Hamas

Page extended-protected
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Islamic Resistance Movement
حركة المقاومة الإسلامية
Chairman of the Political BureauIsmail Haniyeh
Deputy ChairmanSaleh al-Arouri
Leader in the Gaza StripYahya Sinwar
Military commanderMohammed Deif
Deputy military commanderMarwan Issa
Founder
... and others
FoundedDecember 10, 1987; 35 years ago (1987-12-10)
Split fromMuslim Brotherhood
HeadquartersGaza City and Khan Younis, Gaza Strip
Military wingIzz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades
Membership20,000–25,000[7]
Ideology
ReligionSunni Islam
Political allianceAlliance of Palestinian Forces
Colours  Green
Palestinian Legislative Council
74 / 132
Hamas
HeadquartersGaza City, Gaza Strip
AlliesState allies:

Non-state allies:

OpponentsState opponents:

Non-state opponents:

Battles and wars
Designated as a terrorist group by

Hamas (UK: /həˈmæs/ hə-MASS, US: /həˈmɑːs/ hə-MAHSS;[61] Arabic: حماس, romanizedḤamās, IPA: [ħaˈmaːs]),[62] an acronym of its official name, the Islamic Resistance Movement (حركة المقاومة الإسلامية Ḥarakat al-Muqāwamah al-ʾIslāmiyyah), is a Palestinian Sunni Islamist[63] political and military organization governing the Gaza Strip of the Israeli-occupied Palestinian territories.[64] Headquartered in Gaza City, it has a presence in the West Bank, the larger of the two Palestinian territories, in which its secular rival Fatah exercises control.

In 1987, after the outbreak of the First Intifada against Israel, Hamas was founded by Palestinian imam and activist Ahmed Yassin. It emerged out of his Mujama al-Islamiya (Islamic Centre), which had been established in Gaza in 1973 as an Islamic charity involved with the Egypt-based Muslim Brotherhood.[23] Hamas became increasingly involved in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict by the late 1990s;[65] it opposed the Israel–PLO Letters of Mutual Recognition as well as the Oslo Accords, the former of which saw Fatah renounce "the use of terrorism and other acts of violence"[66] and recognize Israel in pursuit of a two-state solution. Hamas continued to advocate Palestinian armed resistance, won the 2006 Palestinian legislative election,[67] gaining a majority in the Palestinian Legislative Council,[68] and took control of the Gaza Strip from Fatah in 2007.[69][70]

While initially seeking a state in all of Mandatory Palestine, Hamas began acquiescing to 1967 borders in the agreements it signed with Fatah in 2005, 2006 and 2007.[71] In 2017, Hamas released a new charter that supported a transitional Palestinian state within the 1967 borders without recognizing Israel.[72][73][74][75] Hamas's repeated offers of a truce (for a period of 10–100 years[76]) based on the 1967 borders are seen by many as being consistent with a two-state solution,[77][78][79][80] while others state that Hamas retains the long-term objective of establishing one state in former Mandatory Palestine.[81][82] While the 1988 charter of Hamas was widely described as antisemitic,[83][84][85] Hamas's 2017 charter removed the antisemitic language and said Hamas's struggle was with Zionists not Jews.[86][87][88][89] Under the ideological principles of Islamism, Hamas promotes Palestinian nationalism in an Islamic context;[90] it has pursued a policy of jihad (armed struggle) against Israel.[e] It has a social service wing, Dawah, and a military wing, the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades.[f][g] Since the mid-1990s,[23] Hamas has gained widespread popularity within Palestinian society for its anti-Israeli stance.[94][95] Hamas has attacked civilians in Israel, including with suicide bombings and indiscriminate rocket attacks – acts that have led many countries to designate Hamas a terrorist organization.[96][97][54] A 2018 attempt to condemn Hamas for "acts of terror" at the United Nations failed.[h]

Since a violent confrontation with the rival Palestinian faction Fatah in 2007, Hamas has largely governed the Gaza Strip separately from the Palestinian National Authority. The Gaza Strip is currently under blockade, imposed by Israel and supported by Egypt. Israel and Hamas have fought wars there, including in 2008–09, in 2012, in 2014 and in 2021. Initiating the 2023 war, Hamas launched "Operation Al-Aqsa Flood" and its fighters broke through the Gaza barrier, attacked Israeli military bases and civilian population centres, massacred civilians and killed IDF personnel, and took civilian and soldier hostages back to Gaza.[99][100][101] The attack has been described as the biggest military setback for Israel since the 1973 Arab–Israeli War. Israel, declaring war on Hamas, intensified the existing Gaza blockade and initiated airstrikes and a ground invasion of Gaza.[102]

Etymology

Hamas is an acronym of the Arabic phrase حركة المقاومة الإسلامية or Ḥarakah al-Muqāwamah al-ʾIslāmiyyah, meaning "Islamic Resistance Movement". This acronym, HMS, was later glossed in the Hamas Covenant[103] by the Arabic word ḥamās (حماس) which itself means "zeal", "strength", or "bravery".[104]

History

Origins

When Israel occupied the Palestinian territories in 1967, the Muslim Brotherhood members there did not take active part in the resistance, preferring to focus on social-religious reform and on restoring Islamic values.[105] This outlook changed in the early 1980s, and Islamic organizations became more involved in Palestinian politics.[106] The driving force behind this transformation was Sheikh Ahmed Yassin, a Palestinian refugee from Al-Jura.[106] Of humble origins and quadriplegic,[106] he became one of the Muslim Brotherhood's leaders in Gaza. His charisma and conviction brought him a loyal group of followers, upon whom he depended for everything—from feeding him, transporting him to and from events, to communicating his strategy to the public.[107] In 1973, Yassin founded the social-religious charity Mujama al-Islamiya ("Islamic center") in Gaza as an offshoot to the Muslim Brotherhood.[108][109]

Israeli authorities in the 1970s and 1980s showed indifference to al-Mujama al-Islamiya. They viewed it as a religious cause that was significantly less militant against Israel than Fatah and the Palestine Liberation Organization; many also believed that the infighting between Islamist organizations and the PLO would lead to the latter's weakening.[23][110][111][112][113] Thus, the Israeli government did not intervene in fights between PLO and Islamist forces.[23] Israeli officials disagree on how much governmental indifference (or even support) of these disputes led to the rise of Islamism in Palestine. Some, such as Arieh Spitzen, have argued that "even if Israel had tried to stop the Islamists sooner, he doubts it could have done much to curb political Islam, a movement that was spreading across the Muslim world." Others, including Israel's religious affairs official in Gaza, Avner Cohen, believed that the indifference to the situation fueled Islamism's rise, stating it was "Israel's creation" and failure.[23] Others attribute the rise of the group to state sponsors, including Iran.[23] Although in 2018, The Intercept published an article claiming that "Israeli officials admit they helped start the group".[114]

In 1984 Yassin was arrested after the Israelis found out that his group collected arms,[23] but released in May 1985 as part of a prisoner exchange.[115][116] He continued to expand the reach of his charity in Gaza.[23] Following his release, he set up al-Majd (an acronym for Munazamat al-Jihad wa al-Da'wa), headed by former student leader Yahya Sinwar and Rawhi Mushtaha, tasked with handling internal security and hunting local informants for the Israeli intelligence services.[117][118] At about the same time, he ordered former student leader Salah Shehade to set up al-Mujahidun al-Filastiniun (Palestinian fighters), but its militants were quickly rounded up by Israeli authorities and had their arms confiscated.[119][i]

The idea of Hamas began to take form on December 10, 1987, when several members of the Brotherhood[j] convened the day after an incident in which an Israeli army truck had crashed into a car at a Gaza checkpoint killing four Palestinian day-workers, the impetus of the First Intifada. The group met at Yassin's house to strategize on how to maximize the impact of the incident in spreading nationalist sentiments and sparking public demonstrations.[3] A leaflet issued on the December 14 calling for resistance is considered to mark their first public intervention, though the name Hamas itself was not used until January 1988.[3]

Hamas was formally recognized by the Jordanian Muslim Brotherhood after a key meeting in Amman in February 1988.[120] Yassin was not directly connected to the organization but he gave it his blessing.[121]

Creating Hamas as an entity distinct from the Muslim Brotherhood was a matter of practicality; the Muslim Brotherhood refused to engage in violence against Israel,[122] but without participating in the intifada, the Islamists tied to it feared they would lose support to their rivals the Palestinian Islamic Jihad and the PLO. They also hoped that by keeping the militant activities of Hamas separate, Israel would not interfere with the Muslim Brotherhood's social work.[k]

To many Palestinians, Hamas appeared to engage more authentically with their national expectations, since it offered an Islamic version of what had been the secular PLO's original goals, armed struggle to liberate all of Palestine, rather than the territorial compromise the PLO acquiesced in—a small fragment of Mandatory Palestine.[125] Hamas's formal establishment came a month after the PLO and other intifada leaders issued a fourteen-point declaration in January 1988 advocating for the coexistence of a Palestinian state alongside Israel.[126]

In August 1988, Hamas published the Hamas Charter, wherein it defined itself as a chapter of the Muslim Brotherhood and its desire to establish "an Islamic state throughout Palestine".[127]

First Intifada

Hamas's first combat operation against Israel came in the spring 1989 as it abducted and killed Avi Sasportas and Ilan Saadon, two Israeli soldiers.[128] At the time, Shehade and Sinwar were incarcerated in Israeli prisons and Hamas had set up a new group, Unit 101, headed by Mahmoud al-Mabhouh, whose modus operandi was to abduct soldiers.[129] The discovery of Sasportas' body triggered, in the words of Jean-Pierre Filiu, 'an extremely violent Israeli response': hundreds of Hamas leaders and activists, among them Yassin, were arrested.[130] Hamas was outlawed on September 28, 1989.[131] This mass detention of activists, together with a further wave of arrests in 1990, effectively dismantled Hamas and, devastated, it was forced to adapt;[132][133] its command system became regionalized to make its operative structure more diffuse,[95] and to minimize the chances of being detected.[134]

Anger following the Temple Mount massacre in October 1990 in which Muslim worshippers had tried to prevent Jewish extremists from placing a foundation stone for the Third Temple on the Temple Mount and Israeli police used live fire against Palestinians in the Al-Aqsa compound, killing 17, caused Hamas to intensify its campaign of abductions. Hamas declared every Israeli soldier a target[135] and called for a "jihad against the Zionist enemy everywhere, in all fronts and every means."[136]

Hamas reorganized its units from al-Majd and al-Mujahidun al-Filastiniun into a military wing called the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades led by Yahya Ayyash in 1991 or 1992.[137][l] The name comes from the militant Palestinian nationalist leader Sheikh Izz ad-Din al-Qassam who fought against the British and whose death in 1935 sparked the 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine.[143] Its members sometimes referred to themselves as "Students of Ayyash", "Students of the Engineer", "Yahya Ayyash Units",[135] or "Yahyia Ayyash's Disciples".[144]

Ayyash, an engineering graduate from Birzeit University, was a skillful bomb maker and greatly improved Hamas' striking capability,[145] earning him the nickname al-Muhandis ("the Engineer"). He is thought to have been one of the driving forces in Hamas' use of suicide bombings, reportedly arguing: "We paid a high price when we used only slingshots and stones. We need to exert more pressure, make the cost of the occupation that much more expensive in human lives, that much more unbearable."[146][147] Until his assassination by Shin Bet in 1996, almost all bombs used on suicide missions were constructed by him.[148]

In December 1992, Israel responded to the abduction and killing of Nissim Toledano, a border policeman, by exiling 415 members of Hamas and Islamic Jihad to Southern Lebanon, at the time occupied by Israel.[149][150] There, Hamas established contacts with Hezbollah, Palestinians living in refugee camps, and learnt how to construct suicide and car bombs.[151][150] In addition to the deportations, Israel imposed a two-week curfew on the Gaza Strip, which cost the economy approximately $1,810,000 per day.[152] The deportees were allowed to return nine months later.[151] The deportation provoked international condemnation and a unanimous UN Security Council resolution condemning the action.[153][154] Hamas ordered two car bombs in retaliation for the deportation.[136]

In April 1993 Hamas launched its first suicide attack, the Mehola Junction bombing, near the Mehola settlement in the West Bank.[155] The attacker drove his car between two buses–one military and one civilian.[156] Only the driver and an Arab worker were killed in the attack.[155] The bomb design was flawed, but Hamas would soon learn how to manufacture more lethal bombs.[157]

In the first years of the Intifada, Hamas violence was restricted to Palestinians; collaborators with Israel and individuals it defined as "moral deviants," that is, drug dealers and prostitutes known to enjoy ties with Israeli criminal networks,[158] or for engaging in loose behavior, such as seducing women in hairdressing salons with alcohol, behaviour Hamas considered was encouraged by Israeli agents.[m] Hamas leaders likened their rooting out of collaborators to what the French resistance did with Nazi collaborators in World War II. In 1992 alone they executed more than 150.[160] In Western media this was reported as typical "intercommunal strife" among Arabs.[158]

Hamas's actions in the First Intifada expanded its popularity. In 1989, fewer than 3% of the Palestinians in Gaza, where Hamas was most popular, supported Hamas.[132] In the days leading up to the signing of the Oslo Accords in 1993, 16.6% of Gazans and 10% of West Bank Palestinians identified politically with Hamas[132]—a number that still paled in comparison to Fatah which enjoyed the support of 45% of the Palestinians in the occupied territories.[161]

Oslo years

The Oslo process began in September 1993, when Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and Yasir Arafat signed the Declaration of Principles, known as the Oslo I Accord.[162] This led to the creation of the Palestinian National Authority (PA), which was backed by Arafat but strongly opposed by Hamas.[163] The PA was staffed mainly by members of Fatah and the Palestinian Liberation Organization.[163] The peaceful posture adopted by Hamas's rivals created an opportunity to set itself apart as the representative of the resistance movement.[164]

Hamas first began suicide attacks specifically targeting civilians in response to the Cave of the Patriarchs massacre carried out by the American-Israeli settler Baruch Goldstein, who on 25 February 1994, during Ramadan, killed 29 unarmed civilians by throwing hand grenades and firing at a group of worshippers during prayer at the Ibrahimi Mosque in Hebron.[165][166] There was a strong sense that the Israeli military was complicit in the massacre because Goldstein wore military fatigues during his attack and carried an assault rifle issued by the IDF, the nearby IDF forces failed to intervene to stop the attack, and indeed an additional 19 Palestinians were killed by Israeli forces in the riots that ensued in protest of the massacre.[166] Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin condemned the massacre, but refused to withdraw Jewish settlers from Hebron, fearing a violent confrontation with the settler community.[136] Hamas announced that if Israel did not discriminate between "fighters and civilians", then it would be "forced ... to treat the Zionists in the same manner. Treating like with like is a universal principle."[167]

Prior to the Hebron massacre, Hamas did not deliberately attack civilian targets.[165] But following the massacre, it felt that it no longer had to distinguish between military and civilian targets. The leader of the Muslim Brotherhood in the West Bank, Sheikh Ahmed Haj Ali, later argued that "had there not been the 1994 Ibrahimi Mosque massacre, there would have been no suicide bombings." Al-Rantisi in an interview in 1998 stated that the suicide attacks "began after the massacre committed by the terrorist Baruch Goldstein and intensified after the assassination of Yahya Ayyash."[168] Musa Abu Marzouk put the blame for the escalation on the Israelis: "We were against targeting civilians ... After the Hebron massacre we determined that it was time to kill Israel's civilians ... we offered to stop if Israel would, but they rejected that offer."[169]

According to Matti Steinberg, former advisor to Shin Bet and one of Israel's leading experts on Hamas, the massacre laid to rest an internal debate within Hamas on the usefulness of indiscriminate violence: "In the Hamas writings there is an explicit prohibition against indiscriminate harm to helpless people. The massacre at the mosque released them from this taboo and introduced a dimension of measure for measure, based on citations from the Koran."[136]

The aftermath of the 1994 Dizengoff Street bus bombing in Tel Aviv

On April 6, a suicide bomber blew up his car at a crowded bus stop in Afula, killing eight Israelis and injuring 34.[170][166] An additional five Israelis were killed and 30 injured as a Palestinian detonated himself on a bus in Hadera a week later.[171] Hamas claimed responsibility for both attacks.[171] The attacks may have been timed to disrupt negotiations between Israel and PLO on the implementation of the Oslo I Accord.[170] A bomb on a bus in downtown Tel Aviv in October 1994, killing 22 and injuring 45.[172]

In late December 1995, Hamas promised the Palestinian Authority (PA) to cease military operations. But it was not to be as Shin Bet assassinated Ayyash, the 29-year-old leader of the al-Qassam Brigades on January 5, 1996, using a booby-trapped cellphone given to Ayyash by his uncle who worked as an informer.[173] Nearly 100,000 Gazans, about 11% of the total population, marched in his funeral.[173] Hamas resumed its campaign of suicide bombings which had been dormant for a good part of 1995 to retaliate the assassination.[174]

In September 1997, Israel's Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu ordered the assassination of Hamas leader Khaled Mashal who lived in Jordan.[175] Two Mossad agents entered Jordan on false Canadian passports and sprayed Mashal with a nerve agent on a street in Amman.[175] They were caught however and King Hussein threatened to put the agents on trial unless Israel provided Mashal with an antidote and released Yassin.[175] Israel obliged and the antidote saved Mashal's life.[175] Yassin was returned to Gaza where he was given a hero's welcome with banners calling him the "sheikh of the Intifada". Yassin's release temporarily boosted Hamas' popularity and at a press conference Yassin declared: "There will be no halt to armed operations until the end of the occupation ... we are peace-seekers. We love peace. And we call on them [the Israelis] to maintain peace with us and to help us in order to restore our rights by peace."[176]

Although the suicide attacks by the al-Qassam Brigades and other groups violated the 1993 Oslo accords (which Hamas opposed[177]), Arafat was reluctant to pursue the attackers and may have had inadequate means to do so.[174]

While the Palestinians were used to the idea that their young were willing to die for the struggle, the idea that they would strap explosives to their bodies and blow themselves up was a new and not well-supported development.[169] A poll taken in 1996 after the wave of suicide bombings Hamas carried out to retaliate Israel's assassination of Ayyash showed that most 70% opposed the tactic and 59% called for Arafat to take action to prevent further attacks.[178] In the political arena Hamas continued to trail far behind its rival Fatah; 41% trusted Arafat in 1996 but only 3% trusted Yassin.[179]

In 1999 Hamas was banned in Jordan, reportedly in part at the request of the United States, Israel, and the Palestinian Authority.[180] Jordan's King Abdullah feared the activities of Hamas and its Jordanian allies would jeopardize peace negotiations between the Palestinian Authority and Israel, and accused Hamas of engaging in illegitimate activities within Jordan.[181] In mid-September 1999, authorities arrested Hamas leaders Khaled Mashal and Ibrahim Ghosheh on their return from a visit to Iran, and charged them with being members of an illegal organization, storing weapons, conducting military exercises, and using Jordan as a training base.[181][182] The Hamas leaders denied the charges.[183] Mashal was exiled and eventually settled in Damascus in Syria in 2001.[184] As a result of the Syrian civil war he distanced himself from Bashar al-Assad's regime in 2012 and moved to Qatar.[184]

Second Intifada

In contrast to the preceding uprising, the Al-Aqsa or Second Intifada began violently, with mass demonstrations and lethal Israeli counter-insurgency tactics. Prior to the incidents surrounding Ariel Sharon's visit to the Temple Mount (September 2000), Palestinian support for violence against Israelis and for Hamas had been gauged to be 52% and 10%, respectively. By July of the following year, after almost a year of savage conflict, polling indicated that 86% of Palestinians endorsed violence against Israelis and support for Hamas had risen to 17%.[185]

The al-Qassam Brigades were among the many militant groups that launched both military-style attacks and suicide bombings against Israeli civilian and military targets in this period. In the ensuing years almost 5000 Palestinians and over 1100 Israelis were killed.[186] While there was a large number of Palestinian attacks against Israelis, the Palestinians' most effective form of violence were suicide attacks; in the first five years of the intifada a little more than half of all Israeli deaths were victims of suicide attacks. Hamas was responsible for about 40% of the 135 suicide attacks in the period.[187]

Whatever the immediate circumstances triggering the uprising, a more general cause, writes US political science professor Jeremy Pressman, was "popular Palestinian discontent [that] grew during the Oslo peace process because the reality on the ground did not match the expectations created by the peace agreements".[188] Hamas would be the beneficiary of this growing discontent in the 2006 Palestinian Authority legislative elections.[citation needed]

According to Tristan Dunning, Israel has never responded to repeated offers by Hamas over subsequent years for a quid pro quo moratorium on attacks against civilians.[189] It has engaged in several tadi'a (periods of calm), and proposed a number of ceasefires.[189] In January 2004, Hamas leader Ahmed Yassin, prior to his assassination, said that the group would end armed resistance against Israel for a 10-year hudna.[n] in exchange for a Palestinian state in the West Bank, Gaza Strip, and East Jerusalem, and that restoring Palestinians' "historical rights" (relating to the 1948 Palestinian expulsion and flight) "would be left for future generations". His views were quickly echoed by senior Hamas official Abdel Aziz al-Rantissi, who added that Hamas envisaged a "phased liberation".[191] Israel's response was to assassinate Yassin in March in a targeted Israeli air strike, and then al-Rantisi in a similar air strike in April.[192]

In 2005, Hamas signed the Palestinian Cairo Declaration, which confirms "the right of the Palestinian people to resistance in order to end the occupation, establish a Palestinian state with full sovereignty with Jerusalem as its capital, and the guaranteeing of the right of return of refugees to their homes and property."[193]

2006 presidential and legislative elections

Ismail Haniyeh became the prime minister of the Palestinian National Authority in 2006.

Hamas had boycotted the 1996 Palestinian general election and the 2005 Palestinian presidential election, but decided to participate in the 2006 Palestinian legislative election, the first to take place after the death of Yasser Arafat. The EU figured prominently in the proposal that democratic elections be held in the Palestinian territories.[194] In the run-up to the polling day, the US administration's Condoleezza Rice, Israel's Tzipi Livni and British Prime Minister Tony Blair all expressed reservations about allowing Hamas to compete in a democratic process.[195] Hamas ran on a platform of clean government, a thorough overhaul of the corrupt administrative system, and the issue of rampant lawlessness.[196][197] The Palestinian Authority (PA), notoriously accused of corruption, chose to run Marwan Barghouti as its leading candidate, who was serving five life sentences in Israel. The US donated two million dollars to the PA to improve its media image. Israel also assisted the PA by allowing Barghouti to be interviewed in prison by Arab television and by permitting 100,000 Palestinians in East Jerusalem to vote.[197]

Crucially, the election took place shortly after Israel had evacuated its settlements in Gaza.[198] The evacuation, executed without consulting Fatah, gave currency to Hamas' view that resistance had compelled Israel to leave Gaza.[199] In a statement Hamas portrayed it as a vindication of their strategy of armed resistance ("Four years of resistance surpassed 10 years of bargaining") and Mohammed Deif attributed "the Liberation of Gaza" to his comrades "love of martyrdom".[200]

Hamas, intent on reaching power by political means rather than by violence, announced that it would refrain from attacks on Israel if Israel were to cease its offensives against Palestinian towns and villages.[201] Its election manifesto dropped the Islamic agenda, spoke of sovereignty for the Palestinian territories, including Jerusalem (an implicit endorsement of the two-state solution), while making no mention about its claims to all of Palestine. It mentioned "armed resistance" twice and affirmed in article 3.6 that there existed a right to resist the "terrorism of occupation".[196] A Palestinian Christian figured on its candidate list.[202]

Hamas won 76 seats, excluding four won by independents supporting Hamas, and Fatah only 43.[198] The election was judged by international observers to have been "competitive and genuinely democratic". The EU said that they had been run better than elections in some members countries of the union, and promised to maintain its financial support.[194] Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates urged the US to give Hamas a chance, and that it was inadvisable to punish Palestinians for their choice, a position also endorsed by the Arab League a month later.[203] The EU's promise was short-lived; three months later, in violating of its core principles regarding free elections, it abruptly froze financial assistance to the Hamas-led government, following the example set by the US and Canada. It undertook to instead channel funds directly to people and projects, and pay salaries only to Fatah members, employed or otherwise.[204]

Hamas assumed the administration of Gaza following its electoral victory and introduced radical changes. It inherited a chaotic situation of lawlessness, since the economic sanctions imposed by Israel, the US and the Quartet had crippled the PA's administrative resources, leading to the emergence of numerous mafia-style gangs and terror cells modeled after Al Qaeda.[205] Writing in Foreign Affairs, Daniel Byman later stated:

After it took over the Gaza Strip Hamas revamped the police and security forces, cutting them 50,000 members (on paper, at least) under Fatah to smaller, efficient forces of just over 10,000, which then cracked down on crime and gangs. No longer did groups openly carry weapons or steal with impunity. People paid their taxes and electric bills, and in return authorities picked up garbage and put criminals in jail. Gaza-neglected under Egyptian and then Israeli control, and misgoverned by Palestinian leader Yasir Arafat and his successors-finally has a real government.'[206][o]

In early February 2006, Hamas offered Israel a ten-year truce "in return for a complete Israeli withdrawal from the occupied Palestinian territories: the West Bank, Gaza Strip and East Jerusalem,"[208] and recognition of Palestinian rights including the "right of return".[209] Mashal added that Hamas was not calling for a final end to armed operations against Israel, and it would not impede other Palestinian groups from carrying out such operations.[210]

After the election, the Quartet on the Middle East (the United States, Russia, the European Union (EU), and the United Nations) stated that assistance to the Palestinian Authority would only continue if Hamas renounced violence, recognized Israel, and accepted previous Israeli-Palestinian agreements, which Hamas refused to do.[211] The Quartet then imposed a freeze on all international aid to the Palestinian territories.[212] In 2006 after the Gaza election, the Hamas leader sent a letter addressed to George W. Bush, in which he, among other things, declared that Hamas would accept a state on the 1967 borders including a truce. However, the Bush administration did not reply.[213]

Hamas–Fatah conflict

Hamas rally in Bethlehem

After the formation of the Hamas-led cabinet on March 20, 2006, tensions between Fatah and Hamas militants progressively rose in the Gaza strip as Fatah commanders refused to take orders from the government while the Palestinian Authority initiated a campaign of demonstrations, assassinations and abductions against Hamas, which led to Hamas responding.[214] Israeli intelligence warned Mahmoud Abbas that Hamas had planned to kill him at his office in Gaza. According to a Palestinian source close to Abbas, Hamas considers President Abbas to be a barrier to its complete control over the Palestinian Authority and decided to kill him. In a statement to Al Jazeera, Hamas leader Mohammed Nazzal accused Abbas of being party to the besieging and isolation of the Hamas-led government.[215]

On June 9, 2006, during an Israeli artillery operation, an explosion occurred on a busy Gaza beach, killing eight Palestinian civilians.[216][217] It was assumed that Israeli shellings were responsible for the killings, but Israeli government officials denied this.[218][219] Hamas formally withdrew from its 16-month ceasefire on June 10, taking responsibility for the subsequent Qassam rocket attacks launched from Gaza into Israel.[220]

On June 25, two Israeli soldiers were killed and another, Gilad Shalit, captured following an incursion by the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades, Popular Resistance Committees and Army of Islam. In response, the Israeli military launched Operation Summer Rains three days later, to secure the release of the kidnapped soldier,[221][222] arresting 64 Hamas officials. Among them were 8 Palestinian Authority cabinet ministers and up to 20 members of the Palestinian Legislative Council,[222] The arrests, along with other events, effectively prevented the Hamas-dominated legislature from functioning during most of its term.[223][224] Shalit was held captive until 2011, when he was released in exchange for 1,027 Palestinian prisoners.[225] Since then, Hamas has continued building a network of internal and cross-border tunnels,[226] which are used to store and deploy weapons, shield militants, and facilitate cross-border attacks. Destroying the tunnels was a primary objective of Israeli forces in the 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict.[227][228]

In February 2007 Saudi-sponsored negotiations led to the Hamas & Fatah Mecca Agreement to form a unity government, signed by Mahmoud Abbas on behalf of Fatah and Khaled Mashal on behalf of Hamas. The new government was called on to achieve Palestinian national goals as approved by the Palestine National Council, the clauses of the Basic Law and the National Reconciliation Document (the "Prisoners' Document") as well as the decisions of the Arab summit.[229]

In March 2007, the Palestinian Legislative Council established a national unity government, with 83 representatives voting in favor and three against. Government ministers were sworn in by Mahmoud Abbas, the chairman of the Palestinian Authority, at a ceremony held simultaneously in Gaza and Ramallah. In June that year, renewed fighting broke out between Hamas and Fatah.[230] In a leaked comment by Major General Yadlin to the American Ambassador Richard H Jones at this point (June 12, 2007), Yadlin emphasized Hamas's electoral victory and an eventual Fatah withdrawal from Gaza would be advantageous to Israeli interests, in that the PLO's relocation to the West Bank would allow Israel to treat the Gaza Strip and Hamas as a hostile country.[p] In the course of the June 2007 Battle of Gaza, Hamas exploited the near total collapse of Palestinian Authority forces in Gaza to seize[232] control of Gaza, ousting Fatah officials. President Mahmoud Abbas then dismissed the Hamas-led Palestinian Authority government[233] and outlawed the Hamas militia.[234] At least 600 Palestinians died in fighting between Hamas and Fatah.[235] Human Rights Watch, a US-based group, accused both sides in the conflict of torture and war crimes.[236]

Human Rights Watch estimates several hundred Gazans were "maimed" and tortured in the aftermath of the Gaza War. 73 Gazan men accused of "collaborating" had their arms and legs broken by "unidentified perpetrators" and 18 Palestinians accused of collaborating with Israel, who had escaped from Gaza's main prison compound after Israel bombed the facility, were executed by Hamas security officials in the first days of the conflict.[237][238] Hamas security forces attacked hundreds of Fatah officials who supported Israel. Human Rights Watch interviewed one such person:

There were eight of us sitting there. We were all from Fatah. Then three masked militants broke in. They were dressed in brown camouflage military uniforms; they all had guns. They pointed their guns at us and cursed us, then they began beating us with iron rods, including a 10-year-old boy whom they hit in the face. They said we were "collaborators" and "unfaithful". They beat me with iron sticks and gun butts for 15 minutes. They were yelling: "You are happy that Israel is bombing us!" until people came out of their houses, and they withdrew.[237]

In March 2012 Mahmoud Abbas stated that there were no political differences between Hamas and Fatah as they had reached agreement on a joint political platform and on a truce with Israel. Commenting on relations with Hamas, Abbas revealed in an interview with Al Jazeera that "We agreed that the period of calm would be not only in the Gaza Strip, but also in the West Bank," adding that "We also agreed on a peaceful popular resistance [against Israel], the establishment of a Palestinian state along the 1967 borders and that the peace talks would continue if Israel halted settlement construction and accepted our conditions."[239][240] Progress was stalled, until an April 2014 agreement to form a compromise unity government, with elections to be held in late 2014.[241] These elections did not take place and following a new agreement, the next Palestinian general election was scheduled to take place by the end of March 2021, but did not happen.[242]

2008–2009 Gaza War

On 24 April 2008, Hamas through Egyptian mediators proposed to Israel a six-month truce inside the Gaza Strip, thus excluding the West Bank from his proposal. Israel on 25 April 2008 rejected the proposal, reluctant that such an agreement would strengthen Hamas against their rivals in the Palestinian Territories, Fatah, based on the West Bank, at that time running the Palestinian National Authority and as such currently negotiating peace with Israel. Also Israel rejected the proposal because Israel presumed that Hamas would use the truce to prepare for more fighting rather than peace.[243]

On June 17, 2008, Egyptian mediators announced that an informal truce had been agreed to between Hamas and Israel.[244][245] Hamas agreed to cease rocket attacks on Israel, while Israel agreed to allow limited commercial shipping across its border with Gaza, barring any breakdown of the tentative peace deal; Hamas also hinted that it would discuss the release of Gilad Shalit.[246] Israeli sources state that Hamas also committed itself to enforce the ceasefire on the other Palestinian organizations.[247] Even before the truce was agreed to, some on the Israeli side were not optimistic about it, Shin Bet chief Yuval Diskin stating in May 2008 that a ground incursion into Gaza was unavoidable and would more effectively quell arms smuggling and pressure Hamas into relinquishing power.[248]

While Hamas was careful to maintain the ceasefire, the lull was sporadically violated by other groups, sometimes in defiance of Hamas.[247][249][250] For example, on June 24 Islamic Jihad launched rockets at the Israeli town of Sderot; Israel called the attack a grave violation of the informal truce, and closed its border crossings with Gaza.[251] On November 4, 2008, Israeli forces, in an attempt to stop construction of a tunnel, killed six Hamas gunmen in a raid inside the Gaza Strip.[252][253] Hamas responded by resuming rocket attacks, a total of 190 rockets in November according to Israel's military.[254][255]

Destroyed building in Rafah, January 12, 2009

When the six-month truce officially expired on December 19, Hamas launched 50 to more than 70 rockets and mortars into Israel over the next three days, though no Israelis were injured.[256][257] On December 21, Hamas said it was ready to stop the attacks and renew the truce if Israel stopped its "aggression" in Gaza and opened up its border crossings.[257][258]

On December 27 and 28, Israel implemented Operation Cast Lead against Hamas. Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak said "We warned Hamas repeatedly that rejecting the truce would push Israel to aggression against Gaza." According to Palestinian officials, over 280 people were killed and 600 were injured in the first two days of airstrikes.[259] Most were Hamas police and security officers, though many civilians also died.[259] According to Israel, militant training camps, rocket-manufacturing facilities and weapons warehouses that had been pre-identified were hit, and later they attacked rocket and mortar squads who fired around 180 rockets and mortars at Israeli communities.[260] Chief of Gaza police force Tawfiq Jabber, head of the General Security Service Salah Abu Shrakh,[261] senior religious authority and security officer Nizar Rayyan,[262] and Interior Minister Said Seyam[263] were among those killed during the fighting. Although Israel sent out thousands of cell-phone messages urging residents of Gaza to leave houses where weapons may be stored, in an attempt to minimise civilian casualties,[260] some residents complained there was nowhere to go because many neighborhoods had received the same message.[260][264][265] Israeli bombs landed close to civilian structures such as schools,[266][267] and some alleged that Israel was deliberately targeting Palestinian civilians.[268]

Israel declared a unilateral ceasefire on January 17, 2009.[269] Hamas responded the following day by announcing a one-week ceasefire to give Israel time to withdraw its forces from the Gaza Strip.[270] Israeli, Palestinian, and third-party sources disagreed on the total casualty figures from the Gaza war, and the number of Palestinian casualties who were civilians.[271] In November 2010, a senior Hamas official acknowledged that up to 300 fighters were killed and "In addition to them, between 200 and 300 fighters from the Al-Qassam Brigades and another 150 security forces were martyred." These new numbers reconcile the total with those of the Israeli military, which originally said were 709 "terror operatives" killed.[272][273]

After the Gaza War

25th anniversary of Hamas celebrated in Gaza, December 8, 2012

On August 16, 2009, Hamas leader Khaled Mashal stated that the organization is ready to open dialogue with the Obama administration because its policies are much better than those of former US president George W. Bush:

As long as there's a new language, we welcome it, but we want to see not only a change of language, but also a change of policies on the ground. We have said that we are prepared to cooperate with the US or any other international party that would enable the Palestinians to get rid of occupation."[274]

Despite this, an August 30, 2009, speech during a visit to Jordan[275] in which Mashal expressed support for the Palestinian right of return was interpreted by David Pollock of the Washington Institute for Near East Policy as a sign that "Hamas has now clearly opted out of diplomacy."[276] In an interview in May 2010, Mashal said that if a Palestinian state with real sovereignty was established under the conditions he set out, on the borders of 1967 with its capital Jerusalem and with the right of return, that will be the end of the Palestinian resistance, and then the nature of any subsequent ties with Israel would be decided democratically by the Palestinians.[277][278] In July 2009, Khaled Mashal, Hamas's political bureau chief, stated Hamas's willingness to cooperate with a resolution to the Arab-Israeli conflict, which included a Palestinian state based on 1967 borders, provided that Palestinian refugees be given the right to return to Israel and that East Jerusalem be recognized as the new state's capital.[279]

In 2011, after the outbreak of the Syrian Civil War, Hamas distanced itself from the Syrian regime and its members began leaving Syria. Where once there were "hundreds of exiled Palestinian officials and their relatives", that number shrunk to "a few dozen".[280] In 2012, Hamas publicly announced its support for the Syrian opposition.[281] This prompted Syrian state TV to issue a "withering attack" on the Hamas leadership.[282] Khaled Mashal said that Hamas had been "forced out" of Damascus because of its disagreements with the Syrian regime.[283] In late October, Syrian Army soldiers shot dead two Hamas leaders in Daraa refugee camp.[284] On November 5, 2012, the Syrian state security forces shut down all Hamas offices in the country.[285] In January 2013, another two Hamas members were found dead in Syria's Husseinieh camp. Activists said the two had been arrested and executed by state security forces.[286] In 2013, it was reported that the military wing of Hamas had begun training units of the Free Syrian Army.[287] In 2013, after "several intense weeks of indirect three-way diplomacy between representatives of Hamas, Israel, and the Palestinian Authority", no agreement was reached.[288] Also, intra-Palestinian reconciliation talks stalled and, as a result, during Obama's visit to Israel, Hamas launched five rocket strikes on Israel.[288] In November, Isra Almodallal was appointed the first spokeswoman of the group.[289]

2014 Gaza War to 2022

During the 2014 Gaza War, Israel launched Operation Protective Edge to counter increased Hamas rocket fire from Gaza. The conflict ended with a permanent cease-fire after 7 weeks, and more than 2,200 dead. 64 of the dead were Israeli soldiers, 7 were civilians in Israel (from rocket attacks), and 2,101 were killed in Gaza, of which according to UN OCHA at least 1,460 were civilians. Israel says 1,000 of the dead were militants. Following the conflict, Mahmoud Abbas president of the Palestinian Authority, accused Hamas of needlessly extending the fighting in the Gaza Strip, contributing to the high death toll, of running a "shadow government" in Gaza, and of illegally executing scores of Palestinians.[290][291][292] Hamas has complained about the slow delivery of reconstruction materials after the conflict and announced that they were diverting these materials from civilian uses to build more infiltration tunnels.[293]

In 2016, Hamas began security co-ordination with Egypt to crack down on Islamic terrorist organizations in Sinai, in return for economic aid.[294]

In early 2017, Hamas established the Supreme Administrative Committee to oversee Gaza's ministries. Abbas decried the move as Hamas creating a shadow government and trying to entrench its control in Gaza.[295] On 17 September 2017, Hamas announced it was dissolving the committee in response to Egypt's efforts as part of the Fatah–Hamas reconciliation process.[296]

In October 2017, Fatah and Hamas signed yet another reconciliation agreement. The partial agreement addresses civil and administrative matters involving Gaza and the West Bank. Other contentious issues such as national elections, reform of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) and possible demilitarization of Hamas were to be discussed in the next meeting in November 2017, due to a new step-by-step approach.[297]

Between 2018 and 2019, Hamas participated in "the Great March of Return" along the Gaza border with Israel. At least 183 Palestinians were killed.[298]

In May 2021, after tensions escalated in Sheikh Jarrah and the al-Aqsa mosque compound in Jerusalem, Israel and Hamas clashed in Gaza once again. After eleven days of fighting, at least 243 people were killed in Gaza and 12 in Israel.[299]

2023 Israel–Hamas war

A blood-stained home floor in the aftermath of the Nahal Oz massacre
Civilian casualty in Gaza during the Israel–Hamas war

On October 7, 2023, Hamas launched an invasion, breaching the Gaza–Israel barrier. For months prior to the attack, Hamas had been leading Israeli intelligence to believe that they were not seeking conflict.[300] Hamas fighters proceeded to massacre hundreds of civilians at a music festival and in kibbutz Be'eri and take hostages in Southern Israel back to the Gaza Strip. In total, around 1,194 people were killed in Israel, making this the deadliest attack by Palestinian militants since the foundation of Israel in 1948.[301][302][303] International human rights groups, medical personnel, and journalists have chronicled the militants' onslaught, detailing the killing, including the decapitation and burning, of women, children, and the elderly, alongside young men and soldiers. U.S. Secretary of State Antony Blinken reported that "It's simply depravity in the worst imaginable way".[304][303][305][306] Senior Hamas official Khaled Mashal said that the group was fully aware of the consequences of attack on Israel, stating that Palestinian liberation comes with "sacrifices".[307]

On 13 October 2023, Israeli Defense Minister Yoav Gallant called on Palestinians to evacuate northern Gaza, including Gaza City, saying:

The camouflage of the terrorists is the civil population. Therefore, we need to separate them. So those who want to save their life, please go south. We are going to destroy Hamas infrastructures, Hamas headquarters, Hamas military establishment, and take these phenomena out of Gaza and out of the Earth."[308]

Policy positions

Hamas Charter

Hamas published its charter in August 1988, wherein it defined itself as a chapter of the Muslim Brotherhood and its desire to establish "an Islamic state throughout Palestine".[127] The foundational document was, according to Khaled Hroub, written by a single individual and made public without going through the usual prior consultation process.[q] It was then signed on August 18, 1988. It contains both antisemitic passages and characterizations of Israeli society as Nazi-like in its cruelty,[310] and irredentist claims.[311][312][313] It declares all of Palestine a waqf, an unalienable religious property consisting of land endowed to Muslims in perpetuity by God,[314][r][316] with religious coexistence under Islam's rule.[317] The charter rejects a two-state solution, stating that the conflict cannot be resolved "except through jihad".[318][319]

Article 6 states that the movement's aim is to "raise the banner of Allah over every inch of Palestine, for under the wing of Islam followers of all religions can coexist in security and safety where their lives, possessions and rights are concerned".[320][321] It adds that, "when our enemies usurp some Islamic lands, jihad becomes a duty binding on all Muslims",[322] for which the whole of the land is non-negotiable, a position likened, without the racist sentiments present in the Hamas charter, to that in the Likud party platform and in movements such as Gush Emunim. For Hamas, to concede territory is seen as equivalent to renouncing Islam itself.[323][324][325][326][327][328][329][330]

The violent language against all Jews in the original Hamas charter is antisemitic and has been characterized by some as genocidal.[331][332][333] The charter attributes collective responsibility to Jews, not just Israelis, for various global issues, including both World Wars.[334]

In May 2017, Hamas unveiled a rewritten charter, in an attempt to moderate its image. It maintains the longstanding goal of an Islamist Palestinian state covering all of the area of today's Israel, West Bank, and Gaza Strip, and that the State of Israel is illegal and illegitimate. It now states that Hamas is anti-Zionist rather than anti-Jewish, but describes Zionism as part of a conspiratorial global plot, as the enemy of all Muslims, and a danger to international security, and blames the Zionists for the conflation of anti-Zionism and antisemitism. It rejects the Oslo Accords and affirms Hamas' commitment to the use of force. It also claims to support democracy, although Hamas has not held an election since 2006.[16][335] Hamas has described these changes as adaptation within a specific context, as opposed to abandonment of its principles.[336]

Hamas is widely considered to be the "dominant political force" within the Palestinian territories.[101][337][338]

Two-state solution

Hamas' policy towards a two-state solution and towards Israel has evolved. Historically, Hamas envisioned a Palestinian state on all of the territory that belonged to the British Mandate for Palestine (that is, from the Jordan River to the Mediterranean Sea).[141] However, Hamas signed agreements with Fatah in 2005, 2007, 2011 and 2012 that indicated a tacit acceptance of the 1967 borders and previous accords[clarification needed] between PLO and Israel.[86] In 2006, Hamas signed the second version of (originally) 'the Palestinians' Prisoners Document' which supports the quest for a Palestinian state "on all territories occupied in 1967".[339][340] This document also recognized authority of the President of the Palestinian National Authority to negotiate with Israel.[340] On 2 May 2017, in a press conference in Doha (Qatar) presenting a new charter, Khaled Mashal, chief of the Hamas Political Bureau declared that, though Hamas considered the establishment of a Palestinian state "on the basis of June 4, 1967" (West Bank, Gaza Strip and East Jerusalem) acceptable, Hamas would in that case still not recognise the statehood of Israel and not relinquish their goal of liberating all of Palestine from "the Zionist project".[74][335] Professor Mohammed Ayoob in 2020 seemed to consider this new charter a hopeful step towards solution of the Palestinian–Israeli conflicts: "Acceptance [in the 2017 Hamas charter] of the 1967 borders can be interpreted as a de facto acceptance of the preconditions for a two-state solution".[341]

Whether Hamas would recognize Israel is debated. Hamas leaders have emphasized they do not recognize Israel,[74] but indicate they "have a de facto acceptance of its presence".[342] Hamas's acceptance of the 1967 borders acknowledges the existence of another entity on the other side.[343] Many scholars believe Hamas's acceptance of the 1967 borders implicitly recognizes Israel.[344][345]

In 2006 interview, Ismail Haniyeh, senior political leader of Hamas and at that time Prime Minister of the Palestinian National Authority, accepted a Palestinian state "within the 1967 borders, living in calm."[346] In May 2010, Khaled Mashal, then chairman of the Hamas Political Bureau said that the state of Israel living next to "a Palestinian state on the borders of 1967" would be acceptable for Hamas. In November 2010, Ismail Haniyeh[s] also proposed a Palestinian state on 1967 borders, though added three further conditions: "resolution of the issue of refugees", "the release of Palestinian prisoners", and "Jerusalem as its capital"; both Mashal and Haniyeh that year also made reservations as to a "referendum" in which "the Palestinian people" should decide whether, in such a two-state situation, those two states should still be merged into one.[348][349]

In the 1988 charter, Hamas' declared objectives were to wage an armed struggle against Israel,[141] liberate Palestine from Israeli occupation and transform the country into an Islamic state.[350]

In March 2006, Hamas released its official legislative program. The document clearly signaled that Hamas could refer the issue of recognizing Israel to a national referendum. Under the heading "Recognition of Israel", it stated simply (AFP, 3/11/06): "The question of recognizing Israel is not the jurisdiction of one faction, nor the government, but a decision for the Palestinian people." This was a major shift away from their 1988 charter.[351] A few months later, via University of Maryland's Jerome Segal, Hamas sent a letter to US President George W. Bush, stating that they "don't mind having a Palestinian state in the 1967 borders", and asked for direct negotiations.[352]

In 2007, Hamas signed the Fatah–Hamas Mecca Agreement.[353] At the time of signing this agreement, Moussa Abu Marzouk, Deputy Chairman of the Hamas Political Bureau, said regarding the recognition of Israel:

I can recognize the presence of Israel as a fait accompli (amr wâqi‘) or, as the French say, a de facto recognition, but this does not mean that I recognize Israel as a state.[354]

Marzouk further added that the charter could not be altered because it would look like a compromise not acceptable to the 'street' and risk fracturing the party's unity. Hamas leader Khaled Meshaal has stated that the Charter is "a piece of history and no longer relevant, but cannot be changed for internal reasons". Ahmed Yousef, senior adviser to Ismail Haniyeh, added in 2011 that it reflected the views of the Elders in the face of a 'relentless occupation.' The details of its religious and political language had not been examined within the framework of international law, and an internal committee review to amend it was shelved out of concern not to offer concessions to Israel, as had Fatah, on a silver platter.[355] While Hamas representatives recognize the problem, one official notes that Arafat got very little in return for changing the PLO Charter under the Oslo Accords, and that there is agreement that little is gained from a non-violent approach.[356] Richard Davis says the dismissal by contemporary leaders of its relevance and yet the suspension of a desire to rewrite it reflects the differing constituencies Hamas must address, the domestic audience and international relations.[355] The charter itself is considered an 'historical relic.'[357]

In an April 2008 meeting between Hamas leader Khaled Mashal and former US President Jimmy Carter, an understanding was reached in which Hamas agreed it would respect the creation of a Palestinian state in the territory seized by Israel in the 1967 Six-Day War, provided this were ratified by the Palestinian people in a referendum.[358] In 2009, in a letter to UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon, Haniyeh repeated his group's support for a two-state settlement based on 1967 borders: "We would never thwart efforts to create an independent Palestinian state with borders [from] June 4, 1967, with Jerusalem as its capital."[359] On December 1, 2010, Ismail Haniyeh again repeated, "We accept a Palestinian state on the borders of 1967, with Jerusalem as its capital, the release of Palestinian prisoners, and the resolution of the issue of refugees," and "Hamas will respect the results [of a referendum] regardless of whether it differs with its ideology and principles."[360]

In November 2011, Hamas leader Khaled Mishal made an agreement with Mahmoud Abbas in Cairo, in which he committed to respecting the 1967 borders.[361]

In February 2012, according to the Palestinian authority, Hamas forswore the use of violence. Evidence for this was provided by an eruption of violence from Islamic Jihad in March 2012 after an Israeli assassination of a Jihad leader, during which Hamas refrained from attacking Israel.[362] "Israel—despite its mantra that because Hamas is sovereign in Gaza it is responsible for what goes on there—almost seems to understand," wrote Israeli journalists Avi Issacharoff and Amos Harel, "and has not bombed Hamas offices or installations".[363]

The Atlantic magazine columnist Jeffrey Goldberg, along with other analysts, believes Hamas may be incapable of permanent reconciliation with Israel.[364][365]

Co-founder Yassin of Hamas was convinced that Israel was endeavouring to destroy Islam, and concluded that loyal Muslims had a religious obligation to destroy Israel.[366] The short-term goal of Hamas was to liberate Palestine, including modern-day Israel, from Israeli occupation. Some academics argue that the long-term aim seeks to establish an Islamic state from the Jordan River to the Mediterranean Sea, remarkably similar to, and perhaps derived from, the Zionist notion of the same area under a Jewish majority.[t][325][326][327][328][330]

Hudna proposals

When Hamas won a majority in the January 2006 Palestinian legislative election, Ismail Haniyeh, the then newly elected Prime Minister of the Palestinian National Authority, sent messages both to US President George W. Bush and to Israel's leaders, asking to be recognized and offering a long-term truce and the establishment of a border on the lines of 1967. No response came.[368] Haniyeh's proposal reportedly was a fifty-year armistice with Israel, if a Palestinian state is created along the 1967 borders with East Jerusalem as its capital.[369] A Hamas official added that the armistice would renew automatically each time.[370] In mid-2006, University of Maryland's Jerome Segal suggested that a Palestinian state within the 1967 borders and a truce for many years could be considered Hamas's de facto recognition of Israel.[352] Hamas's spokesperson, Ahmed Yousef, said that a "hudna" is more than a ceasefire and it "obliges parties to use the period to seek a permanent, non-violent resolution to their differences."[190]

In November 2008, in a meeting, on Gaza Strip soil, with 11 European members of parliaments, Hamas leader Ismail Haniyeh re-stated that Hamas was willing to accept a Palestinian state "in the territories of 1967" (Gaza Strip and West Bank), and offered Israel a long-term truce if Israel recognized the Palestinians' national rights; and stated that Israel rejected this proposal.[371] A Hamas finance minister around 2018 contended that such a "long-term ceasefire as understood by Hamas and a two-state settlement are the same”.[78]

Mkhaimer Abusada, a political scientist at Al Azhar University, in September 2009 wrote that Hamas talks "of hudna [temporary ceasefire], not of peace or reconciliation with Israel. They believe over time they will be strong enough to liberate all historic Palestine."[372] Several more authors have warned around 2020, that, if Israel would accept such a proposal (a Palestinian state "in the territories of 1967" combined with a long-term truce), Hamas would retain its objective of establishing one state in former Mandatory Palestine.[81][82] Hamas has offered Israel a "hudna" (a ceasefire or armistice) ranging from 10 years, to 30, 40 or even 100 years, if it withdraws to the 1967 borders.[76] Many scholars maintain that Hamas's goal of establishing a Palestinian state in the West Bank and Gaza is an interim solution, while its long-term goal is a single state in all of mandatory Palestine in which Jews live as citizens.[82]

Religious policy

In the Gaza Strip

The gender ideology outlined in the Hamas charter, the importance of women in the religious-nationalist project of liberation is asserted as no lesser than that of males. Their role was defined primarily as one of manufacturing males and caring for their upbringing and rearing, though the charter recognized they could fight for liberation without obtaining their husband's permission and in 2002 their participation in jihad was permitted.[373] The doctrinal emphasis on childbearing and rearing as woman's primary duty is not so different from Fatah's view of women in the First Intifada and it also resembles the outlook of Jewish settlers, and over time it has been subjected to change.[374][375]

In 1989, during the First Intifada, a small number of Hamas followers[376] campaigned for the wearing of the hijab, which is not a part of traditional women's attire in Palestine,[citation needed] for polygamy, and also insisted women stay at home and be segregated from men. In the course of this campaign, women who chose not to wear the hijab were verbally and physically harassed, with the result that the hijab was being worn 'just to avoid problems on the streets'.[377] The harassment dropped drastically when, after 18 months UNLU condemned it,[378] though similar campaigns reoccurred.

Since Hamas took control of the Gaza Strip in 2007, some of its members have attempted to impose Islamic dress or the hijab head covering on women.[372][379] The government's "Islamic Endowment Ministry" has deployed Virtue Committee members to warn citizens of the dangers of immodest dress, card playing, and dating.[380] There are no government laws imposing dress and other moral standards, and the Hamas education ministry reversed one effort to impose Islamic dress on students.[372] There has also been successful resistance to attempts by local Hamas officials to impose Islamic dress on women.[381] Hamas officials deny having any plans to impose Islamic law, one legislator stating that "What you are seeing are incidents, not policy," and that Islamic law is the desired standard "but we believe in persuasion".[380]

In 2013, UNRWA canceled its annual marathon in Gaza after Hamas rulers prohibited women from participating in the race.[382]

In the West Bank

In 2005, the human rights organization Freemuse released a report titled "Palestine: Taliban-like attempts to censor music", which said that Palestinian musicians feared that harsh religious laws against music and concerts will be imposed since Hamas group scored political gains in the Palestinian Authority local elections of 2005.[383]

The attempt by Hamas to dictate a cultural code of conduct in the 1980s and early 1990s led to a violent fighting between different Palestinian sectors. Hamas members reportedly burned down stores that stocked videos they deemed indecent and destroyed books they described as "heretical".[65]

In 2005, an outdoor music-and-dance performance in Qalqiliya was suddenly banned by the Hamas-led municipality, for the reason that such an event would be "haram", i.e. forbidden by Islam.[384] The municipality also ordered that music no longer be played in the Qalqiliya zoo, and mufti Akrameh Sabri issued a religious edict affirming the municipality decision.[65] In response, the Palestinian national poet Mahmoud Darwish warned that "There are Taliban-type elements in our society, and this is a very dangerous sign."[383][65][385][386]

The Palestinian columnist Mohammed Abd Al-Hamid, a resident of Ramallah, wrote that this religious coercion could cause the migration of artists, and said "The religious fanatics in Algeria destroyed every cultural symbol, shattered statues and rare works of art and liquidated intellectuals and artists, reporters and authors, ballet dancers and singers—are we going to imitate the Algerian and Afghani examples?"[65]

Erdoğan's Turkey as a role model

Some Hamas members have stated that the model of Islamic government that Hamas seeks to emulate is that of Turkey under the rule of Recep Tayyip Erdoğan. The foremost members to distance Hamas from the practices of the Taliban and to publicly support the Erdoğan model were Ahmed Yousef and Ghazi Hamad, advisers to Prime Minister Hanieh.[387][388] Yusuf, the Hamas deputy foreign minister, reflected this goal in an interview with a Turkish newspaper, stating that while foreign public opinion equates Hamas with the Taliban or al-Qaeda, the analogy is inaccurate. Yusuf described the Taliban as "opposed to everything", including education and women's rights, while Hamas wants to establish good relations between the religious and secular elements of society and strives for human rights, democracy and an open society.[389] According to professor Yezid Sayigh of King's College in London, how influential this view is within Hamas is uncertain, since both Ahmad Yousef and Ghazi Hamad were dismissed from their posts as advisers to Hamas Prime Minister Ismail Hanieh in October 2007.[387] Both have since been appointed to other prominent positions within the Hamas government. Khaled al-Hroub of the West Bank-based and anti-Hamas[390] Palestinian daily Al Ayyam added that despite claims by Hamas leaders that it wants to repeat the Turkish model of Islam, "what is happening on the ground in reality is a replica of the Taliban model of Islam."[391][392]

Organization

Leadership and structure

Map of key Hamas leadership nodes. 2010

Hamas inherited from its predecessor a tripartite structure that consisted in the provision of social services, of religious training and military operations under a Shura Council. Traditionally it had four distinct functions: (a) a charitable social welfare division (dawah); (b) a military division for procuring weapons and undertaking operations (al-Mujahideen al Filastinun); (c) a security service (Jehaz Aman); and (d) a media branch (A'alam).[393] Hamas has both an internal leadership within the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, and an external leadership, split between a Gaza group directed by Mousa Mohammed Abu Marzook from his exile first in Damascus and then in Egypt, and a Kuwaiti group (Kuwaidia) under Khaled Mashal.[155] The Kuwaiti group of Palestinian exiles began to receive extensive funding from the Gulf States after its leader Mashal broke with Yasser Arafat's decision to side with Saddam Hussein in the Invasion of Kuwait, with Mashal insisting that Iraq withdraw.[394] On May 6, 2017, Hamas' Shura Council chose Ismail Haniya to become the new leader, to replace Mashal.[395]

The exact structure of the organization is unclear as it is shrouded in a veil of secrecy in order to conceal operational activities. Formally, Hamas maintains the wings are separate and independent, but this has been questioned. It has been argued that its wings are both separate and combined for reasons of internal and external political necessity. Communication between the political and military wings of Hamas is made difficult by the thoroughness of Israeli intelligence surveillance and the existence of an extensive base of informants. After the assassination of Abdel Aziz al-Rantisi the political direction of the militant wing was diminished and field commanders given wider discretional autonomy over operations.[396]

Political Bureau

Hamas's overarching governing body is the Majlis al-Shura (Shura Council), based on the Qur'anic concept of consultation and popular assembly (shura), which Hamas leaders argue provides for democracy within an Islamic framework.[397] As the organization grew more complex and Israeli pressure increased, the Shura Council was renamed the General Consultative Council, with members elected from local council groups. The council elects the 15-member Political Bureau (al-Maktab al-Siyasi)[398] that makes decisions for Hamas. Representatives come from Gaza, the West Bank, leaders in exile and Israeli prisons.[399] The Political Bureau was based in Damascus until the Syrian Civil War until Hamas's support for the civil opposition to Bashar al-Assad led to the office's relocation to Qatar in January 2012, .[399][400]

Finances and funding

Hamas, like its predecessor the Muslim Brotherhood, assumed the administration of Gaza's waqf properties, endowments which extend over 10% of all real estate in the Gaza Strip, with 2,000 acres of agricultural land held in religious trusts, together with numerous shops, rentable apartments and public buildings.[401]

In the first five years of the 1st Intifada, the Gaza economy, 50% of which depended on external sources of income, plummeted by 30–50% as Israel closed its labour market and remittances from the Palestinian expatriates in the Gulf countries dried up following the 1991–1992 Gulf War.[402] At the 1993 Philadelphia conference, Hamas leaders' statements indicated that they read George H. W. Bush's outline of a New World Order as embodying a tacit aim to destroy Islam, and that therefore funding should focus on enhancing the Islamic roots of Palestinian society and promoting jihad, which also means zeal for social justice, in the occupied territories.[403] Hamas became particularly fastidious about maintaining separate resourcing for its respective branches of activity—military, political and social services.[404] It has had a holding company in East Jerusalem (Beit al-Mal), a 20% stake in Al Aqsa International Bank which served as its financial arm, the Sunuqrut Global Group and al-Ajouli money-changing firm.[405]

By 2011, Hamas's budget, calculated to be roughly US$70 million, derived even more substantially (85%) from foreign, rather than internal Palestinian, sources.[405] Only two Israeli-Palestinian sources figure in a list seized in 2004, while the other contributors were donor bodies located in Jordan, Qatar, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Britain, Germany, the United States, United Arab Emirates, Italy and France. Much of the money raised comes from sources that direct their assistance to what Hamas describes as its charitable work for Palestinians, but investments in support of its ideological position are also relevant, with Persian Gulf States and Saudi Arabia prominent in the latter. Matthew Levitt claims that Hamas also taps money from corporations, criminal organizations and financial networks that support terror.[406] It is also alleged that it engages in cigarette and drug smuggling, multimedia copyright infringement and credit card fraud.[405] The United States, Israel and the EU have shut down many charities and organs that channel money to Hamas, such as the Holy Land Foundation for Relief.[407] Between 1992 and 2001, this group is said to have provided $6.8 million to Palestinian charities of the $57 million collected. By 2001, it was alleged to have given Hamas $13 million, and was shut down shortly afterwards.[408]

About half of Hamas's funding came from states in the Persian Gulf down to the mid-2000s. Saudi Arabia supplied half of the Hamas budget of $50 million in the early 2000s,[409] but, under US pressure, began to cut its funding by cracking down on Islamic charities and private donor transfers to Hamas in 2004,[410] which by 2006 drastically reduced the flow of money from that area. Iran and Syria, in the aftermath of Hamas's 2006 electoral victory, stepped in to fill the shortfall.[411][412] Saudi funding, negotiated with third parties including Egypt, remained supportive of Hamas as a Sunni group but chose to provide more assistance to the PNA, the electoral loser, when the EU responded to the outcome by suspending its monetary aid.[413] During the 1980s, Iran began to provide 10% of Hamas's funding, which it increased annually until by the 1990s it supplied $30 million.[409] It accounted for $22 million, over a quarter of Hamas's budget, by the late 2000s.[410] According to Matthew Levitt, Iran preferred direct financing to operative groups rather than charities, requiring video proof of attacks.[410][414] Much of the Iran funding is said to be channeled through Hezbollah.[410] After 2006, Iran's willingness to take over the burden of the shortfall created by the drying up of Saudi funding also reflected the geopolitical tensions between the two, since, though Shiite, Iran was supporting a Sunni group traditionally closely linked with the Saudi kingdom.[415] The US imposed sanctions on Iran's Bank Saderat, alleging it had funneled hundreds of millions to Hamas.[416] The US has expressed concerns that Hamas obtains funds through Palestinian and Lebanese sympathizers of Arab descent in the Foz do Iguaçu area of the tri-border region of Latin America, an area long associated with arms trading, drug trafficking, contraband, the manufacture of counterfeit goods, money-laundering and currency fraud. The State Department adds that confirmatory information of a Hamas operational presence there is lacking.[417]

After 2009, sanctions on Iran made funding difficult, forcing Hamas to rely on religious donations by individuals in the West Bank, Qatar, and Saudi Arabia. Funds amounting to tens of millions of dollars raised in the Gulf states were transferred through the Rafah Border Crossing. These were not sufficient to cover the costs of governing the Strip and running the al Qassam Brigades, and when tensions arose with Iran over support of President Assad in Syria, Iran dropped its financial assistance to the government, restricting its funding to the military wing, which meant a drop from $150 million in 2012 to $60 million the following year. A further drop occurred in 2015 when Hamas expressed its criticisms of Iran's role in the Yemeni Civil War.[418]

In 2017, the PA government imposed its own sanctions against Gaza, including, among other things, cutting off salaries to thousands of PA employees, as well as financial assistance to hundreds of families in the Gaza Strip. The PA initially said it would stop paying for the electricity and fuel that Israel supplies to the Gaza Strip, but after a year partially backtracked.[419] The Israeli government has allowed millions of dollars from Qatar to be funneled on a regular basis through Israel to Hamas, to replace the millions of dollars the PA had stopped transferring to Hamas. Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu explained that letting the money go through Israel meant that it could not be used for terrorism, saying: "Now that we are supervising, we know it's going to humanitarian causes."[420]

Social services wing

Hamas developed its social welfare programme by replicating the model established by Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood. For Hamas, charity and the development of one's community are both prescribed by religion and to be understood as forms of resistance.[421] In Islamic tradition, dawah (lit. transl. "the call to God") obliges the faithful to reach out to others by both proselytising and by charitable works, and typically the latter centre on the mosques which make use of both waqf endowment resources and charitable donations (zakat, one of the five pillars of Islam) to fund grassroots services such as nurseries, schools, orphanages, soup kitchens, women's activities, library services and even sporting clubs within a larger context of preaching and political discussions.[422] In the 1990s, some 85% of its budget was allocated to the provision of social services.[423] Hamas has been called perhaps the most significant social services actor in Palestine. By 2000, Hamas or its affiliated charities ran roughly 40% of the social institutions in the West Bank and Gaza and, with other Islamic charities, by 2005, was supporting 120,000 individuals with monthly financial support in Gaza.[424] Part of the appeal of these institutions is that they fill a vacuum in the administration by the PLO of the Palestinian territories, which had failed to cater to the demand for jobs and broad social services, and is widely viewed as corrupt.[95] As late as 2005, the budget of Hamas, drawing on global charity contributions, was mostly tied up in covering running expenses for its social programmes, which extended from the supply of housing, food and water for the needy to more general functions such as financial aid, medical assistance, educational development and religious instruction. A certain accounting flexibility allowed these funds to cover both charitable causes and military operations, permitting transfer from one to the other.[425]

The dawah infrastructure itself was understood, within the Palestinian context, as providing the soil from which a militant opposition to the occupation would flower.[u] In this regard it differs from the rival Palestinian Islamic Jihad which lacks any social welfare network, and relies on spectacular terrorist attacks to recruit adherents.[427] In 2007, through funding from Iran, Hamas managed to allocate at a cost of $60 million, monthly stipends of $100 for 100,000 workers, and a similar sum for 3,000 fishermen laid idle by Israel's imposition of restrictions on fishing offshore, plus grants totalling $45 million to detainees and their families.[428] Matthew Levitt argues that Hamas grants to people are subject to a rigorous cost-benefit analysis of how beneficiaries will support Hamas, with those linked to terrorist activities receiving more than others.[429] Israel holds the families of suicide bombers accountable and bulldozes their homes, whereas the families of Hamas activists who have been killed or wounded during militant operations are given an initial, one-time grant varying between $500–$5,000, together with a $100 monthly allowance. Rent assistance is also given to families whose homes have been destroyed by Israeli bombing though families unaffiliated with Hamas are said to receive less.[375][430]

Until 2007, these activities extended to the West Bank, but, after a PLO crackdown, now continue exclusively in the Gaza Strip.[431] After the 2013 Egyptian coup d'état deposed the elected Muslim Brotherhood government of Mohamed Morsi in 2013, Hamas found itself in a financial straitjacket and has since endeavoured to throw the burden of responsibility for public works infrastructure in the Gaza Strip back onto the Palestinian National Authority, but without success.[432]

Military wing

Weapons found in a mosque during Operation Cast Lead, according to the IDF

The Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades is Hamas's military wing.[433] While the number of members is known only to the Brigades leadership, Israel estimates the Brigades have a core of several hundred members who receive military style training, including training in Iran and in Syria (before the Syrian Civil War).[143] Additionally, the brigades have an estimated 10,000–17,000 operatives,[424][434] forming a backup force whenever circumstances call for reinforcements for the Brigade. Recruitment training lasts for two years.[143] The group's ideology outlines its aim as the liberation of Palestine and the restoration of Palestinian rights under the dispensations set forth in the Qur'an, and this translates into three policy priorities:

To evoke the spirit of Jihad (Resistance) among Palestinians, Arabs, and Muslims; to defend Palestinians and their land against the Zionist occupation and its manifestations; to liberate Palestinians and their land that was usurped by the Zionist occupation forces and settlers.[435]

According to its official stipulations, the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades' military operations are to be restricted to operating only inside Palestine, engaging with Israeli soldiers,[v] and in exercising the right of self-defense against armed settlers. They are to avoid civilian targets, to respect the enemy's humanity by refraining from mutilation, defacement or excessive killing, and to avoid targeting Westerners either in the occupied zones or beyond.[436]

Exercise of al-Qassam Brigades in Gaza City, January 27, 2013

Down to 2007, the Brigades are estimated to have lost some 800 operatives in conflicts with Israeli forces. The leadership has been consistently undermined by targeted assassinations. Aside from Yahya Ayyash (January 5, 1996), it has lost Emad Akel (November 24, 1993), Salah Shehade (July 23, 2002), Ibrahim al-Makadmeh (March 8, 2003), Ismail Abu Shanab (August 21, 2003), Ahmed Yassin (March 22, 2004), and Abdel Aziz al-Rantisi (April 17, 2004).[437][121]

The Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades groups its fighters in 4–5 man cells, which in turn are integrated into companies and battalions. Unlike the political section, which is split between an internal and external structure, the Brigades are under a local Palestinian leadership, and disobedience with the decisions taken by the political leadership have been relatively rare.[438]

Although the Izz al-Din al-Qassam Brigades are an integral part of Hamas, the exact nature of the relationship is hotly debated. They appear to operate at times independently of Hamas, exercising a certain autonomy.[439][440][441][442][443] Some cells have independent links with the external leadership, enabling them to bypass the hierarchical command chain and political leadership in Gaza.[444] Ilana Kass and Bard O'Neill, likening Hamas's relationship with the Brigades to the political party Sinn Féin's relationship to the military arm of the Irish Republican Army, quote a senior Hamas official as stating: "The Izz al-Din al-Qassam Brigade is a separate armed military wing, which has its own leaders who do not take their orders from Hamas and do not tell us of their plans in advance."[445][w]

Gaza forces, October 2023

During the 2023 Gaza war, the IDF published its intelligence about the Hamas military in the Strip.[447] They put the strength of the Qassam Brigades there at the start of the war at 30,000 fighters, organised by area in five brigades, consisting in total of 24 battalions and c. 140 companies.[447] Each regional brigade had a number of strongholds and outposts, and included specialised arrays for rocket firing, anti-tank missiles, air defenses, snipers, and engineering.[447]

Media

Al-Aqsa TV

Al-Aqsa TV is a television channel founded by Hamas.[448] The station began broadcasting in the Gaza Strip on January 9, 2006,[449][450] less than three weeks before the Palestinian legislative elections. It has shown television programs, including some children's television, which deliver antisemitic messages.[451] Hamas has stated that the television station is "an independent media institution that often does not express the views of the Palestinian government headed by Ismail Haniyeh or of the Hamas movement," and that Hamas does not hold antisemitic views.[452] The programming includes ideologically tinged children's shows, news talk, and religiously inspired entertainment.[453] According to the Anti-Defamation League, the station promotes terrorist activity and incites hatred of Jews and Israelis.[450] Al-Aqsa TV is headed by Fathi Ahmad Hammad, chairman of al-Ribat Communications and Artistic Productions—a Hamas-run company that also produces Hamas's radio station, Voice of al-Aqsa, and its biweekly newspaper, The Message.[454]

Al-Fateh magazine

Al-Fateh ("the conqueror") is the Hamas children's magazine, published biweekly in London, and also posted in an online website. It began publication in September 2002, and its 108th issue was released in mid-September 2007. The magazine features stories, poems, riddles, and puzzles, and states it is for "the young builders of the future".[455]

According to the Anti-Defamation League, al-Fateh promotes violence and antisemitism, with praise for and encouragement to become suicide bombers, and that it "regularly includes photos of children it claims have been detained, injured or killed by Israeli police, images of children firing slingshots or throwing rocks at Israelis and children holding automatic weapons and firebombs."[456]

Social media

According to Dr. Harel Horev, historian and researcher of Palestinian affairs at Tel Aviv University, Hamas has used social medi to dehumanize Israelis/Jews. According to his research, Hamas took over the most popular accounts on Palestinian networks in a covert manner that did not reveal its involvement. This control gave it the ability to significantly influence the Palestinian discourse online through content that denies the humanity and right to life of Israelis. These included posters, songs and videos glorifying threats; computer games that encourage the murder of Jews; training videos for carrying out effective and indiscriminate stabbing and shooting attacks; and anti-Semitic cartoons as a central means of dehumanizing the Israeli/Jew in the Palestinian online discourse.[457][458]

Violence

Hamas has used both political activities and violence in pursuit of its goals. For example, while politically engaged in the 2006 Palestinian Territories parliamentary election campaign, Hamas stated in its election manifesto that it was prepared to use "armed resistance to end the occupation".[459]

From 2000 to 2004, Hamas was responsible for killing nearly 400 Israelis and wounding more than 2,000 in 425 attacks, according to the Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs. From 2001 through May 2008, Hamas launched more than 3,000 Qassam rockets and 2,500 mortar attacks into Israel.[460]

Attacks on civilians

Aftermath of 1996 Jaffa Road bus bombings in which 26 people were killed

Hamas has attacked Israeli civilians. Hamas's most deadly suicide bombing was an attack on a Netanya hotel on March 27, 2002, in which 30 people were killed and 140 were wounded. The attack has also been referred to as the Passover massacre since it took place on the first night of the Jewish festival of Passover at a Seder.

Hamas has defended suicide attacks as a legitimate aspect of its asymmetric warfare against Israel. In 2003, according to Stephen Atkins, Hamas resumed suicide bombings in Israel as a retaliatory measure after the failure of peace talks and an Israeli campaign targeting members of the upper echelon of the Hamas leadership.[x] but they are considered as crimes against humanity under international law.[462][463] In a 2002 report, Human Rights Watch stated that Hamas leaders "should be held accountable" for "war crimes and crimes against humanity" committed by the al-Qassam Brigades.[464][465][466]

In May 2006, Israel arrested a top Hamas official, Ibrahim Hamed, who Israeli security officials alleged was responsible for dozens of suicide bombings and other attacks on Israelis.[467] Hamed's trial on those charges has not yet concluded.[468] In 2008, Hamas explosives engineer Shihab al-Natsheh organized a deadly suicide bombing in Dimona.[469][470]

Since 2002, militants of al-Qassam Brigades and other groups have used homemade Qassam rockets to hit Israeli towns in the Negev, such as Sderot. Al-Qassam Brigades was estimated in 2007 to have launched 22% of the rocket and mortar attacks,[471] which killed fifteen people between the years 2000 and 2009.[472] The introduction of the Qassam-2 rocket in 2008 enabled Palestinian paramilitary groups to reach, from Gaza, such Israeli cities such as Ashkelon.[473]

In 2008, Hamas leader Khaled Mashal, offered that Hamas would attack only military targets if the IDF would stop causing the deaths of Palestinian civilians.[474] Following a June 19, 2008, ceasefire, the al-Qassam Brigades ended its rocket attacks and arrested Fatah militants in Gaza who had continued sporadic rocket and mortar attacks against Israel. The al-Qassam Brigades resumed the attacks after the November 4 Israeli incursion into Gaza.[247][475]

On June 15, 2014, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu accused Hamas of involvement in the kidnapping of three Israeli teenagers (including one who held American citizenship), saying "This has severe repercussions."[476] On July 20, 2014, nearly two weeks into Operation Protective Edge, Netanyahu in an interview with CNN described Hamas as "genocidal terrorists."[477]

On August 5, 2014, Israel announced that Israeli security forces arrested Hussam Kawasme, in Shuafat, in connection with the murders of the teens.[478] During interrogation, Kawasme admitted to being the mastermind behind the attack, in addition to securing the funding from Hamas.[479] Officials have stated that additional people arrested in connection with the murders are still being held, but no names have been released.[480]

On August 20, Saleh al-Arouri, a Hamas leader then in exile in Turkey, claimed responsibility for the kidnapping of the three Israeli teens. He delivered an address on behalf of Khaled Mashal at the conference of the International Union of Muslim Scholars in Istanbul, a move that might reflect a desire by Hamas to gain leverage.[481] In it he said:

Our goal was to ignite an intifada in the West Bank and Jerusalem, as well as within the 1948 borders. ... Your brothers in the Al-Qassam Brigades carried out this operation to support their imprisoned brothers, who were on a hunger strike. ... The mujahideen captured these settlers in order to have a swap deal.[482][better source needed]

Hamas political leader Khaled Mashal accepted that members of Hamas were responsible, stating that he knew nothing of it in advance and that what the leadership knew of the details came from reading Israeli reports.[483] Meshaal, who had headed Hamas's exiled political wing since 2004, has denied being involved in the "details" of Hamas's "military issues," but "justified the killings as a legitimate action against Israelis on 'occupied' lands."[484]

During the 2023 Israel–Hamas war, Hamas infiltrated homes, shot civilians en masse, and took scores of Israeli civilians and soldiers as hostages into Gaza.[99][100] According to Human Rights Watch, the deliberate targeting of civilians, indiscriminate attacks, and taking of civilians as hostages amount to war crimes under international humanitarian law.[485] During its October 2023 offensive against Israel, Hamas massacred over 260 people at a music festival, while abucting others.[486] During the same offensive, it also was reported that Hamas had massacred the population of the Kfar Aza kibbutz.[487] About 10 percent of the residents of the Be'eri kibbutz were killed.[488] Video footage shows children being deliberately killed during the kibbutz attacks,[489] as well as what appears to be an attempt to decapitate a living person using a garden hoe.[490]

Rocket attacks on Israel

Hamas and other Palestinian armed groups have launched thousands of rockets into Israel since 2001, killing 15 civilians, wounding many more, and posing an ongoing threat to the nearly 800,000 Israeli civilians who live and work in the weapons' range. Hamas officials have said that the rockets were aimed only at military targets, saying that civilian casualties were the "accidental result" of the weapons' poor quality. According to Human Rights Watch, statements by Hamas leaders suggest that the purpose of the rocket attacks was indeed to strike civilians and civilian objects. From January 2009, following Operation Cast Lead, Hamas largely stopped launching rocket attacks on Israel and has on at least two occasions arrested members of other groups who have launched rockets, "showing that it has the ability to impose the law when it wants".[491] In February 2010, Hamas issued a statement regretting any harm that may have befallen Israeli civilians as a result of Palestinian rocket attacks during the Gaza war. It maintained that its rocket attacks had been aimed at Israeli military targets but lacked accuracy and hence sometimes hit civilian areas. Israel responded that Hamas had boasted repeatedly of targeting and murdering civilians in the media.[492]

According to one report, commenting on the 2014 conflict, "nearly all the 2,500–3,000 rockets and mortars Hamas has fired at Israel since the start of the war seem to have been aimed at towns", including an attack on "a kibbutz collective farm close to the Gaza border", in which an Israeli child was killed.[493] Former Israeli Lt. Col. Jonathan D. Halevi stated that "Hamas has expressed pride in aiming long-range rockets at strategic targets in Israel including the nuclear reactor in Dimona, the chemical plants in Haifa, and Ben-Gurion Airport", which "could have caused thousands" of Israeli casualties "if successful".[494]

In July 2008, Barack Obama, then the Democratic presidential candidate, said: "If somebody was sending rockets into my house, where my two daughters sleep at night, I'm going to do everything in my power to stop that, and I would expect Israelis to do the same thing."[495] On December 28, 2008, Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice said in a statement: "the United States strongly condemns the repeated rocket and mortar attacks against Israel."[496] On March 2, 2009, Secretary of State Hillary Clinton condemned the attacks.[497]

On October 7, 2023, Hamas claimed responsibility for a barrage of missile attacks originating from the Gaza strip.[498]

Attempts to derail 2010 peace talks

In 2010, Hamas, who have been actively sidelined from the peace talks by Israel, spearheaded a coordinated effort by 13 Palestinian militant groups, in attempt to derail the stalled peace talks between Israel and Mahmoud Abbas, President of the Palestinian Authority. According to the Israeli Coordinator of Government Activities in the Territories Major Gen. Eitan Dangot, Israel seeks to work with Salam Fayyad, to help revive the Palestinian economy, and hopes to ease restrictions on the Gaza Strip further, "while somehow preventing the Islamic militants who rule it from getting credit for any progress". According to Dangot, Hamas must not be seen as ruling successfully or be allowed to "get credit for a policy that would improve the lives of people".[499] The campaign consists of attacks against Israelis in which, according to a Hamas declaration in early September, "all options are open".[500][501][502][503] The participating groups also include Palestinian Islamic Jihad, the Popular Resistance Committees and an unnamed splinter group of Fatah.[504]

As part of the campaign, on August 31, 2010, 4 Israeli settlers, including a pregnant woman, were killed by Hamas militants while driving on Route 60 near the settlement Kiryat Arba, in the West bank. According to witnesses, militants opened fire on the moving vehicle, but then "approached the car" and shot the occupants in their seats at "close range". The attack was described by Israeli sources as one of the "worst" terrorist acts in years.[505][506][507] A senior Hamas official said that Israeli settlers in the West Bank are legitimate targets since "they are an army in every sense of the word".[508][509]

Guerrilla warfare

Hamas anti-tank rockets, captured by Israel Defense Forces during Operation Protective Edge

Hamas has made great use of guerrilla tactics in the Gaza Strip and to a lesser degree the West Bank.[510] It has successfully adapted these techniques over the years since its inception. According to a 2006 report by rival Fatah party, Hamas had smuggled between several hundred and 1,300 tons of advanced rockets, along with other weaponry, into Gaza.[510]

Hamas has used IEDs and anti-tank rockets against the IDF in Gaza. The latter include standard RPG-7 warheads and home-made rockets such as the Al-Bana, Al-Batar and Al-Yasin. The IDF has a difficult, if not impossible, time trying to find hidden weapons caches in Palestinian areas—this is due to the high local support base Hamas enjoys.[511]

Extrajudicial killings of rivals

In addition to killing Israeli civilians and armed forces, Hamas has also murdered suspected Palestinian Israel collaborators and Fatah rivals.[512][513] According to the Associated Press, collaborating with Israel is a crime punishable by death in Gaza.[514] Hundreds of Palestinians were executed by both Hamas and Fatah during the First Intifada.[515] In the wake of the 2006 Israeli conflict with Gaza, Hamas was accused of systematically rounding up, torturing and summarily executing Fatah supporters suspected of supplying information to Israel. Human Rights Watch estimates several hundred Gazans were "maimed" and tortured in the aftermath of the conflict. Seventy-three Gazan men accused of "collaborating" had their arms and legs broken by "unidentified perpetrators", and 18 Palestinians accused of helping Israel were executed by Hamas security officials in the first days of the conflict.[237][238][516] In November 2012, Hamas's Izzedine al-Qassam brigade publicly executed six Gaza residents accused of collaborating with Israel. According to the witnesses, six alleged informers were shot dead one by one in Gaza City, while the corpse of the sixth victim was tied by a cable to the back of a motorcycle and dragged through the streets.[517] In 2013, Human Rights Watch issued a statement condemning Hamas for not investigating and giving a proper trial to the 6 men. Their statement was released the day before Hamas issued a deadline for "collaborators" to turn themselves in, or they will be pursued "without mercy".[518] During the 2014 Israel-Gaza conflict, Hamas executed at least 23 accused collaborators after three of its commanders were assassinated by Israeli forces, with Amnesty International also reporting instances of torture used by Hamas forces.[519][520] An Israeli source denied that any of the commanders had been targeted on the basis of human intelligence.[521]

Frequent killings of unarmed people have also occurred during Hamas-Fatah clashes.[522][523] NGOs have cited a number of summary executions as particular examples of violations of the rules of warfare, including the case of Muhammad Swairki, 28, a cook for Palestinian Authority Chairman Mahmoud Abbas's presidential guard, who was thrown to his death, with his hands and legs tied, from a 15-story apartment building in Gaza City.[524] Hamas security forces reportedly shoot and torture Palestinians who opposed Hamas rule in Gaza.[525] In one case, a Palestinian had criticized Hamas in a conversation on the street with some friends. Later that day, more than a dozen armed men with black masks and red kaffiyeh took the man from his home, and brought him to a solitary area where they shot him three times in the lower legs and ankles. The man told Human Rights Watch that he was not politically active.[237]

On August 14, 2009, Hamas fighters stormed the Mosque of cleric Abdel-Latif Moussa.[526] The cleric was protected by at least 100 fighters from Jund Ansar Allah ("Army of the Helpers of God"), an Islamist group with links to Al-Qaeda. The resulting battle left at least 13 people dead, including Moussa and 6 Hamas fighters, and 120 people injured.[527] According to Palestinian president Mahmoud Abbas, during 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict, Hamas killed more than 120 Palestinian youths for defying house arrest imposed on them by Hamas, in addition to 30–40 Palestinians killed by Hamas in extrajudicial executions after accusing them of being collaborators with Israel.[528] Referring to the killing of suspected collaborators, a Shin Bet official stated that "not even one" of those executed by Hamas provided any intelligence to Israel, while the Shin Bet officially "confirmed that those executed during Operation Protective Edge had all been held in prison in Gaza in the course of the hostilities".[521]

2011–2013 Sinai insurgency

Hamas has been accused of providing weapons, training and fighters for Sinai-based insurgent attacks,[529][530] although Hamas strongly denies the allegations, calling them a smear campaign aiming to harm relations with Egypt.[529] According to the Egyptian Army, since the ouster of Egypt's Muslim-Brotherhood president Mohamed Morsi, over 600 Hamas members have entered the Sinai Peninsula through smuggling tunnels.[531] In addition, several weapons used in Sinai's insurgent attacks are being traced back to Hamas in the Gaza Strip, according to the army.[531] The four leading insurgent groups in the Sinai have all reportedly maintained close ties with the Gaza Strip.[532] Hamas called the accusation a "dangerous development".[533] Egyptian authorities stated that the 2011 Alexandria bombing was carried out by the Gaza-based Army of Islam, which has received sanctuary from Hamas and earlier collaborated in the capture of Gilad Shalit.[532][534][535][536] Army of Islam members linked to the August 2012 Sinai attack have reportedly sought refuge in the Gaza Strip.[532] Egypt stated that Hamas directly provided logistical support to the Muslim Brotherhood militants who carried out the December 2013 Mansoura bombing.[537]

Terrorist designation

The United States designated Hamas as a terrorist organisation in 1995, as did Canada in November 2002,[538] and the United Kingdom in November 2021.[59] The European Union so designated Hamas's military wing in 2001 and, under US pressure,[539] designated Hamas in 2003.[540] Hamas challenged this decision,[541] which was upheld by the European Court of Justice in July 2017.[542] Japan[543] and New Zealand[544] have designated the military wing of Hamas as a terrorist organization.[545] The organization is banned in Jordan.[546]

Hamas is not regarded as a terrorist organization by Afghanistan, Algeria, Iran,[547] Russia,[548] Norway,[y] Turkey, China,[550] Egypt, Syria, and Brazil.[551][552][553][excessive citations] "Many other states, including Russia, China, Syria, Turkey and Iran consider the (armed) struggle waged by Hamas to be legitimate."[554]

According to Tobias Buck, Hamas is "listed as a terrorist organisation by Israel, the US and the EU, but few dare to treat it that way now" and in the Arab and Muslim world it has lost its pariah status and its emissaries are welcomed in capitals of Islamic countries.[555] While Hamas is considered a terrorist group by several governments and some academics, others regard Hamas as a complex organization, with terrorism as only one component.[556][557]

Country Designated as terrorist org. Comments
 Australia Yes Australia announced they would designate Hamas as a terrorist organization in its entirety in 2022. Prior to that, Hamas's military wing, the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades, were recognized as one but the political branch were not.[558][559][560][561]
 Brazil No Brazil does not designate Hamas as a terrorist organization.[551][562] The Brazilian government only classifies organizations as terrorists when the United Nations does so.[563]
 Canada Yes Under the Anti-Terrorism Act, the Government of Canada has listed Hamas as a terrorist entity, thus establishing it as a terrorist group, since 2002.[564][565]
 China No As of 2006, China does not designate Hamas to be a terrorist organization and acknowledges Hamas to be the legitimately elected political entity in the Gaza Strip that represents the Palestinian people. In June 2006, a spokesperson for the Chinese Foreign Ministry stated: "We believe that the Palestinian government is legally elected by the people there and it should be respected."[566][567]
 Egypt No In June 2015, Egypt's appeals court overturned a prior ruling that listed Hamas as a terrorist organization.[568] In February 2015, Cairo's Urgent Matters Court designated Hamas as a terrorist organization, as part of a crack down on the Muslim Brotherhood movement following the 2013 Egyptian coup d'état. The court accused Hamas of carrying terrorist attacks in Egypt through tunnels linking the Sinai Peninsula to the Gaza Strip.[569] In March 2014, the same court outlawed Hamas' activities in Egypt, ordered the closure of its offices and to arrest any Hamas member found in the country.[570][571]
 European Union Yes The EU designated Hamas as a terrorist group from 2003. In December 2014, the General Court of the European Union ordered that Hamas be removed from the register. The court stated that the move was technical and was not a reassessment of Hamas's classification as a terrorist group. In March 2015, EU decided to keep Hamas on its terrorism blacklist "despite a controversial court decision", appealing the court's judgment.[572][573][574][575][576][577][578][579] In July 2017, this appeal was upheld by the European Court of Justice.[580][581]
 India No Hamas is not regarded as a terrorist organization by India,[582] though individual Indian leaders have condemned certain Hamas' attacks as terrorist.
 Iran No Hamas is not regarded as a terrorist organization by Iran.[547][554]
 Israel Yes The Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs states, "Hamas maintains a terrorist infrastructure in Gaza and the West Bank, and acts to carry out terrorist attacks in the territories and Israel."[583]
 Japan Yes As of 2005, Japan had frozen the assets of 472 terrorists and terrorist organizations including those of Hamas.[584] However, in 2006 it publicly acknowledged that Hamas had won the 2006 Palestinian legislative elections democratically.[585]
 Jordan No Hamas was banned in 1999, reportedly in part at the request of the United States, Israel, and the Palestinian Authority.[180] In 2019, Jordanian sources are said to have revealed "that the Kingdom refused a request from the General Secretariat of the Arab League in late March to ban Hamas and list it as a terrorist organization."[586][better source needed]
 New Zealand Partial The military wing of Hamas, the Izz al-Din al-Qassam Brigades, has been listed as a terrorist entity since 2010.[587] New Zealand PM Chris Hipkins reiterated in October 2023 that "Hamas is recognised by New Zealand as a terrorist organisation".[588]
 Norway No Norway does not list Hamas as a terrorist organization.[589] Norway distanced itself from the European Union in 2006, claiming that its listing was causing problems for its role as a 'neutral facilitator.'[549] After Progress Party leader Sylvi Listhaug criticized PM Jonas Gahr Støre at the start of the 2023 Israel-Hamas war for not calling Hamas a terrorist organization, Støre said that it was an organization that carried out terrorist acts but he would not change Norway's listing.[590]
 Paraguay Partial The military wing of Hamas, the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades, is listed as a terrorist organization.[citation needed]
 Philippines No Hamas is not considered as a terrorist organization by the Philippines. The National Security Council has proposed considering Hamas as a terrorist group as a response to the 2023 Israel–Hamas war.[591][592]
 Qatar No The Qatari government has a designated terrorist list. As of 2014, the list contained no names, according to The Daily Telegraph.[593] In September 2020, Qatar brokered a ceasefire between Israel and Hamas that is reported to include "plans to build a power station operated by Qatar, the provision of $34 million for humanitarian aid, provision of 20,000 COVID-19 testing kits by Qatar to the Health Ministry, and a number of initiatives to reduce unemployment in the Gaza Strip."[594]
 Russia No Russia does not designate Hamas a terrorist organisation, and held direct talks with Hamas in 2006, after Hamas won the Palestine elections, stating that it did so to press Hamas to reject violence and recognise Israel.[595]
 Saudi Arabia No Saudi Arabia banned the Muslim Brotherhood in 2014 and branded it a terrorist organization. While Hamas is not specifically listed, a non-official Saudi source stated that the decision also encompasses its branches in other countries, including Hamas.[596][597] As of January 2020, ties between Saudi Arabia and Hamas remain strained despite attempts at a rapprochement. Wesam Afifa, director general of Al-Aqsa TV is quoted as saying that "Saudi Arabia did not sever ties with Hamas, and even when Riyadh made public its list of terrorists in 2017, Hamas was not added to the list."[598] In 2020, Saudi Arabia arrested 68 Palestinian and Jordanian citizens associated with Hamas in a special terrorism court. However, in 2022, Saudi Arabia released a number of those detainees in recent months, including senior member Mohammad Al-Khodary, who was set free in October, following statements by Hamas leaders expressing their desire for improved relations with the country.[599] In 2023, during Ramadan, senior members of Hamas, including Ismail Haniyeh, Mousa Marzook, Khalil al-Hayya and Khaled Meshaal arrived in Saudi Arabia to mend Hamas's relationship with Saudi Arabia. They were spotted performing Umrah in Mecca, Saudi Arabia.[600]
  Switzerland No Switzerland has not designated Hamas as a terrorist organization in accordance with Swiss neutrality. Switzerland has had direct contacts with all major stakeholders in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, including Hamas.[601] On 11 October 2023, the Swiss government stated that Hamas should be designated as a terrorist organization.[602][603]
 Syria No Syria does not designate Hamas as a terrorist organization. Syria is among other countries that consider Hamas' armed struggle to be legitimate.[554]
 Turkey No The Turkish government met with Hamas leaders in February 2006, after the organization's victory in the Palestinian elections. In 2010, Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan described Hamas as "resistance fighters who are struggling to defend their land".[604][605]
 United Kingdom Yes Hamas in its entirety is proscribed as a terrorist group and banned under the Terrorism Act 2000. "The government now assess that the approach of distinguishing between the various parts of Hamas is artificial. Hamas is a complex but single terrorist organisation."[59]
 United Nations No The list of United Nations designated terrorist groups does not include Hamas.[606] On December 5, 2018, the UN rejected a US resolution aimed at unilaterally condemning Hamas for Palestinian rocket attacks on Israel and other violence.[607][608][98][609]
 United States Yes Lists Hamas as a "Foreign Terrorist Organization".[610] The State Department decided to add Hamas to its US State Department list of Foreign Terrorist Organizations in April 1993.[611] As of 2023, it is still listed.[612]

Criticism

Aside from its use of political violence in pursuit of its goals, Hamas has been widely criticised for a variety of reasons, including the use of antisemitic hate speech by its representatives, frequent calls for the military destruction of Israel, its specific use of human shields and child combatants as part of its military operations, its restriction of political freedoms within the Gaza Strip, and human rights abuses. After starting the 2023 war, the European Parliament passed a motion stating the need for Hamas to be eliminated, with US President Biden having expressed the same sentiment.[613][614]

Support

Israeli policy towards Hamas

Benjamin Netanyahu had been Israel's prime minister for most of the two decades preceding the 2023 Israel–Hamas war, and was criticized for having championed a policy of empowering Hamas in Gaza.[615][616][617][618] This policy was part of a strategy to sabotage a two-state solution by confining the Palestinian Authority to the West Bank and weakening it, and to demonstrate to the Israeli public and western governments that Israel has no partner for peace.[619] This criticism was leveled by several Israeli officials, including former prime minister Ehud Barak, and former head of Shin Bet security services Yuval Diskin.[619] Saudi Arabia and the Palestinian Authority were also critical of Israel under Netanyahu allowing suitcases of Qatari money to be given to Hamas,[619] in exchange for maintaining the ceasefire.[615] The Times of Israel reported after the Hamas attack that Netanyahu's policy to treat the Palestinian Authority as a burden and Hamas as an asset had "blown up in our faces".[615]

Public support

A poll conducted in 2021 found that 53% of Palestinians believed Hamas was "most deserving of representing and leading the Palestinian people", while only 14% preferred Abbas's Fatah party.[620] At the same time, a majority of Gazans saw Hamas as corrupt as well, but were frightened to criticize the group.[621] Polls conducted in 2023 found that support for Hamas among Palestinians was around 27–31%.[622]

Public opinions of Hamas deteriorated after it took control of the Gaza Strip in 2007. Prior to the takeover, 62% of Palestinians had held a favorable view of the group, while a third had negative views. According to a 2014 Pew Research just prior to the 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict, only about a third had positive opinions and more than half viewed Hamas negatively. Furthermore, 68% of Israeli Arabs viewed Hamas negatively.[623] In July 2014, 65% of Lebanese viewed Hamas negatively. In Jordan and Egypt, roughly 60% viewed Hamas negatively, and in Turkey, 80% had a negative view of Hamas. In Tunisia, 42% had a negative view of Hamas, while 56% of Bangladeshis and 44% of Indonesians had a negative opinion of Hamas.[623]

Hamas popularity surged after the war in July–August 2014 with polls reporting that 81 percent of Palestinians felt that Hamas had "won" that war.[624][625] A June 2021 opinion poll found that 46% of respondents in Saudi Arabia supported rocket attacks on Israel by Hamas during the 2021 Israel–Palestine crisis.[626] A March/April 2023 poll found that 60% of Jordanians viewed Hamas firing rockets at Israel at least somewhat positively.[627]

Pro-Hamas rally in Damascus

International support

Hamas leader Ismail Haniyeh and Iranian Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei in 2012

Hamas has always maintained leadership abroad. The movement is deliberately fragmented to ensure that Israel cannot kill its top political and military leaders.[628] Hamas used to be strongly allied with both Iran and Syria. Iran gave Hamas an estimated $13–15 million in 2011 as well as access to long-range missiles. Hamas's political bureau was once located in the Syrian capital of Damascus before the start of the Syrian civil war. Relations between Hamas, Iran, and Syria began to turn cold when Hamas refused to back the government of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad. Instead, Hamas backed the Sunni rebels fighting against Assad. As a result, Iran cut funding to Hamas, and Iranian ally Hezbollah ordered Hamas members out of Lebanon.[31] Hamas was then forced out of Syria, and subsequently has tried to mend fences with Iran and Hezbollah.[31] Hamas contacted Jordan and Sudan to see if either would open up its borders to its political bureau, but both countries refused, although they welcomed many Hamas members leaving Syria.[629]

From 2012 to 2013, under the leadership of Muslim Brotherhood President Mohamed Morsi, Hamas had the support of Egypt. However, when Morsi was removed from office, his replacement Abdul Fattah al-Sisi outlawed the Muslim Brotherhood and destroyed the tunnels Hamas built into Egypt. The United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia are likewise hostile to Hamas. Like Egypt, they designated the Brotherhood as a terrorist organization and Hamas was viewed as its Palestinian equivalent.[31]

North Korea supplies Hamas with weaponry.[630] Ali Barakeh, a Hamas official living in Lebanon, claimed the two are allies.[631][632]

Qatar and Turkey

According to Middle East experts, now Hamas has two firm allies: Qatar and Turkey. Both give Hamas public and financial assistance estimated to be in the hundreds of millions of dollars.[31] Qatar has transferred more than $1.8 billion to Hamas.[633] Shashank Joshi, senior research fellow at the Royal United Services Institute, says that "Qatar also hosts Hamas's political bureau which includes Hamas leader Khaled Meshaal." Meshaal also visits Turkey frequently to meet with Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan.[31] Erdogan has dedicated himself to breaking Hamas out of its political and economic seclusion. On US television, Erdogan said in 2012 that "I don't see Hamas as a terror organization. Hamas is a political party."[628]

Qatar has been called Hamas' most important financial backer and foreign ally.[634][635] In 2007, Qatar was, with Turkey, the only country to back Hamas after the group ousted the Palestinian Authority from the Gaza Strip.[31] The relationship between Hamas and Qatar strengthened in 2008 and 2009 when Khaled Meshaal was invited to attend the Doha Summit where he was seated next to the then Qatari Emir Hamad bin Khalifa al-Thani, who pledged $250 million to repair the damage caused by Israel in the Israeli war on Gaza.[629] These events caused Qatar to become the main player in the "Palestinian issue". Qatar called Gaza's blockade unjust and immoral, which prompted the Hamas government in Gaza, including former Prime Minister Ismail Haniyeh, to thank Qatar for their "unconditional" support. Qatar then began regularly handing out political, material, humanitarian and charitable support for Hamas.[629]

Haniyeh with Turkish Minister of Culture Numan Kurtulmuş, 20 November 2012

In 2012, Qatar's former Emir, Hamad bin Khalifa al-Thani, became the first head of state to visit Gaza under Hamas rule. He pledged to raise $400 million for reconstruction.[636] Sources say that advocating for Hamas is politically beneficial to Turkey and Qatar because the Palestinian cause draws popular support amongst their citizens at home.[637]

Speaking in reference to Qatar's support for Hamas, during a 2015 visit to Palestine, Qatari official Mohammad al-Emadi, said Qatar is using the money not to help Hamas but rather the Palestinian people as a whole. He acknowledges however that giving to the Palestinian people means using Hamas as the local contact. Emadi said, "You have to support them. You don't like them, don't like them. But they control the country, you know."[638] Some argue that Hamas's relations with Qatar are putting Hamas in an awkward position because Qatar has become part of the regional Arab problem. However, Hamas claims that having contacts with various Arab countries establishes positive relations which will encourage Arab countries to do their duty toward the Palestinians and support their cause by influencing public opinion in the Arab world.[629] In March 2015, Hamas has announced its support of the Saudi Arabian-led military intervention in Yemen against the Shia Houthis and forces loyal to former President Ali Abdullah Saleh.[639]

In May 2018, Turkish president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan tweeted to the Prime Minister of Israel Benjamin Netanyahu that Hamas is not a terrorist organization but a resistance movement that defends the Palestinian homeland against an occupying power. During that period there were conflicts between Israeli troops and Palestinian protestors in the Gaza Strip, due to the decision of the United States to move their embassy to Jerusalem.[640] Also in 2018 the Israel Security Agency accused SADAT International Defense Consultancy (a Turkish private military company with connections to the Turkish government) of transferring funds to Hamas.[641]

In February 2020, Hamas leader Ismail Haniyeh met with Turkish President Erdoğan.[642] On 26 July 2023, Haniyeh met with Erdoğan and Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas. Behind the meeting was Turkey's effort to reconcile Fatah with Hamas.[643] On 7 October 2023, the day of the Hamas attack on Israel, Haniyeh was in Istanbul, Turkey.[644] On 21 October 2023, Haniyeh spoke with Erdoğan about the latest developments in the Israel–Hamas war and the current situation in Gaza.[645] On 25 October 2023, Erdoğan said that Hamas was not a terrorist organisation but a liberation group fighting to protect Palestinian lands and people.[646]

Lawsuits

In the United States

The charitable trust Holy Land Foundation for Relief and Development was accused in December 2001 of funding Hamas.[647][648][649] The US Justice Department filed 200 charges against the foundation. The case first ended in a mistrial, in which jurors acquitted on some counts and were deadlocked on charges ranging from tax violations to providing material support for terrorists. In a retrial, on November 24, 2008, the five leaders of the Foundation were convicted on 108 counts.[650]

Several US organizations were either shut down or held liable for financing Hamas in early 2001, groups that have origins from the mid-1990s, among them the Holy Land Foundation (HLF), Islamic Association for Palestine (IAP), and Kind Hearts. The US Treasury Department specially designated the HLF in 2001 for terror ties because from 1995 to 2001 the HLF transferred "approximately $12.4 million outside of the United States with the intent to contribute funds, goods, and services to Hamas." According to the Treasury Department, Khaled Meshal identified one of HLF's officers, Mohammed El-Mezain as "the Hamas leader for the US". In 2003, IAP was found liable for financially supporting Hamas, and in 2006, Kind Hearts had their assets frozen for supporting Hamas.[651]

In 2004, a federal court in the United States found Hamas liable in a civil lawsuit for the 1996 murders of Yaron and Efrat Ungar near Bet Shemesh, Israel. Hamas was ordered to pay the families of the Ungars $116 million.[652] The Palestinian Authority settled the lawsuit in 2011. The settlement terms were not disclosed.[653] On August 20, 2004, three Palestinians, one a naturalized American citizen, were charged with a "lengthy racketeering conspiracy to provide money for terrorist acts in Israel".[654] The indicted included Mousa Mohammed Abu Marzook, who had left the US in 1997.[655] On February 1, 2007, two men were acquitted of contravening United States law by supporting Hamas. Both men argued that they helped move money for Palestinian causes aimed at helping the Palestinian people and not to promote terrorism.[656]

In January 2009, a Federal prosecutor accused the Council on American-Islamic Relations (CAIR) of having links to a charity designated as a support network for Hamas.[657] The Justice Department identified CAIR as an "un-indicted co-conspirator" in the Holy Land Foundation case.[658] Later, a federal appeals court removed that label for all parties and instead, named them "joint venturers".[659] CAIR was never charged with any crime, and it complained that the designation had tarnished its reputation.[660][better source needed]

In Germany

A German federal court ruled in 2004 that Hamas was a unified organisation whose humanitarian aid work could not be separated from its "terrorist and political activities".[661] In July 2010, Germany outlawed Frankfurt-based International Humanitarian Aid Organization (IHH e.V.), saying it had used donations to support Hamas-affiliated relief projects in Gaza.[662][663] German Interior Minister Thomas de Maiziere said that while presenting their activities to donors as humanitarian assistance, IHH e.V. had "exploited trusting donors' willingness to help by using money that was given for a good purpose for supporting what is, in the final analysis, a terrorist organization".[662][663][664]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "As with Islamic political organizations elsewhere, Hamas offers its followers an ideology that appropriates the universal message of Islam for what is, in effect, a nationalist struggle."[9]
  2. ^ "Hamas considers Palestine the main front of jihad and viewed the uprising as an Islamic way of fighting the Occupation. The organisation's leaders argued that Islam gave the Palestinian people the power to confront Israel and described the Intifada as the return of the masses to Islam. Since its inception, Hamas has tried to reconcile nationalism and Islam. [...] Hamas claims to speak as a nationalist movement but with an Islamic-nationalist rather than a secular nationalist agenda."[12]
  3. ^ "Hamas is primarily a religious movement whose nationalist worldview is shaped by its religious ideology."[13]
  4. ^ officially denied[17]
  5. ^ "Hamas is a radical Islamic fundamentalist organization that has stated that its highest priority is a Jihad (holy war) for the liberation of Palestine."[91]
  6. ^ "In politics everything is possible. Iraq, for instance, has the Badr Brigade, which is a military arm of the Supreme Council for the Islamic Revolution in Iraq and has joined the political process in the country. Members of the Badr Brigade have joined the security service in Iraq. In Iraq the USA has been trying to tackle the insurgent issue through negotiations. Hizbullah in Lebanon is a political party, and it also has its militant organisations. The Mujahideen, who were the leading militants in Afghanistan, have joined the political process in their country after more than 20 years of war. Being a militant and joining the political platform is not a sin. If we leave the Middle East and look at Sinn Fein, for example, in Northern Ireland, this group was fighting the British government and then, through engagement and direct negotiation, extremist influence was marginalised, and Sinn Fein found an opportunity to moderate itself."[92]
  7. ^ "The idea of a militant movement like Hamas possessing both political and military personas simultaneously is not especially new, with the IRA/Sinn Féin and the Lebanese movement Hezbollah being two often cited examples. However, this study argues that given the role that resistance plays in the Palestinian narrative, Hamas's dual resistance is a more comprehensive and integrated strategy than that possessed by other so-called hybrid or dual-status movements. This is because Hamas has managed to synergise its political and armed resistance efforts, and it does this to further its self-determination agendas."[93]
  8. ^ A two-thirds majority was required for the motion to pass. 87 voted in favour, 58 against, 32 abstained and 16 did not vote.[98]
  9. ^ It is unclear whether these groups were set up in 1985 or 1986.
  10. ^ Abu Amr states the following people attended: Dr. 'Abd al-'Aziz al-Rantisi (40), a physician residing in Khan Yunis; Dr. Ibrahim al-Yazuri (45), a pharmacist residing in Gaza city; Shaykh Salih Shehada (40), a University instructor from Beit Hanoun; 'Isa al-Nashshar (35), an engineer in Rafah; Muhammad Sham'a (50), a teacher in al-Shati refugee camp and 'Abd al-Fattah Dukhan (50), a school principal at al-Nusayrat refugee camp.[3]
  11. ^ 'In truth, the creation of Hamas as a separate entity from the Muslim Brotherhood was done precisely to prevent Israeli authorities from targeting the organizations' greater activities, in the hopes that it would leave them relatively immune. Moreover, Hamas was created essentially because the Islamicists connected to the Muslim Brotherhood feared that without their direct participation in the first Intifada, they would lose supporters to both the PIJ and the PLO, the latter of which was anxious to reassert itself in the Palestinian territories after being marginalized following its expulsion from Lebanon. As authors Mishal and Sela, explain, "The Mujamma's decision to adopt a 'jihad now' policy against 'enemies of Allah' (through the creation of Hamas) was thus largely a matter of survival.'[123][124]
  12. ^ Davis, de Búrca, and Dalacoura write that the Brigades were formed in 1991;[138][139][140] Najib & Friedrich write that they were formed in the summer of 1991;[119] O'Malley[141] and Hussein[142] write that they were formed in 1992.
  13. ^ Islah Jad writes: "The Arabic word isqat has various literal meanings, most pertinently to 'tumble' or 'fall,' as into a trap. In the Palestinian context, it refers specifically to the methods used by the Israelis to manipulate or seduce victims and force them to work against their people's national interests."[159]
  14. ^ Hamas' former spokesman and Deputy Foreign Minister in Gaza, Ahmed Yousef, explained in a New York Times op-ed what this meant juridically. (A hudna) 'typically cover(s) 10 years and (is) recognized in Islamic jurisprudence as a legitimate and binding contract. A hudna extends beyond the Western concept of a ceasefire and obliges parties to use the period to seek a permanent, non-violent resolution to their differences'.[190]
  15. ^ "Aside from Hamas' stated goal to 'serve the people', this desire for security reform, again, perhaps is unsurprising given that Hamas was frequently the target of these apparatuses as an opposition movement. Hamas' security apparatus in the Gaza Strip is presently politicized as well, but it has managed to institute the rule of law and order which had eluded the previous Fatah-led forces, despite the Hamas government employing only a fraction of the resources and personnel. Indeed, Hamas streamlined the security forces, reducing the number of personnel from 56,887 prior to its armed seizure of the Gaza Strip in June 2007 to around 15,000 today. In contrast to its West Bank counterparts, moreover, the Hamas security sector is unambiguously under civilian control in line with Western modes of governance, and is thus, according to Sayigh, more accountable."[207]
  16. ^ :'(Yadlin) commented that if Fatah decided it had lost Gaza, there would be calls for Abbas to set up a separate regime in the West Bank. While not necessarily reflecting a consensus GOI (Government of Israel) view, Yadlin commented that such a development would please Israel since it would enable the IDF (Israel's occupying force) to treat Gaza as a hostile country rather than having to deal with Hamas as a non-state actor.'[231]
  17. ^ 'The Charter was written in early 1988 by one individual and was made public without appropriate general Hamas consultation, revision or consensus, to the regret of Hamas's leaders in later years. The author of the Charter was one of the 'old guard' of the Muslim Brotherhood in the Gaza Strip, completely cut off from the outside world. All kinds of confusions and conflations between Judaism and Zionism found their way into the Charter, to the disservice of Hamas ever since, as this document has managed to brand it with charges of 'anti-Semitism' and a naïve world-view' Hamas leaders and spokespeople have rarely referred to the Charter or quoted from it, evidence that it has come to be seen as a burden rather than an intellectual platform that embraces the movement's principles.'[309]
  18. ^ 'The second major component in Palestine's sanctity, according to Hamas, is its designation as a waqf by the Caliph 'Umar b. al-Khattab. When the Muslim armies conquered Palestine in the year 638, the Hamas Charter says, the Caliph 'Umar b. al-Khattab decided not to divide the conquered land among the victorious soldiers, but to establish it as a waqf, belonging to the entire Muslim nation until the day of resurrection.'[315]
  19. ^ Haniyeh at the time was the Prime Minister of the State of Palestine but dismissed[347] by his President Abbas in 2007
  20. ^ In nutshell, the notion of "Palestine from the river to the sea" is nothing but the boundaries of Eretz Israel as imagined by the first Zionists. The notion was enshrined in the founding charter of the ruling Likud party, which states that "between the Sea and the Jordan there will only be Israeli sovereignty." One can thus entertain the chilling irony that Hamas owes its cherished slogan to the Zionists. After all, what is "free Palestine from the river to the sea" but a utopian parody of "Greater Israel"?[367]
  21. ^ 'In a 1995 lecture, Sheikh Jamil Hamami, a party to the foundation of Hamas and a senior member of its West Bank leadership, expounded the importance of Hamas' dawa infrastructure as the soil from which militancy would flower.'[426]
  22. ^ 'Consistent attacks on army units by Hamas activists are as new as the use of anti-tank missiles against civilian homes by the Israeli military.'[402]
  23. ^ Matthew Levitt on the other hand claims that Hamas's welfare institutions act as a mere façade or front for the financing of terrorism, and dismisses the idea of two wings as a 'myth'.[446] He cites Ahmad Yassin stating in 1998: "We can not separate the wing from the body. If we do so, the body will not be able to fly. Hamas is one body."[110]
  24. ^ 'This ceasefire ended when Israel started targeting Hamas leaders for assassination in July 2003. Hamas retaliated with a suicide bombing in Israel on August 19, 2003, that killed 20 people, including 6 children. Since then Israelis have mounted an assassination campaign against the senior leadership of Hamas that has killed 13 Hamas members, including Ismail Abu Shanab, one of the most moderate leaders of Hamas. ... After each of these assassinations, Hamas has sent a suicide bomber into Israel in retaliation.'[461]
  25. ^ "In 2006, Norway explicitly distanced itself from the EU proscription regime, claiming that it was causing problems for its role as a 'neutral facilitator.'"[549]

References

  1. ^ Abdelal 2016, p. 122.
  2. ^ Dalloul 2017.
  3. ^ a b c d Abu-Amr 1993, p. 10.
  4. ^ Litvak 1998, p. 151.
  5. ^ Barzak 2011.
  6. ^ AFP 2019.
  7. ^ "National Counterterrorism Center | FTOs". www.dni.gov.
  8. ^ a b c Dalacoura 2012, pp. 66–67.
  9. ^ Gelvin 2014, p. 226.
  10. ^ Dunning 2016, p. 270.
  11. ^ Stepanova 2008, p. 113.
  12. ^ Cheema 2008, p. 465.
  13. ^ Litvak 2004, pp. 156–57.
  14. ^ Mišʿal, Šāʾûl; Sela, Avraham; Selaʿ, Avrāhām (2006). The Palestinian Hamas: vision, violence, and coexistence ; [with a new introduction]. New York: Columbia Univ. Press. ISBN 9780231116756. Retrieved October 20, 2023.
  15. ^ Litvak 1998, pp. 151–52: "This strong anti-Jewish stance distinguishes Hamas from the PLO organization".
  16. ^ a b Hoffman, Bruce (October 10, 2023). "Understanding Hamas's Genocidal Ideology". The Atlantic. Retrieved October 11, 2023.
  17. ^ "Hamas in 2017: The document in full". Middle East Eye. Retrieved November 22, 2023.
  18. ^ "Pakistan, Afghanistan show support to Palestine, calls for "cessation of hostilities"". The Economic Times. October 7, 2023. Archived from the original on October 7, 2023. Retrieved October 7, 2023.
  19. ^ a b c "Qatar, Iran, Turkey and beyond: Hamas's network of allies". France 24. October 14, 2023.
  20. ^ Kingsley, Patrick (July 26, 2013). "Egyptian army questions Mohamed Morsi over alleged Hamas terror links". The Guardian. Retrieved October 18, 2023.
  21. ^ "Adviser to Iran's Khamenei expresses support for Palestinian attacks: Report". Al Arabiya. AFP. October 7, 2023 – via al-Arabiya.
  22. ^ Tharoor, Ishaan (December 1, 2021). "How Israel helped create Hamas". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved October 22, 2023.
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i Higgins, Andrew (January 24, 2009). "How Israel Helped to Spawn Hamas". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on September 26, 2009. Retrieved January 25, 2023. When Israel first encountered Islamists in Gaza in the 1970s and '80s, they seemed focused on studying the Quran, not on confrontation with Israel. The Israeli government officially recognized a precursor to Hamas called Mujama Al-Islamiya, registering the group as a charity. It allowed Mujama members to set up an Islamic university and build mosques, clubs and schools. Crucially, Israel often stood aside when the Islamists and their secular left-wing Palestinian rivals battled, sometimes violently, for influence in both Gaza and the West Bank. "When I look back at the chain of events I think we made a mistake," says David Hacham, who worked in Gaza in the late 1980s and early '90s as an Arab-affairs expert in the Israeli military. "But at the time nobody thought about the possible results." Israeli officials who served in Gaza disagree on how much their own actions may have contributed to the rise of Hamas. They blame the group's recent ascent on outsiders, primarily Iran. This view is shared by the Israeli government. "Hamas in Gaza was built by Iran as a foundation for power, and is backed through funding, through training and through the provision of advanced weapons," Mr. Olmert said last Saturday. Hamas has denied receiving military assistance from Iran.
  24. ^ a b "Most of Gaza is poor, but Hamas has cash. Where does it come from?". NBC News. October 25, 2023.
  25. ^ "Evidence shows Hamas militants likely used some North Korean weapons in attack on Israel". Associated Press. October 19, 2023.
  26. ^ a b c Ehl, David (May 15, 2021). "What is Hamas and who supports it?". Deutsche Welle.
  27. ^ Staff (October 18, 2023). "South Africa says it discussed aid with Hamas leader, denies reports of support". Retrieved October 18, 2023.
  28. ^ Abdelaziz, Khalid; Eltahir, Nafisa; Irish, John (September 23, 2021). "Sudan closes door on support for Hamas". Reuters. Retrieved October 18, 2023.
  29. ^ "Iranian president meets with Hamas, PIJ during Syria visit". The Cradle. May 5, 2023. Retrieved May 10, 2023.
  30. ^ "Experts Weigh in on Regional Impact of Syria-Hamas Rapprochement". VOA News. October 20, 2022. Retrieved October 8, 2023.
  31. ^ a b c d e f g h Gidda, Mirren (July 25, 2014). "Hamas Still Has Some Friends Left". Time. Retrieved October 18, 2023.
  32. ^ "Hamas, PLO slam 'blatant US interference' in Venezuela affairs". Middle East Monitor. January 25, 2019.
  33. ^ "Houthis, Hamas merge diplomacy around prisoner releases – Al-Monitor: Independent, trusted coverage of the Middle East". Al-Monitor. January 5, 2021.
  34. ^ "Hamas awards 'Shield of Honor' to Houthi representative in Yemen, sparking outrage in Saudi Arabia". JNS.org. June 16, 2021.
  35. ^ "Polisario reaffirms its determination to continue struggle until right to self-determination is restored". Sahara Press Service. October 10, 2023. Archived from the original on October 14, 2023. Retrieved October 10, 2023. Evoking the serious developments in Palestine, the Permanent Bureau of the Polisario Front reaffirmed the solidarity of the Sahrawi people with the Palestinian people.
  36. ^ Fabian, Emanuel. "Officer, 2 soldiers killed in clash with terrorists on Lebanon border; mortars fired". The Times of Israel. Archived from the original on October 9, 2023. Retrieved October 9, 2023.
  37. ^ "الجبهة الشعبية: قرار الإدارة الأمريكية بتوفير الدعم للكيان هدفه تطويق النتائج الاستراتيجية لمعركة طوفان الأقصى". alahednews.com.lb (in Arabic). Archived from the original on October 9, 2023. Retrieved October 8, 2023.
  38. ^ "Qassam Brigades announces control of 'Erez Crossing'". Roya News. October 7, 2023. Archived from the original on October 7, 2023. Retrieved October 7, 2023.
  39. ^ "IRAN UPDATE, OCTOBER 14, 2023". ISW. Retrieved October 16, 2023.
  40. ^ "Al-Qaeda's North and West African branches respond to the Hamas-led invasion of Israel". FDD's Long War Journal. October 13, 2023. Retrieved October 17, 2023.
  41. ^ "Al Shabaab jihadists praise Hamas' attack, Kenya's counter-terrorism unit is on alert". Agenzia Nova. October 12, 2023. Archived from the original on October 12, 2023. Retrieved October 12, 2023.
  42. ^ "Somalia: Al-Shabaab praises Hamas attack on Israel". Somali guardian. October 12, 2023. Archived from the original on October 12, 2023. Retrieved October 12, 2023.
  43. ^ "Iran Update, October 17, 2023". Institute for the Study of War. October 17, 2023.
  44. ^ Y. Zelin, Aaron (2022). "6: External Operations, Guidance, and Inspiration". The Age of Political Jihadism: A Study of Hayat Tahrir al-Sham. 1111 19th Street NW, Suite 500, Washington DC 20036, USA: The Washington Institute for Near East Policy. pp. 61, 62. ISBN 978-1-5381-8292-5.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location (link)
  45. ^ Fabian, Emanuel (October 19, 2023). "IDF says it killed head of military wing of Gaza's Popular Resistance Committees". The Times of Israel. Retrieved October 19, 2023.
  46. ^ "Ministry of Foreign Affairs stresses importance of providing full protection to citizens, ending battle between Hamas, Israeli Forces". Bahrain Ministry of Foreign Affairs. October 9, 2023. Archived from the original on October 10, 2023. Retrieved October 9, 2023.
  47. ^ "Bahrain denounces Hamas kidnappings". www.timesofisrael.com. October 9, 2023. Archived from the original on October 10, 2023. Retrieved October 9, 2023.
  48. ^ "Is Jordan planning to restore ties with Hamas?". The Jerusalem Post.
  49. ^ "How the US became Israel's closest ally". October 13, 2023.
  50. ^ "What Effect ISIS' Declaration Of War Against Hamas Could Have In The Middle East". NPR.
  51. ^ AFP. "Hamas arrests Salafi sheikh over alleged Islamic State ties - Radical cleric Adnan Khader Mayat detained on Sunday by Gaza security forces". Times of Israel. Retrieved November 9, 2023.
  52. ^ "Entirety of Hamas to be listed as a terrorist organisation". ABC News. February 17, 2022.
  53. ^ "Currently listed entities". December 21, 2018.
  54. ^ a b Boffey, Daniel (July 26, 2017). "EU court upholds Hamas terror listing". The Guardian. Retrieved October 18, 2023.
  55. ^ Fighting terrorism
  56. ^ "National Police Agency" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 28, 2022. Retrieved November 26, 2022.
  57. ^ "Japan's Foreign Policy in Major Diplomatic Fields" (PDF).
  58. ^ "Paraguay adds Hamas, Hezbollah to terrorism list". August 20, 2019.
  59. ^ a b c "Proscribed terrorist groups or organisations". GOV.UK.
  60. ^ "Foreign Terrorist Organizations".
  61. ^ "Hamas, n. meanings, etymology and more". Oxford English Dictionary.
  62. ^ Taraki, Lisa (January–February 1989). "The Islamic Resistance Movement in the Palestinian Uprising". Middle East Report. No. 156. Tacoma, WA: MERIP. pp. 30–32. doi:10.2307/3012813. ISSN 0899-2851. JSTOR 3012813. OCLC 615545050. Archived from the original on February 1, 2022. Retrieved February 1, 2022.
  63. ^ Lopez, Anthony; Ireland, Carol; Ireland, Jane; Lewis, Michael (2020). The Handbook of Collective Violence: Current Developments and Understanding. Taylor & Francis. p. 239. ISBN 9780429588952. The most successful radical Sunni Islamist group has been Hamas, which began as a branch of the Muslim Brotherhood in Palestine in the early 1980s. It used terrorist attacks against civilians - particularly suicide bombings – to help build a larger movement, going so far as to emerge as the recognized government of the Gaza Strip in the Palestine Authority.
  64. ^ Kear 2018, p. 22.
  65. ^ a b c d e "Afghanistan in Palestine", by Zvi Bar'el, Haaretz, July 26, 2005
  66. ^ Slater 2020, p. 226.
  67. ^ Charrett 2020, pp. 129–37.
  68. ^ Madelene Axelsson (January 27, 2006). "Islamistisk politik vinner mark" (in Swedish). Stockholms Fria Tidning. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved April 10, 2006.
  69. ^ Davis 2017, pp. 67–69.
  70. ^ Mukhimer 2012, pp. vii, 58.
  71. ^ Seurat 2019, pp. 17–19
  72. ^ "What does Israel's declaration of war mean for Palestinians in Gaza?". Al Jazeera.
  73. ^ "What will the Israeli-Palestinian conflict look like in 30 years?". Even Hamas in 2017 said it was ready to accept a Palestinian state with 1967 borders if it is clear this is the consensus of the Palestinians.
  74. ^ a b c "Hamas accepts Palestinian state with 1967 borders: Khaled Meshaal presents a new document in which Hamas accepts 1967 borders without recognising state of Israel Gaza". Al Jazeera. May 2, 2017.
  75. ^ Al-Mughrabi, Nidal; Finn, Tom (May 1, 2017). "Hamas softens stance on Israel, drops Muslim Brotherhood link". Reuters. Retrieved November 16, 2023.
  76. ^ a b Scott Atran, Robert Axelrod (2008). "Reframing Sacred Values". Negotiation Journal. 24 (3): 221–246. doi:10.1111/j.1571-9979.2008.00182.x.
  77. ^ Halim Rane (2009). Reconstructing Jihad Amid Competing International Norms. p. 34. Asher Susser, director of the Dayan Centre at Tel Aviv University, conveyed to me in an interview that "Hamas' 'hudna' is not significantly different from Sharon's 'long-term interim agreement." Similarly, Daniel Levy, a senior Israeli official for the Geneva Initiative (GI), informed me that certain Hamas officials find the GI acceptable, but due to the concerns about their Islamically oriented constituency and their own Islamic identity, they would "have to express the final result in terms of a "hudna," or "indefinite" ceasefire," rather than a formal peace agreement."
  78. ^ a b Baconi 2018, p. 108Hamas’s finance minister in Gaza stated that “a long-term ceasefire as understood by Hamas and a two-state settlement are the same. It’s just a question of vocabulary.”
  79. ^ Loren D. Lybarger (2020). Palestinian Chicago. University of California Press. p. 199. Hamas too would signal a willingness to accept a long-term "hudna" (cessation of hostilities, truce) along the armistice lines of 1948 (an effective acceptance of the two-state formula).
  80. ^ Tristan Dunning (2016). Hamas, Jihad and Popular Legitimacy. Routledge. pp. 179–180.
  81. ^ a b Alsoos, Imad (2021). "From jihad to resistance: the evolution of Hamas's discourse in the framework of mobilization". Middle Eastern Studies. 57 (5): 833–856. doi:10.1080/00263206.2021.1897006. S2CID 234860010.
  82. ^ a b c Faeq, Nasir; Jahnata, Diego (2020). "The Historical Antecedents of Hamas". International Journal of Social Science Research and Review. 3 (3): 33. doi:10.47814/ijssrr.v3i3.49. S2CID 234607095.
  83. ^ May, Tiffany (October 8, 2023). "A Quick Look at Hamas". The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 14, 2023. Retrieved October 9, 2023.
  84. ^ Staff, The (October 9, 2023). "Two-state solution: Israeli-Palestinian history". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved October 9, 2023.
  85. ^ "Have war crimes been committed in Israel and Gaza and what laws govern the conflict?". CNN. November 16, 2023. Retrieved November 18, 2023.
  86. ^ a b Seurat 2019, p. 17.
  87. ^ Qossay Hamed (2023). Hamas in Power: The Question of Transformation. IGI Global. p. 161.
  88. ^ Timea Spitka (2023). National and International Civilian Protection Strategies in the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict. Springer International Publishing. p. 88-89.
  89. ^ "Khaled Meshaal: Struggle is against Israel, not Jews". Al-Jazeera. May 6, 2017. Retrieved November 19, 2023.
  90. ^ Gelvin, James L. (2014). "The Palestinian National Movement Comes of Age". The Israel-Palestine Conflict: One Hundred Years of War (3rd ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 226. ISBN 978-1-107-61354-6.
  91. ^ Cordesman 2002, p. 243.
  92. ^ Zweiri 2006, p. 681.
  93. ^ Kear 2018, p. 7.
  94. ^ Krauss, Joseph (June 15, 2021). "Poll finds dramatic rise in Palestinian support for Hamas". AP News. Retrieved October 9, 2023.
  95. ^ a b c Phillips 2011, p. 75.
  96. ^ "National Counterterrorism Center | Groups - Hamas". www.dni.gov.
  97. ^ Dupret, Baudouin; Lynch, Michael; Berard, Tim (2015). Law at Work: Studies in Legal Ethnomethods. Oxford University Press. p. 279. ISBN 9780190210243. [It has been alleged that] Hamas cynically abuses its own civilian population and their suffering for propaganda purposes.
  98. ^ a b DW 2018.
  99. ^ a b Debre, Isabel (October 8, 2023). "Israeli hostage crisis in Hamas-ruled Gaza becomes a political trap for Netanyahu". AP News. Archived from the original on October 14, 2023. Retrieved October 15, 2023.
  100. ^ a b Gold, Hadas; Murphy, Paul P.; Salma, Abeer; Dahman, Ibrahim; Khadder, Kareem; Mezzofiore, Gianluca; Goodwin, Allegra (October 8, 2023). "Hamas captures hostages as Israelis share photos of those missing". CNN. Archived from the original on October 14, 2023. Retrieved October 15, 2023.
  101. ^ a b Byman, Daniel; Palmer, Alexander (October 7, 2023). "What You Need to Know About the Israel-Hamas Violence". Foreign Policy. Archived from the original on October 7, 2023. Retrieved October 8, 2023.
  102. ^ Nakhoul, Samia; Saul, Jonathan (October 8, 2023). "How Israel was duped as Hamas planned devastating assault". Reuters. Archived from the original on October 9, 2023. Retrieved October 9, 2023.
  103. ^ Jefferis 2016, p. 119.
  104. ^ Herzog 2006, p. 84.
  105. ^ Kabahā 2014, pp. 322–23.
  106. ^ a b c Kabahā 2014, pp. 323.
  107. ^ Jefferis 2016, pp. 50–51.
  108. ^ Abu Amr 1994, p. 16.
  109. ^ Singh 2013, p. 153.
  110. ^ a b Levitt 2006, p. 24.
  111. ^ Mattar 2005, p. 195.
  112. ^ Hassan 2014, p. 80.
  113. ^ Abu Amr 1994, p. 35.
  114. ^ Hasan, Mehdi; Sayedahmed, Dina (February 19, 2018). "Blowback: How Israel Went From Helping Create Hamas to Bombing It". The Intercept. Retrieved November 28, 2023.
  115. ^ Levitt 2006, p. 35.
  116. ^ Mannes 2004, p. 114.
  117. ^ Mishal & Sela 2006, p. 34.
  118. ^ Milton-Edwards & Farrell 2013, p. 116.
  119. ^ a b Najib & Friedrich 2007, p. 103.
  120. ^ Hueston, Pierpaoli & Zahar 2014, p. 67-68.
  121. ^ a b Hueston, Pierpaoli & Zahar 2014, p. 67.
  122. ^ AFPC 2014, pp. 272–78.
  123. ^ Mishal & Sela 2006, p. 35.
  124. ^ Gleis & Berti 2012, p. 119.
  125. ^ Mishal & Sela 2006, pp. 14–15.
  126. ^ Gupta & Mundra 2005, p. 576.
  127. ^ a b Kabahā 2014, p. 324.
  128. ^ Hussein 2021, p. 86.
  129. ^ Filiu 2014, pp. 206–07.
  130. ^ Filiu 2014, p. 207.
  131. ^ Schanzer 2008, p. 33.
  132. ^ a b c Byman 2011, p. 99.
  133. ^ Filiu 2014, pp. 207–208.
  134. ^ Gunning 2007, p. 135.
  135. ^ a b Van Engeland 2015, p. 319.
  136. ^ a b c d Slater 2020, p. 280.
  137. ^ Davis 2016, p. 68.
  138. ^ Davis 2016, p. 83.
  139. ^ de Búrca 2014, pp. 100–02.
  140. ^ Dalacoura 2012, p. 71.
  141. ^ a b c O'Malley 2015, p. 118.
  142. ^ Hussein 2021, p. 79.
  143. ^ a b c Guidère 2012, p. 173.
  144. ^ Nüsse 1998, p. 124.
  145. ^ Davis 2016, p. 89.
  146. ^ Hassan, Nasra (November 11, 2001). "An Arsenal of Believers: Talking to the "human bombs"". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on February 22, 2023.
  147. ^ de Búrca 2014, p. 109.
  148. ^ Byman 2011, pp. 93–94.
  149. ^ Byman 2011, p. 74.
  150. ^ a b Dalacoura 2012, pp. 71–72.
  151. ^ a b Mannes 2004, p. 115.
  152. ^ Roy 1993, p. 22.
  153. ^ Platt 2010.
  154. ^ Chehab 2007, p. 115.
  155. ^ a b c Levitt 2006, pp. 11–12.
  156. ^ Davis 2016, p. 102.
  157. ^ Byman 2011, p. 100.
  158. ^ a b Swedenburg 2003, p. 196.
  159. ^ Jad 2018, p. 132.
  160. ^ Milton-Edwards & Farrell 2013, pp. 118–20.
  161. ^ Davis 2016, p. 86.
  162. ^ Schanzer 2008, p. 39.
  163. ^ a b Schanzer 2008, pp. 39–40.
  164. ^ de Búrca 2014, p. 113.
  165. ^ a b Zuhur 2008, p. 55.
  166. ^ a b c Dunning 2016, p. 34.
  167. ^ Milton-Edwards & Farrell 2013, p. 92.
  168. ^ Caridi 2012, p. 282.
  169. ^ a b Milton-Edwards & Farrell 2013, p. 93.
  170. ^ a b Stork & Kane 2002, p. 66.
  171. ^ a b "Chronological Review of Events/April 1994 - DPR review". Question of Palestine. Retrieved October 27, 2023.
  172. ^ Rubin 2009, p. 133.
  173. ^ a b Martin 2011, p. 81.
  174. ^ a b Kimmerling 2009, pp. 372–73.
  175. ^ a b c d Johnson 2007, p. 65.
  176. ^ Milton-Edwards & Farrell 2013, p. 98.
  177. ^ Goerzig 2010, p. 57.
  178. ^ Cragin 2006, p. 1998.
  179. ^ Milton-Edwards & Farrell 2013, p. 96.
  180. ^ a b Hirst 1999.
  181. ^ a b Maddy-Weitzman 2002, pp. 352–53.
  182. ^ Levitt 2006, p. 45.
  183. ^ Maddy-Weitzman 2002, p. 353.
  184. ^ a b Tucker 2019, p. 808.
  185. ^ Davis 2016, p. 105.
  186. ^ Fouberg & Murphy 2020, p. 215.
  187. ^ Benmelech & Berrebi 2007, pp. 223–38.
  188. ^ Pressman 2006, p. 114.
  189. ^ a b Dunning 2016, p. 61.
  190. ^ a b Dunning 2016, p. 179.
  191. ^ Amayreh 2004.
  192. ^ Kimmerling 2009, p. 268.
  193. ^ Text of the Palestinian 2005 Cairo Declaration, 19 March 2005
  194. ^ a b Bouris 2014, p. 54.
  195. ^ Zweiri 2006, p. 680.
  196. ^ a b Dunning 2016, p. 115.
  197. ^ a b Zweiri 2006, p. 677.
  198. ^ a b Zweiri 2006, p. 675.
  199. ^ Zweiri 2006, p. 679.
  200. ^ Brym & Araj 2006, p. 1980.
  201. ^ Zweiri 2006, pp. 676–77.
  202. ^ Zweiri 2006, p. 686, n.21.
  203. ^ Zweiri 2006, p. 682.
  204. ^ Bouris 2014, p. 55.
  205. ^ Tocci 2013, p. 42.
  206. ^ Byman 2010, p. 52.
  207. ^ Dunning 2016, p. 117.
  208. ^ Bolton, Olivia (July 21, 2014). "Who are Hamas? In 60 seconds". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on July 18, 2014. Retrieved October 15, 2019.
  209. ^ Peace with Israel for withdrawal to '67 borders, Ynetnews March 3, 2006
  210. ^ Butcher, Tim (February 9, 2006). "Hamas offers deal if Israel pulls out". The Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on January 11, 2022. Retrieved May 4, 2010.
  211. ^ "Hamas Refuses to Recognize Israel". The New York Times. September 22, 2006.
  212. ^ "Palestinian sanctions to remain", BBC News, March 20, 2007
  213. ^ Ravid, Barak (June 6, 2006). "In 2006 letter to Bush, Haniyeh offered compromise with Israel". Haaretz. Retrieved August 1, 2011.
  214. ^ Rose 2008.
  215. ^ Mahnaimi, Uzi. "Israel foils plot to kill Palestinian president", The Sunday Times, May 7, 2006
  216. ^ McGreal, Chris (June 10, 2006). "Death on the Beach: Seven Palestinians killed as Israeli shells hit family picnic". The Guardian. London. Retrieved May 4, 2010.
  217. ^ "Palestinian Child Buries Slain Family". IslamOnline.net. June 11, 2006. Archived from the original on December 7, 2008.
  218. ^ Katz, Yaakov (June 20, 2006). "HRW says it can't refute IDF Gaza beach findings blast". The Jerusalem Post. Archived from the original on August 5, 2011. Retrieved May 27, 2010.
  219. ^ Katz, Yaakov (June 22, 2006). "IDF: Second piece of shrapnel not ours". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved May 27, 2010.
  220. ^ "Militants Fire Rockets Into South Israel". San Francisco Chronicle. March 5, 2010. Archived from the original on January 25, 2009. Retrieved May 27, 2010.
  221. ^ "PM: We will not recapture Gaza". Ynetnews. July 2, 2006. Archived from the original on January 20, 2008.
  222. ^ a b "Israelis, Palestinians urged to 'step back from the brink', avert full-scale conflict, as Security Council debates events in Gaza". United Nations. June 30, 2006.
  223. ^ "Fatah and Hamas no nearer to unity as Palestinian parliament's term ends". Haaretz. January 25, 2010.
  224. ^ "Israel releases jailed Hamas parliament speaker". Haaretz. June 23, 2009.
  225. ^ "Gilad Shalit Fast Facts". CNN. August 8, 2014. Retrieved July 17, 2015.
  226. ^ Inside the tunnels Hamas built: Israel's struggle against new tactic in Gaza war. The Guardian
  227. ^ Rudoren, Jodi (July 28, 2014). "Tunnels Lead Right to the Heart of Israeli Fear". The New York Times. Retrieved August 1, 2014.
  228. ^ "Palestinian government criticises UN position on Gaza tunnel". Middle East Monitor. October 23, 2013. Archived from the original on August 11, 2014. Retrieved July 29, 2014.
  229. ^ "The Palestinian National Unity Government". February 24, 2007. Retrieved June 4, 2010.
  230. ^ Rose, David (October 20, 2009). "The Gaza Bombshell". Vanity Fair. Retrieved August 1, 2011.
  231. ^ Charrett 2020, p. 10.
  232. ^ The "Gaza War" Archived August 5, 2010, at the Wayback Machine (PDF). Retrieved on August 21, 2010.
  233. ^ McGirk, Tim (June 13, 2007). "What Happens After Hamas Wins?". Time. Archived from the original on June 16, 2007. Retrieved August 2, 2011.
  234. ^ Daraghmeh, M. (June 17, 2007). "Abbas forms cabinet, outlaws Hamas militias". The Star. Retrieved June 7, 2013.
  235. ^ "Over 600 Palestinians killed in internal clashes since 2006". Ynetnews. June 6, 2007. Retrieved August 24, 2010.
  236. ^ "Fatah supporters surrender to Hamas" The Guardian (UK), June 13, 2007
  237. ^ a b c d Under Cover of War|Human Rights Watch. Human Rights Watch (April 20, 2009). Retrieved on August 21, 2010.
  238. ^ a b B'Tselem – Violations of the human rights of Palestinians by Palestinians – Severe human rights violations in inter-Palestinian clashes. Btselem.org (November 12, 2007). Retrieved on August 21, 2010.
  239. ^ Abu Toameh, Khaled (March 5, 2012). "No political differences between Fatah, Hamas". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved February 14, 2013.
  240. ^ Ben Zion, Ilan (March 3, 2012). "Abbas: 'Hamas wants Palestinian state with '67 borders'". The Times of Israel. Retrieved February 14, 2013.
  241. ^ Keinon, Herb. "Politics: Fatah-Hamas unity talks breed Likud harmony". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved June 21, 2014.
  242. ^ "Fatah, Hamas say deal reached on Palestinian elections". Al Jazeera. September 24, 2020. Retrieved November 3, 2020.
  243. ^ Israel rejects Gaza ceasefire The Guardian (UK), April 25, 2008
  244. ^ "Israel-Hamas truce announced". Al Jazeera. June 17, 2008. Retrieved October 9, 2023.
  245. ^ Witte, Griff; Knickmeyer, Ellen (June 18, 2008). "Israel, Hamas Agree on Gaza Strip Truce". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 2, 2011.
  246. ^ "Israel agrees to Gaza ceasefire". BBC News. June 18, 2008. Retrieved August 2, 2011.
  247. ^ a b c "The Six Months of the Lull Arrangement" (PDF). Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center at the Israel Intelligence Heritage & Commemoration Center. December 2008. Retrieved October 9, 2013.
  248. ^ "US embassy cables: US talks to Israeli security chief about Arabs and Gaza" The Guardian (UK), April 7, 2011 'Diskin said that Israel does not like the tahdiya—seeing it as a means whereby Hamas and other groups can regroup and re-arm—but also dislikes the current situation. The ISA, he said, believes that the best option now is a large-scale ground incursion into the Gaza Strip that allows the IDF to take over the southern part of the Gaza Strip and to stop smuggling and increase pressure on Hamas. "If you do this, it will cause big problems for Hamas' survival in the Gaza Strip," he said.'
  249. ^ Avi Isacharoff; Yuval Azoulay (June 27, 2008). "Hamas: Continued rocket fire by Fatah armed group harms Palestinian interests". Haaretz. Retrieved April 16, 2014.
  250. ^ "Hamas arrests militants after rocket fire", Reuters, July 10, 2008
  251. ^ "Israel closes Gaza after rockets" BBC News, June 25, 2008
  252. ^ "Gaza truce broken as Israeli raid kills six Hamas gunmen", The Guardian, November 5, 2008.
  253. ^ Why Israel went to war in Gaza, The Guardian, January 4, 2008.
  254. ^ Robin Lustig (January 6, 2009). "Gaza: the numbers". BBC News. Retrieved May 27, 2010.
  255. ^ Gaza truce broken as Israeli raid kills six Hamas gunmen theguardian.com Retrieved 14 November 2023
  256. ^ "Rockets from Gaza bombard Israeli area". UPI. Retrieved May 27, 2010.
  257. ^ a b "Hamas 'might renew truce' in Gaza". London: BBC News. December 23, 2008. Retrieved December 27, 2008.
  258. ^ "Why Israel Attacked" Time magazine. December 27, 2008
  259. ^ a b Civilian death toll rises after second day of air strikes The Guardian (UK), December 29, 2008
  260. ^ a b c Israeli airstrikes in Gaza kill more than 200 NBC News, December 28, 2008
  261. ^ IAF kills Hamas strongman Siam – Confronting Hamas, The Jerusalem Post Archived February 3, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  262. ^ "Obituary: Nizar Rayyan". London: BBC News. January 1, 2009. Retrieved January 9, 2009.
  263. ^ "Key Hamas Leader Killed". London: BBC News. January 15, 2009. Retrieved January 15, 2009.
  264. ^ "Warnings Not Enough for Gaza Families" The New York Times, January 5, 2009
  265. ^ "Israel Deepens Gaza Incursion as Toll Mounts" The New York Times, January 5, 2009
  266. ^ "Strike at Gaza school 'kills 40'". London: BBC News. January 7, 2009. Retrieved January 9, 2009.
  267. ^ "Israel 'shelled civilian shelter'". London: BBC News. January 9, 2009. Retrieved January 9, 2009.
  268. ^ "Israel accused of war crimes over 12-hour assault on Gaza village" The Guardian January 18, 2009
  269. ^ "Israel declares ceasefire in Gaza". London: BBC News. January 18, 2009. Retrieved January 19, 2009.
  270. ^ "Hamas announces ceasefire in Gaza". London: BBC News. January 18, 2009. Retrieved January 19, 2009.
  271. ^ Agence France-Presse (September 21, 2010). "Israel, Hamas probes on Gaza violations inadequate". Daily Nation. Archived from the original on October 2, 2013. Retrieved June 7, 2013.
  272. ^ "Hamas says 300 Fighters Killed in Gaza war". Agence France-Presse. November 1, 2010. Retrieved August 1, 2011.
  273. ^ Liel, Alon (November 1, 2010). "Hamas confirms losses in Cast Lead for first time". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved August 1, 2011.
  274. ^ Abu Toameh, Khaled (August 16, 2009). "Mashaal: Hamas can speak with Obama". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved August 17, 2009.
  275. ^ Speech of Khaled Meshaal August 30, 2009 (rough automated translation from Arabic)
  276. ^ Pollock, David. "Rejectionists Readying to Counter U.S. Peace Push". Washington Institute for Near East Policy. September 1, 2009.
  277. ^ Video interview of Khaled Meshal by Charlie Rose, May 28, 2010 Archived September 23, 2010, at the Wayback Machine Click on small "transcript" link at top of comments section to view transcript; scroll up to view video.
  278. ^ Hamas renews offer to end fight if Israel withdraws Reuters, May 30, 2010.
  279. ^ "Hamas Chief Outlines Terms for Talks on Arab-Israeli Peace". The Wall Street Journal. July 31, 2009. Retrieved June 21, 2012.
  280. ^ Post-Assad Syria would drop special Iran ties Archived October 15, 2015, at the Wayback Machine| Reuters |December 3, 2011
  281. ^ "Hamas ditches Assad, backs Syrian revolt" Archived November 9, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. Reuters. February 24, 2012.
  282. ^ "Syria Berates Hamas Chief, an Old Ally, on State TV". The New York Times, October 2, 2012.
  283. ^ "Hamas and Fatah in unity talks, says Khaled Meshaal". BBC News, February 7, 2013.
  284. ^ "2 Hamas leaders killed in Syria, sources say" Archived June 29, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Ma'an News Agency, October 29, 2012.
  285. ^ "Syria Shuts Down Hamas Offices". Arutz Sheva, November 6, 2012.
  286. ^ "NGO accuses Damascus of killing two Hamas members in Syria" Archived November 16, 2017, at the Wayback Machine. Al-Ahram Online, January 9, 2013.
  287. ^ "Military wing of Hamas training Syrian rebels". The Jerusalem Post. Reuters. April 5, 2013. Retrieved April 16, 2014.
  288. ^ a b Kotsev, Victor (March 26, 2013). "A Spring Revival for the Peace Process?". Sada. Retrieved March 29, 2013.
  289. ^ "Hamas appoints first spokeswoman". Al Jazeera. November 11, 2023. Retrieved October 9, 2023.
  290. ^ Palestinian Leader Assails Hamas, Calling Unity Pact Into Question. Jodi Rudrensept. August 7, 2014. New York Times.
  291. ^ "Abbas blames Hamas for prolonged battle with Israel". The Times of Israel.
  292. ^ Abbas hints PA close to ending unity agreement with Hamas. Khaled Abu Toameh, September 7, 2014.
  293. ^ "Hamas criticizes construction delays as Israeli plot". The Jerusalem Post. October 26, 2014. Retrieved October 26, 2014.
  294. ^ spollatschek (August 18, 2017). "Israel, Hamas, Egypt indirectly cooperating against IS". Al-Monitor. Archived from the original on October 24, 2017. Retrieved January 6, 2018.
  295. ^ Liebermann, Oren (September 17, 2017). "Hamas makes move toward Palestinian reconciliation". CNN. Retrieved October 25, 2023.
  296. ^ Abu Amer, Adnan (September 22, 2017). "Hamas awaits Abbas' response after dissolving Gaza administrative committee". Al-Monitor. Retrieved October 25, 2023.
  297. ^ Cook, Jonathan (October 13, 2017). "Will Hamas-Fatah reconciliation deal succeed?". Al Jazeera. Retrieved October 9, 2023.
  298. ^ Report of the independent international commission of inquiry on the protests in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Human Rights Council, February 25, 2019, p.6.
  299. ^ "Israel-Gaza ceasefire holds despite Jerusalem clash". BBC News. May 22, 2021. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
  300. ^ Nakhoul, Samia; Saul, Jonathan (October 9, 2023). "How Hamas duped Israel as it planned devastating attack". Reuters. Retrieved October 9, 2023.
  301. ^ What We Know About the Death Toll in Israel From the Hamas-Led Attacks
  302. ^ Tweet by kann_news (with the updated number, and explanation for the discrepancy with the previous number)
  303. ^ a b Davison, John; Pamuk, Humeyra; Siebold, Sabine (October 13, 2023). "Israel releases images of slain children to rally support". Reuters. Retrieved October 19, 2023.
  304. ^ Gutman, Matt (October 16, 2023). "The horror as Israeli authorities show footage of Hamas atrocities: Reporter's Notebook". ABC News. Retrieved November 7, 2023.
  305. ^ "Israel attack: PM says Israel at war after 70 killed in attack from Gaza". BBC News. October 7, 2023. Retrieved October 7, 2023.
  306. ^ "Over 1,400 Killed In Hamas Attacks On Israel: PM Office". Barron's. October 15, 2023. Retrieved October 15, 2023.
  307. ^ "Hamas official says group 'well aware' of consequences of attack on Israel, Palestinian liberation comes with 'sacrifices'". ARAB NEWS. October 20, 2023.
  308. ^ Fischler, Jacob (October 13, 2023). "U.S. stresses support for Israel as 1 million residents of North Gaza ordered to evacuate". Colorado Newsline.
  309. ^ Hroub 2006, p. 33.
  310. ^ Ronni Shaked, 'Ethos of Conflict of the Palestinian Society,' in Keren Sharvit, Eran Halperin (eds.) A Social Psychology Perspective on The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: Celebrating the Legacy of Daniel Bar-Tal, Springer, 2016 Volume 2 pp. 133–49 [142].
  311. ^ Hroub 2006b, p. 6cited Michael Schulz, "Hamas Between Sharia Rule and Demo-Islam", in Ashok Swain, Ramses Amer, Joakim Öjendal (eds.),Globalization and Challenges to Building Peace, pp. 195–201: 'Hamas continues to be characterized with reference to its 1988 charter drawn up less than a year after the movement was established in direct response to the outbreak of the third intifada and when its raison d'être was armed resistance to the occupation. Yet when its election and post-election documents are compared to the charter, it becomes clear that what is being promoted is a profondly different organization'
  312. ^ 'The non-Zionist Jew is one who belongs to the Jewish culture, whether as a believer in the Jewish faith or simply by accident of birth, but...(who) takes no part in aggressive actions against our land and our nation. ... Hamas will not adopt a hostile position in practice against anyone because of his ideas or his creed but will adopt such a position if those ideas and creed are translated into hostile or damaging actions against our people.' (1990) Khaled Hroub, p. 34.
  313. ^ Picco, Giandomenico; Rifkind, Gabrielle (2013). The Fog of Peace: The Human Face of Conflict Resolution. I.B. Tauris. pp. 47–48. ISBN 978-0857723437. Retrieved January 16, 2021.
  314. ^ Robinson 2004, p. 130.
  315. ^ Litvak 1998, p. 153.
  316. ^ Gabriel Weimann,Terror on the Internet: The New Arena, the New Challenges, US Institute of Peace Press, 2006 p. 82.
  317. ^ Jim Zanotti, Hamas: Background and Issues for Congress, Diane Publishing, 2011 p. 15.
  318. ^ Zanotti, p. 15.
  319. ^ Roberts p. 68:'The Charter condemns world Zionism and the efforts to isolate Palestine, defines the mission of the organization, and locates that mission within Palestinian, Arab and Islamic elements. It does not condemn the West or non-Muslims, but does condemn aggression against the Palestinian people, arguing for a defensive jihad. It also calls for fraternal relations with the other Palestinian nationalist groups'.
  320. ^ "Hamas Covenant 1988: The Covenant of the Islamic Resistance Movement". The Avalon Project: Documents in Law, History and Diplomacy. Yale Law School. August 18, 1988. Retrieved February 15, 2009.
  321. ^ Shaul Mishal, Avraham Sela,The Palestinian Hamas: vision, violence, and coexistence, Columbia University Press, 2006 p. 178.
  322. ^ Mark A. Tessler A History of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict, Indiana University Press, 1994 pp. 546, 696
  323. ^ Beinart 2012, p. 219, n.53.
  324. ^ Ayala H. Emmett, Our Sisters' Promised Land: Women, Politics, and Isr aeli-Palestinian Coexistence, University of Michigan Press, 2003 pp. 100–02.
  325. ^ a b Glenn Frankel, Beyond the Promised Land: Jews and Arabs on the Hard Road to a New Israel, Simon and Schuster, 1996 pp. 389–91, cites Binjamin Netanyahu as declaring: 'You say the Bible is not a property deed. But I say the opposite-the Bible is our mandate, the Bible is our deed'. Yitzhak Rabin at the time charged that "Bibi Netyanyahu is a Hamas collaborator. ... Hamas and Likud have the same political goal.'
  326. ^ a b David Whitten Smith, Elizabeth Geraldine Burr,Understanding World Religions: A Road Map for Justice and Peace, Rowman & Littlefield, 2014 2nd.ed. pp. 250–51 for a comparison of similarities regarding ownership of the land in the Likud and Hamas platforms.
  327. ^ a b Louise Fawcett, International Relations of the Middle East, Oxford University Press 2013 p. 49: 'The Hamas platform calls for full Muslim-Palestinian control of the Mediterranean to the Jordan River—the mirror image of Likud's platform for Jewish control of the same land.'
  328. ^ a b O'Malley 2015, p. 26: Israel incessantly invokes provisions of Hamas's charter that call for the elimination of Jews and the destruction of Israel, and its refusal to recognize the state of Israel. ... Hamas also calls attention to the clauses in the Likud charter that explicitly denounce a two-state solution. A double standard, says Hamas.
  329. ^ Noam Chomsky, in Elliot N. Dorff, Danya Ruttenberg, Louis E Newman (eds.), Jewish Choices, Jewish Voices: War and National Security, Jewish Publication Society, 2010 pp. 26–27
  330. ^ a b Dunning, Tristan (November 20, 2014), Israel's policy on statehood merits the same scrutiny as Hamas gets
  331. ^ Bayefsky, Anne F.; Blank, Laurie R. (March 22, 2018). Incitement to Terrorism. BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-35982-6. The governing charter of Hamas, "The Covenant of the Islamic Resistance Movement," openly dedicates Hamas to genocide against the Jewish people.
  332. ^ Breedon, Jennifer R. (2015–2016). "Why the Combination of Universal Jurisdiction and Polical Lawfare Will Destroy the Sacred Sovereignty of States". Journal of Global Justice and Public Policy. 2: 389. The Hamas Charter not only calls for the militant, perhaps genocidal, liberation of Palestine (e.g., "raise the banner of Allah over every inch of Palestine"), but also demonstrates anti-Semitic, murderous intent.
  333. ^ Tsesis, Alexander (2014–2015). "Antisemitism and Hate Speech Studies". Rutgers Journal of Law and Religion. 16: 352. For Jews, the Holocaust remains a real concern in an age when Hamas, a Palestinian terrorist organization, continues to advocate genocide in its core Charter.
  334. ^ Freilich, C. D. (2018). Israeli National security: a new strategy for an Era of change. Oxford University Press. p. 34, 37
  335. ^ a b "Hamas in 2017: The document in full". MiddleEastEye. Retrieved January 6, 2018.
  336. ^ Seurat 2022, p. 18.
  337. ^ Urquhart, Conal (January 10, 2007). "Hamas leader acknowledges 'reality' of Israel". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved October 9, 2023.
  338. ^ Aviad, G. (2009). "'Hamas' Military Wing in the Gaza Strip: Development, Patterns of Activity, and Forecast'" (PDF). Military and Strategic Affairs. Retrieved October 9, 2023. However, once Hamas became the dominant political force in Palestinian society...
  339. ^ Abbas risks all with vote strategy. Roger Hardy, BBC, 8 June 2006
  340. ^ a b Seurat 2019, p. 47
  341. ^ Mohammed Ayoob. The Many Faces of Political Islam, Second Edition (January 2020). University of Michigan Press. p. 133.
  342. ^ Baconi 2018, p. 230.
  343. ^ Brenner 2017, p. 206.
  344. ^ Zartman 2021, p. 230.
  345. ^ Jacqueline S. Ismael; Tareq Y. Ismael; Glenn Perry. Government and Politics of the Contemporary Middle East Continuity and Change. Taylor & Francis. p. 106?.
  346. ^ SCOTT ATRAN (August 17, 2006). "Is Hamas Ready to Deal?". New York Times.
  347. ^ "Abbas sacks Hamas-led government". BBC News. June 14, 2007. Retrieved June 14, 2007.
  348. ^ Peter Beinart, The Crisis of Zionism, Melbourne University Press 2012, p. 219. Statement of Mashal in May 2010: 'If Israel withdraws to the borders of 1967, it doesn't mean that it gives us back all the land of the Palestinians. But we do consider this as an acceptable solution to have a Palestinian state on the borders of 1967... the Palestinian state will have a referendum and the Palestinian people will decide. We in Hamas will respect the decision of the Palestinian majority.' Haniyeh in November 2010: 'We accept a Palestinian state on the borders of 1967, with Jerusalem as its capital, the release of Palestinian prisoners, and the resolution of the issue of refugees…. Hamas will respect the results (of a referendum) regardless of whether it differs with its ideology and principles.' (Beinart refers to the original sources of those statements, respectively Current Affairs 28 May 2010 and Haaretz 1 December 2010.)
  349. ^ David Whitten, Smith, Elizabeth Geraldine Burr, Understanding World Religions: A Road Map for Justice and Peace, Rowman & Littlefield, 2014 p. 250
  350. ^ Dalacoura 2012, p. 67.
  351. ^ Seth Ackerman (September–October 2006). "Nixed Signals". Extra!. Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting. Retrieved March 18, 2012.
  352. ^ a b Barak Ravid (August 14, 2008). "In 2006 letter to Bush, Haniyeh offered compromise with Israel". Haaretz. Retrieved March 18, 2012.
  353. ^ Seurat 2019, p. 49.
  354. ^ Seurat 2019, p. 50.
  355. ^ a b Davis 2016, p. 41.
  356. ^ Matthew Duss, 'Remember Gaza?,' Tablet Magazine May 8, 2015.
  357. ^ Wendy Pearlman, Violence, Nonviolence, and the Palestinian National Movement, Cambridge University Press, 2011 p. 137.
  358. ^ Al Jazeera, "Hamas ready to accept 1967 borders". April 22, 2008.
  359. ^ Yoav Segev (September 22, 2009). "Haniyeh to UN chief: Hamas accepts Palestinian state in '67 borders". Haaretz. Retrieved February 25, 2012.
  360. ^ "Hamas Vows to Honor Palestinian Referendum on Peace with Israel: Islamist Leader Ismail Haniyeh Says He Would Accept a Deal with Israel Based on 1967 Borders and Denies that Gaza has Become a Stronghold for Al-Qaida". Haaretz. Reuters. December 1, 2010. Retrieved February 25, 2012.
  361. ^ Seurat 2019, p. 56.
  362. ^ Ben Zion, Ilan (March 14, 2012). "The eye of the Islamic Jihad storm". The Times of Israel. Retrieved October 9, 2023.
  363. ^ Tracy, Marc (March 12, 2012). "Terrorist Killing Prompts Gaza Rocket Exchange". Tablet Magazine. Retrieved March 31, 2012.
  364. ^ Erlanger, Steven (April 1, 2008). "In Gaza, Hamas's Insults to Jews Complicate Peace". The New York Times. Retrieved August 2, 2011.
  365. ^ "Nizar Rayyan of Hamas on God's Hatred of Jews" Archived January 22, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, The Atlantic, (January 2, 2009).
  366. ^ Neack 2008, p. 101.
  367. ^ Assi 2018.
  368. ^ Dr. Lorenzo Kamel, "Why do Palestinians in Gaza support Hamas?", Haaretz, August 5, 2014
  369. ^ Sumantra Bose. Contested Lands: Israel-Palestine, Kashmir, Bosnia, Cyprus, and Sri Lanka. Harvard University Press. p. 283.
  370. ^ Slater 2020, p. 285.
  371. ^ Amira Hass (November 9, 2008). "Hamas willing to accept Palestinian state with 1967 borders". Haaretz. Retrieved April 16, 2014.
  372. ^ a b c Hamas Fights Over Gaza's Islamist Identity The New York Times, September 5, 2009
  373. ^ Davis 2017, p. 55.
  374. ^ Shitrit 2015, pp. 73–74.
  375. ^ a b Phillips 2011, p. 81.
  376. ^ Shitrit 2015, p. 74.
  377. ^ Rubenberg 2001, pp. 230–31.
  378. ^ Gerner 2007, p. 27.
  379. ^ "Hamas encourages Gaza women to follow Islamic code _English_Xinhua". Xinhua News Agency. January 3, 2010. Archived from the original on May 14, 2011. Retrieved August 2, 2011.
  380. ^ a b Hamas Bans Women Dancers, Scooter Riders in Gaza Push Archived November 18, 2015, at the Wayback Machine By Daniel Williams, Bloomberg, November 30, 2009
  381. ^ Hamas patrols beaches in Gaza to enforce conservative dress code The Guardian (UK), October 18, 2009
  382. ^ Rettig, Haviv (March 5, 2013). "UN Cancels Gaza Marathon". The Times of Israel. Retrieved March 27, 2013.
  383. ^ a b "Palestine: Taliban-like attempts to censor music". Freemuse.org. August 17, 2006. Archived from the original on August 7, 2011. Retrieved August 2, 2011.
  384. ^ "Battling over the public sphere: Islamic reactions to the music of today". Jonas Otterbeck. Contemporary Islam. Volume 2, Number 3, 211–28,doi:10.1007/s11562-008-0062-y. "... the over-all argument was that the event was haram"
  385. ^ "Palestinians Debate Whether Future State Will be Theocracy or Democracy". Associated Press, July 13, 2005.
  386. ^ Gaza Taliban? by Editorial Staff, The New Humanist, volume 121 issue 1, January/February 2006
  387. ^ a b Hamas Rule in Gaza: Three Years On, Yezid Sayigh, Crown Center for Middle East studies, March 2010
  388. ^ See also: Letter from Gaza, Hamas's tunnel diplomacy, By Thanassis Cambanis, June 18, 2010. Foreign Affairs. "They want to know if we are more like the Taliban or Erdogan. They will see that we are closer to Erdogan."
  389. ^ Hamas: 'We want Erdoğan's model, not Taliban's'. Cansu Çamlibel, The Daily Hurriyet. June 10, 2010
  390. ^ A Leader of Hamas Warns of West Bank Peril for Fatah The New York Times. June 21, 2006. "Mr. Sawaf's West Bank office in Ramallah has been destroyed, and the Palestinian paper Al Ayyam has refused to continue printing his paper in the West Bank."
  391. ^ Hamas-Gaza-extremism, The Weekly Middle East Reporter (Beirut, Lebanon), August 8, 2009
  392. ^ Gumrukcu, Tuvan; Hayatsever, Huseyin (October 25, 2023). "Turkey's Erdogan says Hamas is not terrorist organisation, cancels trip to Israel". Reuters.
  393. ^ Levitt 2006, pp. 10–11.
  394. ^ Roy 2013, p. 30.
  395. ^ Andrew Carey and Joe Sterling (May 6, 2017). "Ismail Haniya elected new Hamas leader". CNN.
  396. ^ Davis 2016, pp. 44–45.
  397. ^ A. Hovdenak, "Hamas in Transition:The Failure of Sanctions", in Michelle Pace, Peter Seeberg (eds.), The European Union's Democratization Agenda in the Mediterranean, Routledge, 2013 pp. 50–79 [64].
  398. ^ Peter Mandaville,Islam and Politics, Routledge, 2014 Rev.ed, p. 282.
  399. ^ a b Benedetta Berti, Armed Political Organizations: From Conflict to Integration, JHU Press, 2013 p. 88.
  400. ^ Mohammed Ayoob, Will the Middle East Implode?, John Wiley & Sons, 2014 p. 47.
  401. ^ Abu-Amr 1993, p. 8.
  402. ^ a b Roy 1993, p. 21.
  403. ^ Levitt 2006, p. 148.
  404. ^ Vittori 2011, p. 72.
  405. ^ a b c Vittori 2011, p. 73.
  406. ^ Levitt 2006, pp. 143–44.
  407. ^ Clarke 2015, p. 97.
  408. ^ Interpal and Development and the Al-Aqsa Charitable Foundation Fund. pp. 146, 154–59.
  409. ^ a b Marsh E. Burfeindt, 'Rapprochement with Iran', in Thomas A. Johnson (ed.), Power, National Security, and Transformational Global Events: Challenges Confronting America, China, and Iran. CRC Press. 2012. pp. 185–235 [198].
  410. ^ a b c d Jodi Vittori, Terrorist Financing and Resourcing, Palgrave Macmillan, 2011 pp. 72–74, 193 notes 50, 51.
  411. ^ Levitt 2006, p. 173.
  412. ^ Gleis & Berti 2012, p. 156.
  413. ^ Robert Mason, Foreign Policy in Iran and Saudi Arabia: Economics and Diplomacy in the Middle East, I.B. Tauris, 2015 pp. 48–49
  414. ^ Levitt 2006, pp. 172–74.
  415. ^ Lawrence Rubin, Islam in the Balance: Ideational Threats in Arab Politics. Stanford University Press, 2014 p. 104
  416. ^ Jalil Roshandel, Alethia H. Cook, The United States and Iran: Policy Challenges and Opportunities, Palgrave Macmillan, 2009. p. 104.
  417. ^ Mark P. Sullivan, 'Latin America: Terrorism Issues'. Congressional Research Service. July 14, 2009. p. 4.
  418. ^ Davis, p. 173.
  419. ^ "Palestinian Authority rejects Israeli, U.S. ideas to help Gaza". The Jerusalem Post.
  420. ^ The Jerusalem Post, March 12, 2019, "Netanyahu: Money to Hamas Part of Strategy to Keep Palestinians Divided"
  421. ^ Dunning 2016, p. 136.
  422. ^ Levitt 2006, pp. 16–23.
  423. ^ Phillips 2011, p. 78.
  424. ^ a b Shitrit 2015, p. 71.
  425. ^ Davis 2016, pp. 47ff.
  426. ^ Levitt 2006, p. 23.
  427. ^ Levitt 2006, pp. 25–26.
  428. ^ Mohsen Saleh, The Palestinian Strategic Report 2006, Al Manhal, 2007 p. 198.
  429. ^ James J.F. Forrest, "Conclusion", in James Dingley, Combating Terrorism in Northern Ireland, Routledge, 2008 pp. 280–300 [290].
  430. ^ Levitt 2006, pp. 122–23.
  431. ^ Davis 2016, p. 48.
  432. ^ Davis 2016, pp. 48–49.
  433. ^ Beaumont, Peter (October 12, 2023). "What is Hamas, the militant group that rules Gaza?". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved October 16, 2023.
  434. ^ Najib & Friedrich 2007, p. 106.
  435. ^ Najib & Friedrich 2007, p. 105.
  436. ^ Najib & Friedrich 2007, pp. 105–06.
  437. ^ Najib & Friedrich 2007, p. 107.
  438. ^ Najib & Friedrich 2007, pp. 107–08.
  439. ^ Davis 2004, p. 100.
  440. ^ Herrick 2011, p. ?.
  441. ^ Mandaville, p. 282.
  442. ^ Levitt 2008, pp. 89ff..
  443. ^ John L.Esposito, Islam and Violence, Syracuse University Press, 1998, p. 231.
  444. ^ Gunning 2007, pp. 123–55: p. 134
  445. ^ Kass & O'Neill 1997, p. 267.
  446. ^ Herrick 2011, p. 179.
  447. ^ a b c "Gallant: Hamas has lost control in Gaza; gunmen who fired from hospital entrance killed | The Times of Israel".
  448. ^ "Hamas leader killed in air strike". London: BBC News. January 1, 2009.
  449. ^ "Hamas TV station shut down". Archived from the original on October 9, 2007. Retrieved October 9, 2007., news24.com, January 22, 2006
  450. ^ a b "Terrorism: Al Aqsa TV". ADL. Archived from the original on January 20, 2013.
  451. ^ "Anti-Semitic Hate Speech in the Name of Islam". Spiegel Online International. May 16, 2008.
  452. ^ Hamas Condemns the Holocaust The Guardian May 12, 2008
  453. ^ "Hamas Launches Television Network". NPR. Retrieved February 3, 2006.
  454. ^ Johnson, Alan (May 15, 2008). "Hamas and antisemitism". The Guardian. London.
  455. ^ "Online Terrorists Prey on the Vulnerable". Globalpolitician.com. Archived from the original on July 20, 2011. Retrieved August 1, 2011.
  456. ^ "Hamas Magazine for Kids Promotes Martyrdom and Hatred". Anti-Defamation League. Archived from the original on August 4, 2011. Retrieved August 1, 2011.
  457. ^ "מה ידענו ומדוע סירבנו להפנים את הכוונות הרצחניות של חמאס?" (in Hebrew). Maariv. November 7, 2023. Retrieved November 19, 2023.
  458. ^ "קולקטיבינדואליזם: הדור הפלסטיני הצעיר בין אינדיבידואליזם לקולקטיביזם והאתגר לחמאס". Tel Aviv University. The Dayan Center for Middle Eastern and African studies (in Hebrew). Retrieved November 19, 2023.
  459. ^ Madelene Axelsson (January 27, 2006). "Islamistisk politik vinner mark" (in Swedish). Stockholms Fria Tidning. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved April 10, 2006.
  460. ^ Israel At 'War to the Bitter End,' Strikes Key Hamas Sites Archived November 22, 2010, at the Wayback Machine December 29, 2008, Fox News
  461. ^ Atkins 2004, p. 123.
  462. ^ United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. "Refworld | Erased In A Moment: Suicide Bombing Attacks Against Israeli Civilians". UNHCR. Archived from the original on April 16, 2013. Retrieved March 27, 2013.
  463. ^ Saarnivaara, Minn (2008). "Suicide Campaigns as a Strategic Choice: The Case of Hamas". Policing. 2 (4): 423–33. doi:10.1093/police/pan061.
  464. ^ Erased In A Moment: Suicide Bombing Attacks Against Israeli Civilians V. Structures and Strategies of the Perpetrator Organizations, Human Rights Watch, October 2002. ISBN 1564322807
  465. ^ "Indiscriminate Fire, Palestinian Rocket Attacks on Israel and Israeli Artillery Shelling in the Gaza Strip". Human Rights Watch. June 30, 2007. Archived from the original on May 24, 2010. Retrieved May 27, 2010.
  466. ^ "Civilians under Assault, Hezbollah's Rocket Attacks on Israel in the 2006 War". Human Rights Watch. August 28, 2007. Archived from the original on May 24, 2010. Retrieved May 27, 2010.
  467. ^ "Top Hamas fugitive nabbed". Ynetnews. May 23, 2006.
  468. ^ Barak Ravid (March 17, 2009). "Who are the deadly terrorists Israel refuses to release for Shalit?". Haaretz. Retrieved April 16, 2014.
  469. ^ McCarthy, Rory (February 5, 2008). "Hamas says it was behind suicide blast in Israel". The Guardian. Retrieved September 22, 2014.
  470. ^ News Agencies and Haaretz Service (July 27, 2008). "Israeli troops in Hebron kill Hamas man behind Dimona attack". Haaretz. Retrieved September 22, 2014.
  471. ^ Anti-Israeli Terrorism in 2007 and its Trends in 2008 (PDF). Intelligence and Terrorism Information Cente (Report). Israel Intelligence Heritage and Commemoration Center. May 2008. pp. 11, 28. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 13, 2009. Retrieved June 5, 2010.
  472. ^ "Victims of Palestinian Violence and Terrorism since September 2000". GxMSDev. Archived from the original on April 3, 2007. Retrieved July 17, 2015.
  473. ^ "BICOM Fact Sheet 2: Ashkelon – the changing scenario". Britain Israel Communications and Research Centre. March 5, 2008. Archived from the original on March 10, 2008. Retrieved October 7, 2023.
  474. ^ "Mashaal offers to cease civilian attacks". Archived from the original on June 9, 2008. Retrieved June 1, 2016. March 31, 2008, The Jerusalem Post
  475. ^ "Qassam lands in western Negev, no injuries" Ynetnews, November 20, 2008
  476. ^ "Netanyahu blames Hamas for the kidnapping of the three Israeli teens". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved July 19, 2014.
  477. ^ "Hamas genocidal terrorists says Netanyahu". Israel News.Net. Archived from the original on November 5, 2014. Retrieved July 19, 2014.
  478. ^ "Kidnap and murder of Israeli teens: Palestinian suspect held, police say". The Times of India. Retrieved July 17, 2015.
  479. ^ "Palestinian suspect held over kidnap murders of 3 Israelis". The Rakyat Post. Archived from the original on July 20, 2015. Retrieved July 17, 2015.
  480. ^ "Israel arrests suspected ringleader of cell that killed teens". The Times of Israel. Retrieved July 17, 2015.
  481. ^ Jack Khoury, "Hamas claims responsibility for three Israeli teens' kidnapping and murder", Haaretz, August 21, 2014.
  482. ^ "MEMRI: Hamas Leadership Acknowledges Responsibility for Kidnapping Three Israeli Teens". MEMRI. Retrieved August 22, 2014.
  483. ^ 'Mashal: Hamas was behind murder of three Israeli teens,' Ynet August 22, 2014.
  484. ^ Isikoff, Michael (August 25, 2014). "In personal plea, top Hamas leader calls on Obama to stop 'holocaust' in Gaza". Yahoo! News. Retrieved September 2, 2014.
  485. ^ "Israel/Palestine: Devastating Civilian Toll as Parties Flout Legal Obligations". Human Rights Watch. October 9, 2023. Archived from the original on October 9, 2023.
  486. ^ Morris, Loveday; Piper, Imogen; Sohyun Lee, Joyce; George, Susannah (October 8, 2023). "How a night of dancing and revelry in Israel turned into a massacre". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on October 8, 2023. Retrieved October 8, 2023.
  487. ^ Lubell, Maayan (October 10, 2023). "Bodies of residents and militants lie in the grounds of ravaged Israeli kibbutz". Reuters. Retrieved October 10, 2023.
  488. ^ "10 Percent of Kibbutz Population Found Dead After Hamas Massacre in Southern Israel". Haaretz. October 10, 2023.
  489. ^ Carroll, Rory (October 23, 2023). "Israel shows footage of Hamas killings 'to counter denial of atrocities'". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved October 26, 2023.
  490. ^ "Israel shows Hamas bodycam attack footage to journalists". BBC News. October 23, 2023. Retrieved October 26, 2023.
  491. ^ HRW report April 11, 2010
  492. ^ Al-Mughrabi, Nidal (February 5, 2010). "Hamas "regrets" civilian deaths, Israel unmoved". Reuters.
  493. ^ Baker, Luke (August 24, 2014). "Israel says it found Hamas training manual in Gaza". Reuters. Archived from the original on August 24, 2014. Retrieved August 25, 2014.
  494. ^ Halevi, Jonathan D. (August 4, 2014). "The Hamas Threat to the West Is No Different from ISIS". Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. Retrieved August 25, 2014.
  495. ^ Steven Lee Myers and Helene Cooper, Obama Defers to Bush, for Now, on Gaza Crisis, New York Times December 28, 2009
  496. ^ U.S. Condemns Hamas in Midst of Israeli Strikes Archived June 25, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, Fox News December 28, 2008
  497. ^ Clinton calls for 'durable' Gaza truce, condemns rockets, AFP March 2, 2009
  498. ^ "'We are at war': Palestinian militants launch new military operation, Israel strikes targets in Gaza". ABC News. October 7, 2023.
  499. ^ "IDF general lays out plan for reviving Gaza economy". Haaretz. The Associated Press. October 26, 2010. Retrieved June 7, 2013.
  500. ^ Weiss, Mark (September 4, 2010). "Islamist groups attempt to derail Middle East talks". The Irish Times.
  501. ^ "Hamas targets Israeli-Palestinian talks by killing four Israelis; Hamas took responsibility for the fatal shooting of four Israeli settlers outside Hebron today, on the eve of Israeli-Palestinian talks in Washington," Joshua Mitnick, August 31, 2010, Christian Science Monitor.
  502. ^ "Hamas to launch 'more effective attacks' on Israel". The Jerusalem Post. September 3, 2010.
  503. ^ "The Shadow of Hamas". The Washington Post. September 8, 2010. Retrieved September 7, 2013.
  504. ^ Gaza militants vow wave of attacks against Israel, Reuters September 2, 2010
  505. ^ Kershner, Isabel; Landler, Mark (August 31, 2010). "Israeli Settlers Killed in West Bank". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 3, 2022. Retrieved September 7, 2013.
  506. ^ Liel, Alon. "Abbas condemns Hamas attack; 4 Israelis shot dead". The Jerusalem Post. Archived from the original on September 1, 2010. Retrieved August 1, 2011.
  507. ^ "US says Hebron attack must not derail Middle East talks". BBC News. September 1, 2010.
  508. ^ "4 Israelis killed by Hamas". Xinhua News Agency. September 1, 2010. Archived from the original on August 7, 2011. Retrieved August 1, 2011.
  509. ^ "Hamas official: Israeli settlers are a legitimate military target". Haaretz. September 1, 2010. Retrieved August 1, 2011.
  510. ^ a b "Report: Hamas weighing large-scale conflict with Israel". Ynetnews. October 3, 2006.
  511. ^ Issam Aburaiya (October 3, 2006). "Hamas and Palestinian Nationalism" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on November 4, 2003.
  512. ^ Corey Flintoff (July 31, 2008). "Palestinian Rivals Accused Of Human Rights Abuses". NPR.
  513. ^ "Fatah, Hamas gunbattles kill 7". Toronto Star. October 1, 2006. Archived from the original on August 5, 2011.
  514. ^ Associated Press (April 2, 2021). "Gaza Activist: After Lengthy Torture, Hamas Forced Me to Divorce". Voice of America. Retrieved October 16, 2023.
  515. ^ Yosif Mahmoud Haj-Yahis; et al. (2009). Alleged Palestinian Collaborators with Israel and Their Families: A Study of Victims of Internal Political Violence. Harry S. Truman Research Institute for the Advancement of Peace, Hebrew University of Jerusalem. pp. 18–19.
  516. ^ Kalman, Matthew (January 22, 2009). "Hamas executes suspected Fatah traitors in Gaza". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved September 7, 2013.
  517. ^ The Associated Press (November 20, 2012). "Hamas militants kill 6 suspected informers, witnesses say". CBC News. Retrieved January 6, 2013.
  518. ^ "Rights group pans Hamas for not probing executions". The Times of Israel.
  519. ^ "Amnesty International: Hamas guilty of torture, summary executions". The Washington Post. May 27, 2015. Archived from the original on January 26, 2021. Retrieved October 16, 2023.
  520. ^ "Large number of alleged Israeli informers killed in Gaza". Palestinian News.Net. August 22, 2014. Archived from the original on August 26, 2014. Retrieved August 23, 2014.
  521. ^ a b Klein, Aaron J.; Ginsburg, Mitch (September 3, 2014). "None of alleged Gaza collaborators were Israeli assets, intel official says". The Times of Israel. Retrieved September 23, 2014.
  522. ^ "Middle East | Unrest erupts in Gaza Strip". BBC News. July 3, 2002. Retrieved May 27, 2010.
  523. ^ Levinson, Charles (June 10, 2007). "Shot by their own side, healed by the enemy". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on June 15, 2007. Retrieved May 27, 2010.
  524. ^ "Gaza: Armed Palestinian Groups Commit Grave Crimes". Human Rights Watch. June 13, 2007.
  525. ^ Agence France-Presse (April 21, 2009). "Hamas must stop killings: HRW". Taipei Times. Retrieved October 16, 2023.
  526. ^ "Mosque gun battle rages in Gaza". London: BBC News. August 14, 2009.
  527. ^ "Gaza Islamist leader dies in raid". London: BBC News. August 15, 2009.
  528. ^ "Abbas hints PA close to ending unity agreement with Hamas". The Jerusalem Post.
  529. ^ a b Ben, Ariel. "Hamas denies 32 of its operatives killed in Sinai | JPost | Israel News". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved August 2, 2014.
  530. ^ Ben, Ricky (August 28, 2013). "Five Hamas members arrested over Egyptian police massacre". The Times of Israel. Retrieved August 2, 2014.
  531. ^ a b "Top News, Latest headlines, Latest News, World News & U.S News". Onswipe.upi.com. July 29, 2014. Archived from the original on November 22, 2013. Retrieved August 2, 2014.
  532. ^ a b c Issacharoff, Avi (August 22, 2013). "Egypt's ire raised as Hamas harbors Sinai jihadists". The Times of Israel. Retrieved September 30, 2014. Their leader, Mohammed Dormosh, is well known for his ties to the Hamas leadership.
  533. ^ Morsi accused of plotting with Hamas. Al Jazeera English. July 26, 2013.
  534. ^ "Egypt blames Gaza group for bombing". Al Jazeera. January 23, 2011. Archived from the original on October 6, 2014. Retrieved September 30, 2014.
  535. ^ Gold, Dore (April 27, 2014). "The Myth of the Moderate Hamas". Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. Retrieved September 30, 2014.
  536. ^ "Army of Islam says Shalit now solely under control of Hamas". Haaretz. July 4, 2007. Retrieved September 30, 2014. We at Army of Islam made the preparations for operation 'Dissipating Illusion,' which was carried out in cooperation with the Al Aqsa Martyrs' Brigade and the Popular Resistance Committees Salah a-Din. We kidnapped Gilad Shalit and handed him over to Hamas.
  537. ^ "Egyptian interior minister accuses Hamas of supporting Mansoura attackers". Al-Ahram. January 2, 2014. Archived from the original on October 6, 2014. Retrieved September 30, 2014.
  538. ^ The World Almanac of Islamism: 2014, American Foreign Policy Council/Rowman & Littlefield, 2014, p. 15.
  539. ^ Gunning 2004, p. 234.
  540. ^ Levitt 2006, pp. 50–51.
  541. ^ Statement by High Representative/Vice-President Federica Mogherini on the decision to appeal the Judgment regarding Hamas, January 19, 2015
  542. ^ "EU court keeps Hamas on terrorism list, removes Tamil Tigers". Reuters. July 26, 2017. The lower court had found that the listing was based on media and internet reports rather than decisions by a "competent authority". But the ECJ said such decisions were not required for groups to stay on the list, only for their initial listing.
  543. ^ According to Michael Penn, (Japan and the War on Terror: Military Force and Political Pressure in the US-Japanese Alliance, I.B. Tauris 2014 pp. 205–06), Japan initially welcomed the democratic character of the elections that brought Hamas to power, and only set conditions on its aid to Palestine, after intense pressure was exerted by the Bush Administration on Japan to alter its policy.
  544. ^ "Lists associated with Resolution 1373". New Zealand Police. July 20, 2014.
  545. ^ David Sobek,The Causes of War, John Wiley & Sons, 2013 p. 45.
  546. ^ Levitt 2006, p. 49.
  547. ^ a b Alethia H. Cook, "The Subtle Impact of Iran on the Flotilla Incident", in Thomas E. Copeland (ed.), Drawing a Line in the Sea: The Gaza Flotilla Incident and the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict, Lexington Books, 2011 pp. 35–44 [36].
  548. ^ Robert O. Freedman, 'Russia,' in Joel Peters, David Newman (eds.), The Routledge Handbook on the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict, Routledge, 2013 pp. 325–33 [331]
  549. ^ a b Haspeslagh 2016, p. 199.
  550. ^ David J. Whittaker (ed.), The Terrorism Reader, Routledge (2001), 2012, p. 84.
  551. ^ a b Samuel Feldberg,'Israel and Brazil:An Emerging Power and its Quest for Influence in the Middle East,' in Colin Shindler (ed.), The World Powers:Diplomatic Alliances and International Relations Beyond the Middle East, I.B. Tauris, 2014 pp. 187–99
  552. ^ Fisher, Max (November 21, 2012). "9 questions about Israel-Gaza you were too embarrassed to ask". Retrieved January 6, 2018 – via www.WashingtonPost.com.
  553. ^ Amossy 2017, p. 273, n4.
  554. ^ a b c Brenner 2017, p. 203, n.27.
  555. ^ Buck, Tobias (November 22, 2012). "Five lessons from the Gaza conflict". Financial Times. Archived from the original on December 10, 2022. Retrieved January 6, 2013.
  556. ^ Krista E. Wiegand, Bombs and Ballots: Governance by Islamist Terrorist and Guerrilla Groups, Ashgate Publishing, Revised edition 2013 p. 124. "Officially, Hamas is considered by American and Israeli policymakers and some academics as the epitome of a terrorist group. [...] Due to the gravity and consequences of Hamas's use of terrorism as a tactic, all other aspects of Hamas, including its extensive social services programs and its role as a political party are overshadowed and often ignored by policy makers. Others recognize the complexity of Hamas as an organization and suggest that Hamas will continue to transform itself into a full political party and eventually disarm and cease all violent tactics. They view Hamas as a complex organization with terrorism as only one component, which is likely to evolve into a non-violent political party."
  557. ^ Luke Peterson, Palestine-Israel in the Print News Media: Contending Discourses, Routledge 2014 p. 99.
  558. ^ "Australia to list Palestinian group Hamas as terrorist organisation". SBS News. Retrieved February 17, 2022.
  559. ^ "Australia to designate Hamas as terror group: 'No place for hateful ideologies'". The Times of Israel. Retrieved February 17, 2022.
  560. ^ "Australia says it will list Hamas as 'terrorist' group". Al Jazeera. Retrieved February 17, 2022.
  561. ^ "Hamas' Izz al-Din al-Qassam Brigades". Australian National Security. Archived from the original on May 21, 2019. Retrieved December 30, 2016.
  562. ^ Penn 2014, p. 205.
  563. ^ "Por que Brasil não classifica Hamas como 'grupo terrorista'" [Why Brazil doesn't classify Hamas as a terrorist group]. G1 (in Portuguese). October 9, 2023. Retrieved October 11, 2023.
  564. ^ "Currently listed entities". Public Safety Canada, Government of Canada. March 24, 2014.
  565. ^ "About the Anti-terrorism Act". Department of Justice, Government of Canada. September 12, 2013.
  566. ^ Zambelis, Chris. "China's Palestine Policy". Jamestown. Retrieved August 2, 2014.
  567. ^ Joshua Davidovich (December 18, 2013). "The China bank is not the issue here, dude". The Times of Israel. Retrieved March 30, 2014.
  568. ^ "Egypt court overturns Hamas terror blacklisting". BBC. June 6, 2015. Retrieved May 24, 2018.
  569. ^ 'Egyptian court declares Hamas a 'terrorist' group', Al Jazeera February 28, 2015.
  570. ^ "Egypt court designates Hamas 'terrorist" group". Anadolu Agency. Retrieved January 28, 2017.
  571. ^ "Egypt vows to arrest Hamas members, seize assets". Middle East Eye. Retrieved January 28, 2017.
  572. ^
  573. ^ "EU court takes Hamas off terrorist organisations list". BBC News. December 17, 2014. Retrieved January 6, 2015.
  574. ^ Norman, Laurence (December 17, 2014). "EU Court Strikes Down Inclusion of Hamas on Terror List". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 6, 2015.
  575. ^ "EU court rules Hamas should be taken off terror list". USA Today. Retrieved January 6, 2015.
  576. ^ * Hamas is added to EU's blacklist of terror, By Anton La Guardia, Diplomatic Editor, September 12, 2003, The Telegraph. "The European Union yesterday put Hamas on its blacklist of terrorist organisations."
  577. ^ Barak Ravid, "EU court orders Hamas removed from terror list", Haaretz, December 17, 2014.
  578. ^ "Hamas removed from EU terrorist list on technicality", Reuters, December 17, 2014.
  579. ^ 'EU court orders Hamas removal from terror blacklist", Archived December 17, 2014, at the Wayback Machine Ma'an News Agency, December 17, 2014.
  580. ^ "EU court keeps Hamas on terrorism list, removes Tamil Tigers". Reuters. July 26, 2017.
  581. ^ Council Decision (CFSP) 2020/1132 of July 30, 2020, updating the list of persons, groups and entities subject to Articles 2, 3 and 4 of Common Position 2001/931/CFSP on the application of specific measures to combat terrorism, and repealing Decision (CFSP) 2020/20
  582. ^ "'Seriously': Former Israeli envoy 'shocked'; Shashi Tharoor clarifies statement on Hamas". Hindustan Times. October 12, 2023.
  583. ^ The Financial Sources of the Hamas Terror Organization, July 30, 2003
  584. ^ "Japan's Diplomatic Bluebook 2005" (PDF). 2005. "In accordance with the Foreign Exchange and Foreign Trade Law, it [Japan] has frozen the assets of a total of 472 terrorists and terrorist organizations, including ..., as well as those of Hamas ..."
  585. ^ Michael Penn, Japan and the War on Terror: Military Force and Political Pressure in the US-Japanese Alliance, I.B. Tauris 2014 p. 206
  586. ^ "Hamas and Jordan are gradually getting closer, after a long estrangement". MEMO. May 13, 2019. Retrieved October 29, 2020.
  587. ^ "Lists associated with Resolution 1373". New Zealand Police. July 20, 2014. Retrieved August 16, 2014.
  588. ^ Russell Palmer (October 8, 2023). "New Zealand politicians speak out over Israel-Hamas violence". Radio New Zealand. Retrieved November 1, 2023.
  589. ^ "Norway to Revise Terrorist Organizations List After the Elections". The Nordic Page. May 15, 2013. Archived from the original on August 12, 2014. Retrieved October 29, 2020. Israel, the United States, Canada, the European Union, and Japan classify Hamas as a terrorist organization, while Norway, Iran, Russia, Turkey, and Arab nations do not.
  590. ^ Mathias Hagen; Even Hye T. Barka (October 11, 2023). "Listhaug tordnet mot Støres ord – nå snur han" [Listhaug thundered at Støre's words – now he turns]. Nettavisen (in Norwegian). Retrieved November 1, 2023.
  591. ^ Laqui, Ian (October 13, 2023). "National Security Council pushes to designate Hamas as terrorists". The Philippine Star. Retrieved October 13, 2023.
  592. ^ "Why the Philippines might declare Hamas a terror group". ABS-CBN News. October 14, 2023. Retrieved October 14, 2023.
  593. ^ "Terror financiers are living freely in Qatar, US discloses". The Telegraph. November 16, 2014. Archived from the original on January 11, 2022.
  594. ^ "Israel and Qatar have an unlikely partnership for dealing with Gaza". The Jerusalem Post. September 10, 2020. Retrieved November 2, 2020.
  595. ^ Eke, Steven (March 3, 2006). "Moscow risks anger over Hamas visit". BBC News. Retrieved May 18, 2010.
  596. ^ "Hamas seeks to retain Saudi ties despite Brotherhood ban – Al-Monitor: the Pulse of the Middle East". Al-Monitor. March 19, 2014. Retrieved July 17, 2015.
  597. ^ "Muslim Brotherhood terrorist group, does not reflect Islamic values: Saudi scholars". Arab News. November 10, 2020.
  598. ^ "Reconciliation drive between Hamas, Saudis hits wall". MEMO. January 21, 2020. Retrieved October 31, 2020.
  599. ^ "Senior Hamas official released from Saudi Arabia, heads to Jordan". Al Jazeera. October 19, 2022. Retrieved October 28, 2023.
  600. ^ "Senior Hamas delegation seen in Saudi Arabia ahead of expected rapprochement talks". Times of Israel. April 18, 2023. Retrieved October 28, 2023.
  601. ^ Swiss Federal Council (May 11, 2016), Verbindungen des EDA zur Hamas (Statement regarding interpellation # 16.3151 from 2016-03-17 by Erich Siebenthal, member of the National Council), The Swiss parliament, retrieved June 5, 2017
  602. ^ "Federal Council condemns terrorist attacks by Hamas in Israel and enhances Switzerland's capacity to act". Federal Council (Switzerland). October 11, 2023. Retrieved November 1, 2023.
  603. ^ Beyza Binnur Donmez (October 28, 2023). "Palestinian ambassador to UN in Geneva says immediate cease-fire must be 'first goal'". Anadolu Agency. Retrieved November 1, 2023.
  604. ^ Lazaroff, T. (May 13, 2011). "Erdogan: 'Hamas is not a terrorist organization'". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved June 7, 2013.
  605. ^ "Turkish FM Davutoğlu meets Hamas chief amid Israel row". Hurriyet Daily News. Retrieved August 2, 2011.
  606. ^ "United Nations designated terrorist groups and targeted sanctions". UNODC. June 2018. Archived from the original on October 30, 2020. Retrieved October 31, 2020.
  607. ^ Heaney, Christopher. "Activities of Hamas and Other Militant Groups in Gaza – GA Draft Resolution (A/73/L.42)".
  608. ^ "US resolution to condemn activities of Hamas voted down in General Assembly". UN News. December 6, 2018. Retrieved October 29, 2020.
  609. ^ "U.S. Resolution Against Hamas Is Defeated in the United Nations". The Wall Street Journal g. December 6, 2018. Retrieved October 7, 2020.
  610. ^ "Country reports on terrorism". U.S. State Dept. May 27, 2005. Archived from the original on May 11, 2005. Retrieved January 26, 2008.
  611. ^ CRS 1993.
  612. ^ "Designated Foreign Terrorist Organizations". U.S. State Dept. Archived from the original on October 20, 2023. Retrieved October 20, 2023.
  613. ^ Staff, ToI; Agencies. "European Parliament calls for Hamas to be 'eliminated,' urges release of hostages". www.timesofisrael.com. Retrieved October 21, 2023.
  614. ^ Bose, Nandita; Jackson, Katharine (October 16, 2023). "Biden says Hamas must be eliminated, US officials warn of escalation". Reuters. Retrieved October 21, 2023.
  615. ^ a b c "For years, Netanyahu propped up Hamas. Now it's blown up in our faces". The Times of Israel. October 8, 2023. Retrieved October 28, 2023.
  616. ^ "Israel's Big New Shift in Hamas Policy". Foreign Policy. June 15, 2021. Retrieved October 28, 2023.
  617. ^ "Benjamin Netanyahu failed Israel". Vox. October 9, 2023. Retrieved October 28, 2023.
  618. ^ "How Benjamin Netanyahu empowered Hamas ... and broke Israel". The Telegraph. October 16, 2023. Retrieved October 28, 2023.
  619. ^ a b c "How Netanyahu's Hamas policy came back to haunt him — and Israel". CBS News. October 28, 2023. Retrieved October 28, 2023.
  620. ^ "Poll finds dramatic rise in Palestinian support for Hamas". Associated Press. June 15, 2021.
  621. ^ Fattel, Isabel. "What is Hamas?" The Atlantic. 9 October 2023. 9 October 2023.
  622. ^ "Public Opinion Poll No (89)". Palestinian Center for Policy and Survey Research. September 13, 2023. Retrieved October 10, 2023.
  623. ^ a b Concerns about Islamic Extremism on the Rise in Middle East. Pew Research. July 1, 2014.
  624. ^ "Hamas popularity 'surges after Gaza war'". Al Jazeera English. September 2, 2014.
  625. ^ "Poll: Hamas popularity surges after war with Israel". The Washington Post. September 2, 2014.
  626. ^ "Recent Saudi Poll: Increased Support for Moderate Islam, Hamas, and Ties with Arab Partners". The Washington Institute. August 27, 2021.
  627. ^ Almaari, Faris (June 9, 2023). "New Public Opinion Poll: Jordanians Favor De-escalation in the Region, But Sentiment Against Israel Remains". The Washington Institute.
  628. ^ a b Schanzer, Jonathan (June 21, 2013). "How Hamas Lost the Arab Spring". The Atlantic.
  629. ^ a b c d "Hamas Ties to Qatar Have Cost". April 22, 2013. Archived from the original on June 16, 2016.
  630. ^ "Evidence shows Hamas militants likely used some North Korean weapons in attack on Israel". AP News. October 19, 2023. Retrieved November 18, 2023.
  631. ^ PACCHIANI, GIANLUCA (November 5, 2023). "Hamas official says North Korea is ally, insinuates it could one day target the US". Times of Israel.
  632. ^ "Hamas official says North Korea could attack US over Gaza war". Radio Free Asia. Retrieved November 18, 2023.
  633. ^ "Middle East What is Hamas? Who supports Hamas? What you need to know". Deutsche Welle. May 15, 2021.
  634. ^ "Who is Hamas? Who supports Hamas? What you need to know". Deutsche Welle. May 15, 2021.
  635. ^ "Hamas is feeling the pain of Qatar's crisis, and is looking to Egypt for help". Los Angeles Times. June 19, 2017.
  636. ^ Black, Ian; Sherwood, Harriet (October 23, 2012). "Qatari emir's visit to Gaza is a boost for Hamas". The Guardian.
  637. ^ Levs, Josh (August 6, 2014). "Which Mideast power brokers support Hamas?". CNN.
  638. ^ "Why Israel Lets Qatar Give Millions To Hamas". NPR.
  639. ^ Hamas supports military operation for political legitimacy in Yemen Archived August 7, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. Arab News. March 30, 2015.
  640. ^ "Erdogan: Hamas is not a terrorist organization". Israel National News. May 16, 2018.
  641. ^ Dr. Hay Eytan Cohen Yanarocak; Dr. Jonathan Spyer (January 25, 2021). "Turkish Militias and Proxies". trendsresearch. Archived from the original on May 16, 2022. Retrieved April 17, 2022.
  642. ^ "US Criticizes Turkey for Hosting Hamas Leaders". VOA News. August 26, 2020.
  643. ^ "Erdogan hosts PA's Abbas, Hamas head Haniyeh to prepare for détente talks". The Times of Israel. July 26, 2023.
  644. ^ "Report: Hamas chiefs were asked to leave Turkey after October 7 attacks". The Times of Israel. October 23, 2023.
  645. ^ "Turkey's Erdogan discussed Gaza with Hamas leader - Turkish presidenc". Reuters. October 21, 2023.
  646. ^ "Turkey's Erdogan says Hamas is not terrorist organisation, cancels trip to Israel". Reuters. October 25, 2023.
  647. ^ "PO-837: Secretary O'Neill – Statement on the Blocking of Hamas Financiers' Assets". U.S. Department of the Treasury. December 4, 2001. Archived from the original on August 29, 2009. Retrieved May 27, 2010.
  648. ^ Bush Freezes Financial Assets of Three Groups Linked to Hamas", White House News Conference, December 4, 2001. Transcript release by the U.S. Department of Justice.
  649. ^ "Funding evil: how terrorism is financed – and how to stop it" Ehrenfeld, Rachel. p. 100
  650. ^ Kovach, Gretel C. (November 24, 2008). "Five Convicted in Terrorism Financing Trial". New York Times. Retrieved December 29, 2008.
  651. ^ "Former Treasury Official: Same Network That Funded Hamas in U.S. Backs Boycotts of Israel". The Tower. April 20, 2016.
  652. ^ Bombardieri, Marcella (January 29, 2004). "$116m awarded in terrorism suit". The Boston Globe. Retrieved September 1, 2011.
  653. ^ "APNewsBreak: Palestinian Authority Settles RI Suit". CBS News. February 14, 2011. Retrieved October 29, 2020.[permanent dead link]
  654. ^ Rich, Eric; Markon, Jerry (August 25, 2004). "Va. Man Tied to Hamas Held as Witness". washingtonpost.com. Retrieved September 18, 2014.
  655. ^ "Jordan to Let Terror Suspect Held in U.S. Into Kingdom". The New York Times. May 1, 1997. Retrieved November 3, 2020.
  656. ^ Eggen, Dan (February 2, 2007). "Two Men Acquitted of Conspiracy To Fund Hamas Activities in Israel". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 27, 2010.
  657. ^ "FBI Cuts Ties With CAIR Following Terror Financing Trial". Fox News. January 30, 2009. Retrieved May 27, 2010.
  658. ^ Yager, Jordy (October 14, 2009). "House Republicans accuse Muslim group of trying to plant spies". The Hill. Archived from the original on December 7, 2018. Retrieved May 27, 2010.
  659. ^ "Court removes 'co-conspirator' tag from Muslim groups". Jewish Journal. October 22, 2010. Archived from the original on October 24, 2010. Retrieved March 19, 2011.
  660. ^ Gerstein, Josh. (October 20, 2010). Judge: Feds violated U.S. Islamic group's rights. Politico. Retrieved on March 19, 2011.
  661. ^ "Germany bans Hamas-linked donor group". Expatica.com. Archived from the original on August 5, 2011. Retrieved August 24, 2010.
  662. ^ a b "Germany bans group accused of Hamas links". Ynetnews. July 12, 2010. Retrieved August 2, 2011.
  663. ^ a b DPA (December 7, 2010). "Germany outlaws IHH over claimed Hamas links". Haaretz. Retrieved August 2, 2011.
  664. ^ Germany IHH e.V. ban shameful, illegal, says group leader Archived October 9, 2014, at the Wayback Machine Today's Zaman, July 14, 2010

Sources

Books