Halloween massacre (Angola)

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The Halloween massacre (also known as the Three Day War) refers to events which took place from October 30 to November 1, 1992 in Luanda, Angola as part of the Angolan Civil War.[1]


The Halloween massacre took place following the 1992 presidential and legislative elections, which were the first in the country's history. The government party, the People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), claimed victory in these elections. The opposition movement turned political party, National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), questioned the fairness of the election. Because neither the MPLA nor UNITA obtained the required absolute majority of the presidential election, a follow-up election was necessary according to the constitution.


As both sides heightened war rhetoric, the MPLA attacked UNITA positions in Luanda. Fighting ensued, leading to the deaths of many prominent UNITA officials, including Jeremias Chitunda, Elias Salupeto Pena and Aliceres Mango, who were pulled from their vehicle and shot dead.[1] Thousands of UNITA and National Liberation Front of Angola (FNLA) voters were massacred nationwide by MPLA forces over three days.[2]


Over 10,000 UNITA and FNLA followers were killed by MPLA forces,[2] mostly of the Ovimbundu and Bakongo ethnic groups.[3] Other estimates, based on church figures, estimate 25,000 to 40,000 UNITA and FNLA supporters were killed.[1]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c Historical Dictionary of Angola by W. Martin James, Susan Herlin Broadhead on Google Books
  2. ^ a b National Society for Human Rights, Ending the Angolan Conflict, Windhoek, Namibia, July 3, 2000; NSHR, Press Releases, September 12, 2000, May 16, 2001.
  3. ^ Chronology for Bakongo in Angola