 Years...100 Thrills.[65] The film was #14 on Bravo's The 100 Scariest Movie Moments (2004).[66] Similarly, the Chicago Film Critics Association named it the 3rd scariest film ever made.[67] In 2006, Halloween was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant".[68] In 2007, the AOL 31 Days of Horror countdown named Halloween the greatest horror movie.[69] In 2008, the film was selected by Empire magazine as one of The 500 Greatest Movies of All Time.[70] In 2010, Total Film selected the film as one of The 100 Greatest Movies of All Time.[71]

American Film Institute lists


Halloween is a widely influential film within the horror genre; it was largely responsible for the popularization of slasher films in the 1980s. Halloween popularized many tropes that have become completely synonymous with the slasher genre. Halloween helped to popularize the final girl trope, the killing off of characters who are substance abusers or sexually promiscuous, and the use of a theme song for the killer. Carpenter also shot many scenes from the perspective of the killer in order to build tension. These elements have become so established that many historians argue that Halloween is responsible for the new wave of horror that emerged during the 1980s.[72][73] Due to its popularity, Halloween became a blueprint for success that many other horror films, such as Friday the 13th and A Nightmare on Elm Street, would follow, and that others like Scream would satirise.[citation needed]

The major themes present in Halloween would also become common in the slasher films it inspired. Film scholar Pat Gill notes that in Halloween, there is a theme of absentee parents[60] but films such as A Nightmare on Elm Street and Friday the 13th feature the parents becoming directly responsible for the creation of the killer.[74]

There are slasher films that predated Halloween, such as The Texas Chain Saw Massacre and Black Christmas which contained prominent elements of the slasher genre; both involving a group of teenagers being murdered by a stranger as well having the final girl trope. Halloween, however, is seen by historians as being responsible for the new wave of horror films because it not only used these tropes but also pioneered many others.[72][73]

A mass market paperback novelization of the same name, written by Curtis Richards (a pseudonym that was used by author Richard Curtis), was published by Bantam Books in 1979. It was reissued in 1982; it later went out of print. The novelization adds aspects not featured in the film, such as the origins of the curse of Samhain and Michael Myers' life in Smith's Grove Sanatorium, which contradict its source material. For example, the novel's version of Michael speaks during his time at the sanitarium;[75] in the film, Dr. Loomis states, "He hasn't spoken a word in fifteen years." In 1983, Halloween was adapted as a video game for the Atari 2600 by Wizard Video. None of the main characters in the game were named. Players take on the role of a teenage babysitter who tries to save as many children from an unnamed, knife-wielding killer as possible. The game was not popular with parents or players and the graphics were simple, as was typical in Atari 2600 games. In another effort to save money, most versions of the game did not even have a label on the cartridge. It was simply a piece of tape with "Halloween" written in marker. The game contained more gore than the film, however. When the babysitter is killed, her head disappears and is replaced by blood pulsating from the neck as she runs around exaggeratedly. The game's primary similarity to the film is the theme music that plays when the killer appears onscreen.[76][77]

Sequels and remake[edit]

Halloween spawned seven sequels, a 2007 remake directed by Rob Zombie, and a 2009 sequel to the remake, which is unrelated to the sequel of the original.[78] Of these films, only the first sequel was written by Carpenter and Hill. It begins exactly where Halloween ends and was intended to finish the story of Michael Myers and Laurie Strode. Halloween II was a box office success, becoming the second-highest grossing horror film of 1981 behind An American Werewolf in London. Carpenter did not direct any of the subsequent films in the Halloween series, although he did produce Halloween III: Season of the Witch (1982), the plot of which is unrelated to the other films in the series due to the absence of Michael Myers.[79] He, along with Alan Howarth, also composed the music for the second and third films. After the negative critical and commercial reception for Season of the Witch, the filmmakers brought back Michael Myers in Halloween 4: The Return of Michael Myers (1988), which was successful enough to warrant its own direct sequel with Halloween 5: The Revenge of Michael Myers (1989), as well as Halloween: The Curse of Michael Myers (1995).[citation needed]

The sequels feature more explicit violence and blood and are generally dismissed by mainstream film critics, excluding Halloween II (1981) and Halloween H20: 20 Years Later (1998), which did receive better reviews than most of the other sequels in the franchise, yet still paled in comparison to the original film. They were filmed on larger budgets than the original: in contrast to Halloween's modest budget of $300,000, Halloween II's budget was around $2.5 million,[80] while the final sequel to the original, Halloween: Resurrection (2002), boasted a budget of $15 million.[81] Financier Moustapha Akkad continued to work closely with the Halloween franchise, acting as executive producer of every sequel until his death in the 2005 Amman bombings.[82]

With the exception of Halloween III, the sequels further develop the character of Michael Myers and the Samhain theme. Even without considering the third film, the Halloween series contains continuity issues, which some sources attribute to the different writers and directors involved in each film.[83] The 10 Halloween films, including the 2007 remake and its sequel, have had eight directors. Only Rick Rosenthal and Rob Zombie directed more than one: Rosenthal directed the first sequel as well as Halloween: Resurrection, while Zombie directed the remake of the original film and its sequel.[citation needed]

On February 9, 2017, Carpenter announced that a new Halloween film was going to be written by David Gordon Green and Danny McBride and will be directed by Green.[84] It will be a direct sequel to the original film and will ignore all the sequels.[85][86] In September 2017, Jamie Lee Curtis confirmed that she would reprise her role as Laurie Strode.[87] In October, Judy Greer entered negotiations to play Laurie's daughter Karen Strode.[88] In December 2017, it was announced Andi Matichak had signed on to play Karen Strode's daughter and Laurie's granddaughter.[89] The film will be distributed by Universal Pictures, their first involvement in the franchise since distributing 1982's Halloween III: Season of the Witch. On October 17, 2017, Carpenter announced that he would be returning to score the upcoming film, saying "I'll be consulting with the director to see what he feels. I could create a new score, we could update the old score and amplify it, or we could combine those two things. I'll have to see the movie to see what it requires."[90] On December 20, 2017, it was announced that Nick Castle would be reprising his role as Michael Myers.[91] Filming began on January 13, 2018,[92] concluding on February 19, 2018.[93] The film will be released on October 19, 2018.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Halloween". British Board of Film Classification. Retrieved January 15, 2015. 
  2. ^ a b The Associated Press (March 8, 2005). "Debra Hill, 54, Film Producer Who Helped Create 'Halloween,' Dies". The New York Times. Retrieved February 2, 2015. 
  3. ^ a b c d "Halloween (1978) - Financial Information". The Numbers. Retrieved March 22, 2012. 
  4. ^ a b c d "Halloween (1978)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved July 25, 2011. 
  5. ^ Miska, Brad (October 23, 2015). "John Carpenter On Why You Should See 'Halloween' in Theaters (Video)". Bloody Disgusting. Retrieved October 24, 2015. 
  6. ^ "Films Selected to The National Film Registry, 1989-2010". National Film Registry. Library of Congress. Retrieved 27 October 2012. 
  7. ^ a b Mick Martin and Marsha Porter (1986). Video Movie Guide 1987. New York: Ballantine Books. p. 60. ISBN 0-345-33872-3.
  8. ^ Tony Williams, "Trying to Survive on the Darker Side: 1980s Family Horror", in Barry K. Grant, ed., The Dread of Difference: Gender and the Horror Film (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1996), pp. 164 – 165, ISBN 0-292-72794-1.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h John Carpenter, Debra Hill, Nick Castle, Jamie Lee Curtis, and Tommy Lee Wallace (2003). A Cut Above the Rest (Halloween: 25th Anniversary Edition DVD Special Features) (DVD (Region 2)). United States: Anchor Bay. 
  10. ^ a b Carpenter, quoted in Alan Jones, The Rough Guide to Horror Movies (New York: Rough Guides, 2005), p. 102, ISBN 1-84353-521-1.
  11. ^ Carpenter, John (Writer/Director) and Debra Hill (Writer) (1978). Halloween (DVD). United States: Compass International Pictures. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i Behind the Scenes at HalloweenMovies.com; last accessed April 19, 2006.
  13. ^ Irwin Yablans, Fangoria interview, quoted at HalloweenMovies.com; last accessed April 19, 2006.
  14. ^ a b c d Carpenter, Entertainment Weekly interview, quoted at HalloweenMovies.com; last accessed April 19, 2006.
  15. ^ Moustapha Akkad, Fangoria interview, quoted at HalloweenMovies.com; last accessed April 19, 2006.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g Hill, Fangoria interview, quoted at HalloweenMovies.com; last accessed April 19, 2006.
  17. ^ "Halloween Filming Locations". Seeing-stars.com. Retrieved October 22, 2011. 
  18. ^ "Synapse Finds Complete Halloween Negatives," August 29, 2006, at Fangoria; last accessed September 3, 2006. Archived February 28, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
  19. ^ "Holy Grail of Halloween Footage Found" at Dread Central; last accessed on September 3, 2006.
  20. ^ Pleasence casting information at HalloweenMovies.com; last accessed April 19, 2006.
  21. ^ Nancy Loomis casting information at HalloweenMovies.com; last accessed April 19, 2006.
  22. ^ P. J. Soles casting information at HalloweenMovies.com; last accessed April 19, 2006
  23. ^ Nick Castle casting information at HalloweenMovies.com; last accessed April 19, 2006.
  24. ^ Nicholas Rogers, Halloween: From Pagan Ritual to Party Night (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), p. 111, ISBN 0-19-516896-8.
  25. ^ Roger Ebert, review of Halloween, Chicago Sun-Times, October 31, 1979, at RogerEbert.com; last accessed April 19, 2006.
  26. ^ J.P. Telotte, "Through a Pumpkin's Eye: The Reflexive Nature of Horror," in Gregory Waller, ed., American Horrors: Essays on the Modern American Horror Film (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1992), p. 116, ISBN 0-252-01448-0.
  27. ^ Telotte, "Through a Pumpkin's Eye," pp. 116 – 117.
  28. ^ Rogers, Halloween, p. 111.
  29. ^ David Scott Diffrient, "A Film is Being Beaten: Notes on the Shock Cut and the Material Violence of Horror," in Steffen Hantke, Horror Film: Creating and Marketing Fear (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2004), p. 61, ISBN 1-57806-692-1.
  30. ^ Curtis interview, quoted at HalloweenMovies.com; last accessed April 19, 2006.
  31. ^ a b Berardinelli, James. "review of Halloween". ReelViews.com. Retrieved January 25, 2012. 
  32. ^ Dan Wyman's faculty website at Dr. Daniel Wyman—San José State University Archived July 20, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.; last accessed September 23, 2010.
  33. ^ Halloween Soundtrack information from HalloweenMovies.com; last accessed April 19, 2006.
  34. ^ Kreps, Daniel (October 13, 2017). "Hear Trent Reznor, Atticus Ross' Chilling Take on 'Halloween' Theme". 
  35. ^ a b c Allen, Tom, "The Sleeper That's Here to Stay", The Village Voice, November 6, 1978, pp. 67, 70. While the review gives no New York City premiere date or specific theater, a display advertisement on page 72 reads: "Held over! 2nd week of horror! At a Flagship Theatre near you". Per the movie listings on pages 82, 84 and 85, respectively, it played at four since-defunct theaters: the Essex, located at 375 Grand Street in Chinatown, per Cinema Treasures: Essex Theatre; the RKO 86th Street Twin, on East 86th Street near Lexington Avenue; the Rivoli, located at 1620 Broadway, in the Times Square area, per Cinema Treasures: Rivoli Theatre; and the Times Square Theater, located at 217 West 42nd Street, per Treasures:Times Square Theater
  36. ^ a b Distribution at HalloweenMovies.com; last accessed April 19, 2006.
  37. ^ Anderson, George. "Low-Budget 'Halloween' on Thanksgiving: More in the Way of a Trick Than a Treat", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, November 23, 1978. "Opening yesterday at the Gateway, Downtown, the Cinemette East in Monroeville and the Showcase West in Robinson Township...."
  38. ^ "Here's the Poster for Halloween Re-Release". Shock Till You Drop. 13 September 2012. Retrieved 13 September 2012. 
  39. ^ "John Carpenter's Halloween Returning to Theaters This Fall". Shock Till You Drop. 13 September 2012. Retrieved 13 September 2012. 
  40. ^ "Halloween (1978) -> Releases". allrovi.com. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved October 22, 2011. 
  41. ^ Naugle, Patrick (August 24, 2001). "Halloween: Extended Version". DVD Verdict. Archived from the original on 2004-02-18. Retrieved October 5, 2014. 
  42. ^ Barton, Steve (June 6, 2013). "Anchor Bay working on Halloween 35th anniversary Blu-ray; Carpenter and Curtis record new commentary". Dread Central. Retrieved June 12, 2013. 
  43. ^ Serafini, Matt (June 11, 2013). "Dean Cundey will supervise Halloween 35th anniversary Blu-ray". Dread Central. Retrieved June 12, 2013. 
  44. ^ The 40th Saturn Awards Winners Archived February 29, 2012, at WebCite
  45. ^ Pauline Kael, review of Halloween, The New Yorker, 1978, at TheManWiththeHypnoticEye.com; last accessed April 19, 2006.
  46. ^ Allen, Tom. "Halloween" (November 1978 review), reprinted at Criterion.com, "The Criterion Collection, Online Cinematheque"
  47. ^ Sarris, Andrew. "Those Wild and Crazy Cult Movies", The Village Voice, December 18, 1978.
  48. ^ Ebert, Roger (October 31, 1979). "Halloween Movie Review & Film Summary (1979)". RogerEbert.com. Retrieved September 2, 2016. 
  49. ^ a b "Roger Ebert's 10 Best Lists: 1967–present". RogerEbert.com. Archived from the original on November 13, 2005. Retrieved May 21, 2010. 
  50. ^ a b Halloween at Rotten Tomatoes; last accessed October 15, 2017.
  51. ^ Halloween (review), TVGuide.com Movie Database; last accessed May 19, 2008.
  52. ^ a b Rogers, Halloween, pp. 117 – 118.
  53. ^ "Gene Siskel's 10 Best Lists: 1969–1998". Caltech.edu. Retrieved April 13, 2010. 
  54. ^ "The Greatest Films of 1978". AMC Filmsite.org. Retrieved April 13, 2010. 
  55. ^ "The 10 Best Movies of 1978". Film.com. Archived from the original on July 1, 2010. Retrieved April 13, 2010. 
  56. ^ "The Best Movies of 1978 by Rank". Films101.com. Retrieved April 13, 2010. 
  57. ^ John Kenneth Muir, Wes Craven: The Art of Horror (Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Company, 1998), p. 104, ISBN 0-7864-1923-7.
  58. ^ Carol J. Clover, Men, Women, and Chainsaws: Gender in the Modern Horror Film (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1992), p. 189, ISBN 0-691-00620-2.
  59. ^ Aviva Briefel, "Monster Pains: Masochism, Menstruation, and Identification in the Horror Film", Film Quarterly, 58:3, (Spring 2005), 17-18. https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/fq.2005.58.3.16.
  60. ^ a b c Pat Gill, "The Monstrous Years: Teens, Slasher Films, and the Family", Journal of Film and Video, 54:4, (Winter 2002), 22. https://www.jstor.org/stable/20688391.
  61. ^ Carol Clover, "Her Body, Himself: Gender in the Slasher Film", Representations 20, (Autumn, 1987), 194. https://www.jstor.org/stable/2928507.
  62. ^ Carol Clover, "Her Body, Himself: Gender in the Slasher Film", Representations 20, (Autumn, 1987), 198. https://www.jstor.org/stable/2928507.
  63. ^ a b Pat Gill, "The Monstrous Years: Teens, Slasher Films, and the Family", Journal of Film and Video, 54:4, (Winter 2002), 16. https://www.jstor.org/stable/20688391.
  64. ^ Saturn Award Nominees and Winners, 1979 at Internet Movie Database; last accessed April 19, 2006.
  65. ^ "AFI's 100 Years... 100 Thrills" (PDF). afi.com. Retrieved May 22, 2010. 
  66. ^ "Bravo's 100 Scariest Movie Moments". web.archive.org. Archived from the original on October 30, 2007. Retrieved May 22, 2010. 
  67. ^ "Chicago Critics' Scariest Films". AltFilmGuide.com. Retrieved May 22, 2010. 
  68. ^ "Halloween Added to the National Film Registry". Horror Movies. CA. Archived from the original on April 5, 2010. Retrieved May 22, 2010. 
  69. ^ 31 Days of Horror Countdown; accessed February 23, 2008.
  70. ^ "Empire's 500 Greatest Movies of All Time". Empire. Retrieved July 31, 2011. 
  71. ^ Total Film. "Film features: 100 Greatest Movies Of All Time". TotalFilm.com. Retrieved July 2, 2010. 
  72. ^ a b Carol Clover, Men, Women, and Chainsaws: Gender in the Modern Horror Film (Princetom: Princeton University Press, 1993), 24.
  73. ^ a b Ian Conrich, "Killing Time and Time Again: The Popular Appeal of Carpenters Horror’s and the Impact of the Thing and Halloween", in The Cinema of John Carpenter: The Technique of Terror, ed. Ian Conrich, and David Woods (Wallflower Press, 2005), 92.
  74. ^ Pat Gill, Journal of Film and Video, 54:4, (Winter 2002), 26. "The Monstrous Years: Teens, Slasher Films, and the Family".
  75. ^ Curtis Richards, Halloween (Bantam Books, 1979), ISBN 0-553-13226-1; 1982 reissue ISBN 0-553-26296-3.
  76. ^ Review of Halloween video game at X-Entertainment.com; last accessed April 19, 2006.
  77. ^ Gregory D. George, "History of Horror: A Primer of Horror Games for Your Atari" at The Atari Times; last accessed April 19, 2006. Archived April 22, 2006, at the Wayback Machine.
  78. ^ HalloweenMovies.com; last accessed May 19, 2008.
  79. ^ Behind the Scenes of Halloween III: Season of the Witch at HalloweenMovies.com Archived September 6, 2012, at Archive.is; last accessed April 19, 2006.
  80. ^ Business statistics for Halloween II at Internet Movie Database; last accessed April 19, 2006.
  81. ^ Business statistics for Halloween: Resurrection at Internet Movie Database; last accessed April 19, 2006.
  82. ^ "Moustapha Akkad (obituary)". The Daily Telegraph (London). November 12, 2005. Retrieved April 19, 2006.
  83. ^ "Rob Zombie interview". HalloweenMovies.com. June 16, 2006. Retrieved April 19, 2006.
  84. ^ Hipes, Patrick (February 9, 2017). "Halloween & Down? David Gordon Green To Direct New Franchise Take, Pen Script With Danny McBride". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved February 9, 2017. 
  85. ^ Daw, Robbie (October 9, 2017). "Q&A: John Carpenter Talks New Album Anthology & The Upcoming Halloween Sequel". Stereogum. Retrieved October 9, 2017. 
  86. ^ Bierly, Mandi (November 13, 2017). "Danny McBride on 'Halloween': 'I just hope that we don't f*** it up and p*** people off'". Yahoo!. Retrieved November 14, 2017. 
  87. ^ Curtis, Jamie Lee [@jamieleecurtis] (September 15, 2017). ""Same porch. Same clothes. Same issues. 40 years later. Headed back to Haddonfield one last time for Halloween. Release date 10/19/18."" (Tweet). Retrieved September 15, 2017 – via Twitter. 
  88. ^ N'Duka, Amanda (October 2, 2017). "Judy Greer Joins Halloween Sequel". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved October 11, 2017. 
  89. ^ "Andi Matichak Cast in the 2018 HALLOWEEN Film | Nightmare on Film Street". Nightmare on Film Street. December 8, 2017. Retrieved January 10, 2018. 
  90. ^ "John Carpenter Discusses Movie Themes Anthology, Directorial Career & Overcoming Stage Fright". Billboard. October 11, 2017. Retrieved October 17, 2017. 
  91. ^ Keene, Allison (December 20, 2017). "The 'Halloween' Reboot Will Bring Back the Original Michael Myers Actor". Collider. 
  92. ^ "[SPOILER ALERT!] First Behind-The-Scenes Photos of New HALLOWEEN Movie | Nightmare on Film Street". Nightmare on Film Street. January 28, 2018. Retrieved February 1, 2018. 
  93. ^ Turek, Ryan (February 19, 2018). "Ryan Turek on Instagram". Instagram. Retrieved February 19, 2018. 

External links[edit]