Witch-hazel

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Witch-hazel
Hamamelis virginiana - Köhler–s Medizinal-Pflanzen-070.jpg
Hamamelis virginiana
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Core eudicots
Order: Saxifragales
Family: Hamamelidaceae
Genus: Hamamelis
Gronov. ex L.
Species

Hamamelis japonica
Hamamelis mexicana
Hamamelis mollis
Hamamelis ovalis
Hamamelis vernalis
Hamamelis virginiana

Witch-hazels (Hamamelis, /ˌhæməˈmlɪs/)[1] are a genus of flowering plants in the family Hamamelidaceae, with four species in North America (H. mexicana,[2] H. ovalis,[3] H. virginiana, and H. vernalis), and one each in Japan (H. japonica) and China (H. mollis). The North American species are occasionally called winterbloom.[4][5]

Growth[edit]

The witch-hazels are deciduous shrubs or (rarely) small trees growing to 10–25 feet (3.0–7.6 m) tall, rarely to 40 feet (12 m) tall. The leaves are alternately arranged, oval, 2–6 inches (5.1–15.2 cm) long and 1–4 inches (2.5–10.2 cm) broad, with a smooth or wavy margin. The genus name, Hamamelis, means "together with fruit", referring to the simultaneous occurrence of flowers with the maturing fruit from the previous year.[6] H. virginiana blooms in September–November while the other species bloom from January–March. Each flower has four slender strap-shaped petals 3834 inch (0.95–1.91 cm) long, pale to dark yellow, orange, or red. The fruit is a two-part capsule 38 inch (0.95 cm) long, containing a single 14 inch (0.64 cm) glossy black seed in each of the two parts; the capsule splits explosively at maturity in the autumn about 8 months after flowering, ejecting the seeds with sufficient force to fly for distances of up to 30 feet (9.1 m), thus another alternative name "Snapping Hazel".

Etymology[edit]

The name Witch in witch-hazel has its origins in Middle English wiche, from the Old English wice, meaning "pliant" or "bendable".[7] "Witch hazel" was used in England as a synonym for Wych Elm, Ulmus glabra;[8] The use of the twigs as divining rods, just as hazel twigs were used in England, may also have, by folk etymology, influenced the "witch" part of the name.[5]

Genera[edit]

The Persian ironwood, a closely related tree formerly treated as Hamamelis persica, is now given a genus of its own, as Parrotia persica, as it differs in the flowers not having petals. Other closely allied genera are Parrotiopsis, Fothergilla, and Sycopsis (see under Hamamelidaceae). Witch-hazels are not closely related to the true Corylus hazels, though they have a few superficially similar characteristics which may cause one to believe that they are.

Cultivation[edit]

They are popular ornamental plants, grown for their clusters of rich yellow to orange-red flowers which begin to expand in the autumn as or slightly before the leaves fall, and continue throughout the winter.

Garden shrubs[edit]

Hamamelis virginiana was introduced into English gardens by Peter Collinson, who maintained correspondence with plant hunters in the American colonies. Nowadays, it is rarely seen in the nursery trade except for woodland/wildlife restoration projects and native plant enthusiasts. Much more common is H. mollis, which has bright yellow flowers that bloom in late winter instead of the yellow blossoms of H. virginiana which tend to be lost among the plant's fall foliage. The plant-hunter Charles Maries collected for Veitch Nurseries in the Chinese district of Jiujiang in 1879. It languished in nursery rows for years until it was noticed, propagated and put on the market in 1902.[9]

Numerous cultivars have been selected for use as garden shrubs, many of them derived from the hybrid H. × intermedia Rehder (H. japonica × H. mollis). Jelena and Robert de Belder of Arboretum Kalmthout, selecting for red cultivars, found three: the first, with bronze flowers, was named 'Jelena'; the next, with red flowers, was named 'Diane' (the name of their daughter); the last, with deep red flowers, was called 'Livia' (the name of their granddaughter).

Uses[edit]

The leaves and bark of the North American witch-hazel, Hamamelis virginiana, may be used to produce an astringent decoction as a cooling agent for various uses in traditional medicine, herbalism, and skincare products.[10] This decoction was widely used for medicinal purposes by Native Americans[5] and is typically sold in modern pharmacies as witch hazel water[5][10] or as semisolid ointments, creams, gels or salves.[11] It is commonly used to treat diaper rash in infants.[10] As an ingredient or topical agent, witch hazel water is regulated in the United States as an over-the-counter drug for external use only to soothe minor skin irritations.[12]

Witch hazel water is used externally on sores, bruises, and for skin care, such as topical treatment of psoriasis, eczema, aftershave products, cracked or blistered skin, insect bites, poison ivy, and skin burns.[10] It is found in numerous over-the-counter hemorrhoid preparations.[10] It is recommended to women to reduce swelling and soothe wounds resulting from childbirth.[13]

Although not fatal, oral consumption of witch hazel water is potentially toxic resulting from the high content of tannins remaining in commercial products.[10] As a result, the ingestion of witch hazel water is inadvisable during pregnancy and lactation.[14]

In the United States, witch hazel water can be used as an ingredient for topical applications,[12] but individual products are not approved as drugs. In 2017, one manufacturer of skincare products containing witch hazel was warned by the Food and Drug Administration for making unsubstantiated health claims and for not providing evidence the products are safe.[15]

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
  2. ^ Xie, Lei; Yi, Ting-Shuang; Li, Rong; Li, De-Zhu; Wen, Jun (2010). "Evolution and biogeographic diversification of the witch-hazel genus (Hamamelis L., Hamamelidaceae) in the Northern Hemisphere". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 56: 675–689. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2010.02.018. 
  3. ^ Hamamelis ovalis S. W. Leonard (2006), GRIN Taxonomy for Plants
  4. ^ Noted in Ernest Thompson Seton, The Book of Woodcraft and Indian Lore (1921:422), but rare.
  5. ^ a b c d Andriote, J-M (6 November 2012). "The Mysterious Past and Present of Witch Hazel". The Atlantic. Retrieved 13 April 2017. 
  6. ^ Hiker's Notebook: Witch Hazel
  7. ^ Douglas Harper (2001). "witch hazel". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  8. ^ First occurrence 1541 (OED, s.v. "Witch hazel").
  9. ^ Alice M. Coats, Garden Shrubs and Their Histories (1964) 1992, s.v. "Hamamelis".
  10. ^ a b c d e f "Witch hazel". Drugs.com. 2009. Retrieved 13 April 2017. 
  11. ^ "Witch hazel - topical". Health Canada: Drugs and Health Products. 13 April 2010. Retrieved 13 April 2017. 
  12. ^ a b "Code of Federal Regulations; Title 21, Sec. 347.52 Labeling of astringent drug products; (3) For products containing witch hazel". US Food and Drug Administration. 1 April 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2017. 
  13. ^ "Postpartum care: After a vaginal delivery". MayoClinic.com. 2012-03-16. Retrieved 2013-08-09. 
  14. ^ Burlando, B; Verotta, L; Cornara, L; Bottini-Massa, E (2010). Herbal Principles in Cosmetics: properties and mechanisms of action. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. p. 365. ISBN 978-1-4398-1214-3. 
  15. ^ Bromley, Gerald D. (6 March 2017). "Warning letter: Aegeia Skin Care, LLC". Inspections, Compliance, Enforcement, and Criminal Investigations, US Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 13 April 2017. 

Additional reading[edit]

  • Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan. 
  • Fergus, Charles (2002). Trees of Pennsylvania and the Northeast. Stackpole Books. pp. 156–9. ISBN 0-8117-2092-6. 

External links[edit]