Halmahera languages

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Halmahera
North Halmahera
Geographic
distribution:
Maluku
Linguistic classification: West Papuan
  • Halmahera
Glottolog: nort2923[1]

The (North) Halmahera languages are the Papuan languages of Halmahera and neighboring islands in Indonesia. The best known Halmaheran language is Ternate (50 000 native speakers), which is a regional lingua franca and which, along with Tidore, were the languages of the rival medieval Ternate and Tidore kingdoms of the spice trade.

Classification[edit]

The classification used here is that of Voorhoeve 1988.[2]


 Core Halmaheran 

TernateTidore



Sahu: Sahu, Waioli, Gamkonora



Galela–Tobelo (Northeast Halmaheran): Tobelo, GalelaLoloda, Modole, Pagu, Tabaru




West Makian



West Makian is divergent, perhaps due to Austronesian influence. It was once classified as an Austronesian language.

There is a degree of mutual intelligibility between the Galela–Tobelo languages, and Voorhoeve 1988 considered them dialects of a language he called Northeast Halmaheran, though most speakers consider them to be distinct languages. Ethnologue adds Kao, which it classifies as Sahu but notes may be a marginal dialect of Pagu.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "North Halmahera". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  2. ^ Voorhoeve, C.L. 1988. The languages of the northern Halmaheran stock. Papers in New Guinea Linguistics, no. 26., 181-209. (Pacific Linguistics A-76). Canberra: Australian National University.