Halonoproctidae

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Halonoproctidae
TrapDoorSpiderDorsal.jpg
Bothriocyrtum californicum
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Chelicerata
Class: Arachnida
Order: Araneae
Infraorder: Mygalomorphae
Family: Halonoproctidae
Pocock, 1901
Diversity
6 genera, 93 species

Halonoproctidae is a family of mygalomorph spiders, split off from the family Ctenizidae in 2018. Species in the family are widely distributed in North and Central America, Australasia, Asia, southern Europe and North Africa. One species is recorded from Venezuela in South America.[1] They are relatively large, sombrely coloured spiders, that live in burrows with some kind of trapdoor.

Description[edit]

Spiders of the family Halonoproctidae are of a medium to large size for spiders. They construct burrows with some kind of trapdoor, either wafer-like or cork-like. They range in colour from light brown to black, usually without any strongly distinctive body markings. The carapace is usually without hairs and has only a few spines. The sternum is longer than it is wide, and has sigillae at least in the posterior part. The eyes are arranged in two or three rows. Females do not have scopulae on their legs, but do have unique curved, thorn-like spines on the sides of legs I and II. Males have scopulae on the tarsi of at least some legs, often all. Their anterior legs have prominent spines and projections on the distal segments; their posterior legs have larger spines. Two pairs of spinnerets are present: the posterior median pair being short and unsegmented, the posterior lateral pair are longer, but still short, and have three segments, the apical one being the shortest. The female spermathecae have a single lobe. The male palpal bulb has a thin embolus, and is borne on a spineless cymbium.[2]

Taxonomy[edit]

The group was first described by R. I. Pocock in 1901, as the subfamily Halonoproctinae of the family Ctenizidae. The subfamily was named after the genus Halonoproctus which Pocock erected at the same time. Halonoproctus is now considered to be a junior synonym of Cyclocosmia, but this does not alter the priority of the name Halonoproctinae. Studies of the Ctenizidae using molecular phylogenetic approaches from 2006 onwards repeatedly found the family to be either paraphyletic or polyphyletic, but did not include all the genera placed in the family. A 2018 study that did include all nine genera found that six genera, including Cyclocosmia, formed a monophyletic group, and so elevated Pocock's subfamily to the family Halonoproctidae. The status of the remaining three genera of the original Ctenizidae remained unclear. In the cladogram below, they are shaded in yellow.[2]

Stasimopus

Heteromigas (Migidae)

Idiops (Idiopidae)

Myrmekiaphila (Euctenizidae)

Cteniza

Cyrtocarenum

Halonoproctidae
Halonoproctinae

Cyclocosmia

Bothriocyrtum

Hebestatis

Ummidiinae

Latouchia

Conothele

Ummidia

Genera[edit]

Cyclocosmia truncata

As of May 2018, the World Spider Catalog accepted the following genera.[1] The family is divided into two subfamilies.[2]

Distribution[edit]

Species in the family Halonoproctidae have been recorded from western and eastern North and Central America and the Caribbean, with one species, Ummidia asperula, found in Venezuela in South America; on either side of the Mediterranean, in southern Europe and north-west Africa; in eastern Asia; and in Australasia.[2]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Family Halonoproctidae Pocock, 1901", World Spider Catalog, Natural History Museum Bern, retrieved 2018-05-14
  2. ^ a b c d Godwin, Rebecca L.; Opatova, Vera; Garrison, Nicole L.; Hamilton, Chris A. & Bond, Jason E. (2018-09-01), "Phylogeny of a cosmopolitan family of morphologically conserved trapdoor spiders (Mygalomorphae, Ctenizidae) using Anchored Hybrid Enrichment, with a description of the family, Halonoproctidae Pocock 1901", Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 126: 303–313, doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2018.04.008