Hamburg, New Jersey

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Hamburg, New Jersey
Borough
Borough of Hamburg
A church in Hamburg, New Jersey
A church in Hamburg, New Jersey
Map of Hamburg in Sussex County. Inset: Location of Sussex County in New Jersey.
Map of Hamburg in Sussex County. Inset: Location of Sussex County in New Jersey.
Census Bureau map of Hamburg, New Jersey.
Census Bureau map of Hamburg, New Jersey.
Coordinates: 41°08′54″N 74°34′24″W / 41.148442°N 74.573466°W / 41.148442; -74.573466Coordinates: 41°08′54″N 74°34′24″W / 41.148442°N 74.573466°W / 41.148442; -74.573466[1][2]
Country  United States
State  New Jersey
County Sussex
Incorporated April 24, 1920
Named for Hamburg, Germany
Government[6]
 • Type Borough
 • Body Borough Council
 • Mayor Paul Marino (R, term ends December 31, 2018)[3][4]
 • Clerk Dorren Schott[5]
Area[1]
 • Total 1.165 sq mi (3.016 km2)
 • Land 1.142 sq mi (2.957 km2)
 • Water 0.023 sq mi (0.059 km2)  1.96%
Area rank 489th of 566 in state
22nd of 24 in county[1]
Elevation[7] 538 ft (164 m)
Population (2010 Census)[8][9][10]
 • Total 3,277
 • Estimate (2015)[11] 3,155
 • Rank 441st of 566 in state
17th of 24 in county[12]
 • Density 2,870.4/sq mi (1,108.3/km2)
 • Density rank 222nd of 566 in state
2nd of 24 in county[12]
Time zone Eastern (EST) (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) Eastern (EDT) (UTC-4)
ZIP code 07419[13][14]
Area code(s) 973[15]
FIPS code 3403729220[1][16][17]
GNIS feature ID 885241[1][18]
Website www.hamburgnj.org

Hamburg is a borough in Sussex County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the borough's population was 3,277,[8][9][10] reflecting an increase of 172 (+5.5%) from the 3,105 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 539 (+21.0%) from the 2,566 counted in the 1990 Census.[19]

In 1753, when Sussex County was formed, the area of present-day Hamburg was part of New Town; on February 25, 1762, it became part of the newly established Hardyston Township. On April 8, 1793, when Vernon Township was formed from Hardyston, Hamburg was included within the boundaries of Vernon. In 1852, the boundary line was changed so that Hamburg was again in Hardyston Township. Hamburg was incorporated as a borough on March 19, 1920, from portions of Hardyston Township, based on the results of a referendum held on April 24, 1920.[20] The borough was named for Hamburg, Germany.[21]

Geography[edit]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough had a total area of 1.165 square miles (3.016 km2), including 1.142 square miles (2.957 km2) of land and 0.023 square miles (0.059 km2) of water (1.96%).[1][2]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1880 412
1890 519 26.0%
1930 1,160
1940 1,116 −3.8%
1950 1,305 16.9%
1960 1,532 17.4%
1970 1,820 18.8%
1980 1,832 0.7%
1990 2,566 40.1%
2000 3,105 21.0%
2010 3,277 5.5%
Est. 2015 3,155 [11][22] −3.7%
Population sources:
1880-1890[23] 1930[24]
1930-1990[25] 2000[26][27] 2010[8][9][10]

Census 2010[edit]

The 2010 United States Census counted 3,277 people, 1,364 households, and 883.9 families residing in the borough. The population density was 2,870.4 per square mile (1,108.3/km2). The borough contained 1,476 housing units at an average density of 1,292.9 per square mile (499.2/km2). The racial makeup of the borough was 91.27% (2,991) White, 2.01% (66) Black or African American, 0.24% (8) Native American, 2.04% (67) Asian, 0.00% (0) Pacific Islander, 1.80% (59) from other races, and 2.62% (86) from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 6.87% (225) of the population.[8]

Out of a total of 1,364 households, 30.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.5% were married couples living together, 10.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 35.2% were non-families. 29.4% of all households were made up of individuals, and 8.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.98.[8]

In the borough, 22.5% of the population were under the age of 18, 7.1% from 18 to 24, 30.2% from 25 to 44, 28.5% from 45 to 64, and 11.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38.9 years. For every 100 females the census counted 94.3 males, but for 100 females at least 18 years old, it was 88.4 males.[8]

The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that (in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars) median household income was $64,016 (with a margin of error of +/- $6,681) and the median family income was $74,421 (+/- $13,156). Males had a median income of $66,083 (+/- $11,467) versus $40,735 (+/- $7,620) for females. The per capita income for the borough was $30,528 (+/- $3,671). About 7.0% of families and 7.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.6% of those under age 18 and 12.8% of those age 65 or over.[28]

Census 2000[edit]

As of the 2000 United States Census[16] there were 3,105 people, 1,173 households, and 844 families residing in the borough. The population density was 2,686.6 people per square mile (1,033.5/km2). There were 1,233 housing units at an average density of 1,066.9 per square mile (410.4/km2). The racial makeup of the borough was 93.14% White, 0.74% African American, 0.29% Native American, 2.29% Asian, 1.67% from other races, and 1.87% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.22% of the population.[26][27]

There were 1,173 households out of which 37.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.7% were married couples living together, 10.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 28.0% were non-families. 23.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.65 and the average family size was 3.14.[26][27]

In the borough the population was spread out with 26.8% under the age of 18, 7.1% from 18 to 24, 35.2% from 25 to 44, 22.8% from 45 to 64, and 8.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 92.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.9 males.[26][27]

The median income for a household in the borough was $58,246, and the median income for a family was $64,773. Males had a median income of $45,729 versus $28,482 for females. The per capita income for the borough was $24,651. About 3.1% of families and 4.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.9% of those under age 18 and 6.4% of those age 65 or over.[26][27]

Government[edit]

Local government[edit]

Hamburg is governed under the Borough form of New Jersey municipal government. The governing body consists of a Mayor and a Borough Council comprising six council members, with all positions elected at-large on a partisan basis as part of the November general election. A Mayor is elected directly by the voters to a four-year term of office. The Borough Council consists of six members elected to serve three-year terms on a staggered basis, with two seats coming up for election each year in a three-year cycle.[6] The Borough form of government used by Hamburg, the most common system used in the state, is a "weak mayor / strong council" government in which council members act as the legislative body with the mayor presiding at meetings and voting only in the event of a tie. The mayor can veto ordinances subject to an override by a two-thirds majority vote of the council. The mayor makes committee and liaison assignments for council members, and most appointments are made by the mayor with the advice and consent of the council.[29][30]

As of 2016, the Mayor of Hamburg Borough is Republican Paul Marino, whose term of office ends December 31, 2018. Borough Council Members are Daniel P. Barr (R, 2017), John Burd (R, 2016), Ronald Garrett (R, 2018), Rich Krasnomowitz (R, 2017), Russell Law (R, 2016; elected to serve an unexpired term) and Mark Sena (R, 2018).[3][31][32][33][34]

In April 2014, the Borough Council selected former councilmember Russell Law from a list of three candidates nominated by the Republican municipal committee to fill the vacant seat expiring in December 2016 of Chris Kelly, who had resigned from office after announcing that he would be moving out of the borough.[35] Law served on an interim basis until the November 2014 general election, when he was elected to serve the one year remaining on the term of office.[33]

Federal, state and county representation[edit]

Hamburg is located in the 5th Congressional District[36] and is part of New Jersey's 24th state legislative district.[9][37][38]

New Jersey's Fifth Congressional District is represented by Josh Gottheimer (D, Wyckoff).[39] New Jersey is represented in the United States Senate by Cory Booker (D, Newark, term ends 2021)[40] and Bob Menendez (D, Paramus, 2019).[41][42]

For the 2016–2017 session (Senate, General Assembly), the 24th Legislative District of the New Jersey Legislature is represented in the State Senate by Steve Oroho (R, Franklin) and in the General Assembly by Parker Space (R, Wantage Township) and Gail Phoebus (R, Andover Township).[43] The Governor of New Jersey is Chris Christie (R, Mendham Township).[44] The Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey is Kim Guadagno (R, Monmouth Beach).[45]

Sussex County is governed by a Board of Chosen Freeholders whose five members are elected at-large in partisan elections on a staggered basis, with either one or two seats coming up for election each year. At an annual reorganization meeting held in the beginning of January, the board selects a Freeholder Director and Deputy Director from among its members, with day-to-day supervision of the operation of the county delegated to a County Administrator.[46] As of 2014, Sussex County's Freeholders are Freeholder Director Richard Vohden (R, Green Township, 2016),[47] Deputy Director Dennis J. Mudrick (R, Sparta Township, 2015),[48] Phillip R. Crabb (R, Franklin, 2014),[49] George Graham (R, Stanhope, 2016)[50] and Gail Phoebus (R, Andover Township, 2015).[51][46] Graham was chosen in April 2013 to fill the seat vacated by Parker Space, who had been chosen to fill a vacancy in the New Jersey General Assembly.[52] Constitutional officers elected on a countywide basis are County Clerk Jeff Parrott (R, 2016),[53] Sheriff Michael F. Strada (R, 2016)[54] and Surrogate Gary R. Chiusano (R, filling the vacancy after the resignation of Nancy Fitzgibbons).[55][52] The County Administrator is John Eskilson.[56][57]

Politics[edit]

As of March 23, 2011, there were a total of 2,064 registered voters in Hamburg, of which 322 (15.6% vs. 16.5% countywide) were registered as Democrats, 752 (36.4% vs. 39.3%) were registered as Republicans and 988 (47.9% vs. 44.1%) were registered as Unaffiliated. There were 2 voters registered to other parties.[58] Among the borough's 2010 Census population, 63.0% (vs. 65.8% in Sussex County) were registered to vote, including 81.3% of those ages 18 and over (vs. 86.5% countywide).[58][59]

In the 2012 presidential election, Republican Mitt Romney received 733 votes (53.6% vs. 59.4% countywide), ahead of Democrat Barack Obama with 594 votes (43.5% vs. 38.2%) and other candidates with 30 votes (2.2% vs. 2.1%), among the 1,367 ballots cast by the borough's 2,104 registered voters, for a turnout of 65.0% (vs. 68.3% in Sussex County).[60] In the 2008 presidential election, Republican John McCain received 852 votes (57.1% vs. 59.2% countywide), ahead of Democrat Barack Obama with 606 votes (40.6% vs. 38.7%) and other candidates with 24 votes (1.6% vs. 1.5%), among the 1,491 ballots cast by the borough's 2,007 registered voters, for a turnout of 74.3% (vs. 76.9% in Sussex County).[61] In the 2004 presidential election, Republican George W. Bush received 893 votes (63.0% vs. 63.9% countywide), ahead of Democrat John Kerry with 490 votes (34.6% vs. 34.4%) and other candidates with 27 votes (1.9% vs. 1.3%), among the 1,417 ballots cast by the borough's 1,897 registered voters, for a turnout of 74.7% (vs. 77.7% in the whole county).[62]

In the 2013 gubernatorial election, Republican Chris Christie received 67.7% of the vote (570 cast), ahead of Democrat Barbara Buono with 29.7% (250 votes), and other candidates with 2.6% (22 votes), among the 851 ballots cast by the borough's 2,115 registered voters (9 ballots were spoiled), for a turnout of 40.2%.[63][64] In the 2009 gubernatorial election, Republican Chris Christie received 546 votes (59.2% vs. 63.3% countywide), ahead of Democrat Jon Corzine with 283 votes (30.7% vs. 25.7%), Independent Chris Daggett with 78 votes (8.5% vs. 9.1%) and other candidates with 12 votes (1.3% vs. 1.3%), among the 922 ballots cast by the borough's 1,985 registered voters, yielding a 46.4% turnout (vs. 52.3% in the county).[65]

Education[edit]

The Hamburg School District serves students in public school for kindergarten through eighth grade at Hamburg School. As of the 2012-13 school year, the district's one school had an enrollment of 275 students and 26.8 classroom teachers (on an FTE basis), for a student–teacher ratio of 10.27:1.[66]

Public school students in ninth through twelfth grades attend Wallkill Valley Regional High School which comprises Franklin Borough, Hamburg Borough, Hardyston Township and Ogdensburg Borough.[67]

Transportation[edit]

Roads and highways[edit]

As of May 2010, the borough had a total of 11.04 miles (17.77 km) of roadways, of which 7.50 miles (12.07 km) were maintained by the municipality, 1.00 mile (1.61 km) by Sussex County and 2.54 miles (4.09 km) by the New Jersey Department of Transportation.[68]

New Jersey Route 23 and New Jersey Route 94 intersect and pass through the borough.

Public transportation[edit]

Hamburg is served by the Highlands Connect bus, which provides service to Newton, Sparta, and Sussex.[69]

Wineries[edit]

Notable people[edit]

People who were born in, residents of, or otherwise closely associated with Hamburg include:

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f 2010 Census Gazetteer Files: New Jersey County Subdivisions, United States Census Bureau. Accessed May 21, 2015.
  2. ^ a b US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990, United States Census Bureau. Accessed September 4, 2014.
  3. ^ a b Mayor and Council, Hamburg Borough. Accessed August 2, 2016.
  4. ^ 2016 New Jersey Mayors Directory, New Jersey Department of Community Affairs. Accessed June 14, 2016.
  5. ^ Office of the Borough Clerk, Borough of Hamburg. Accessed August 2, 2016.
  6. ^ a b 2012 New Jersey Legislative District Data Book, Rutgers University Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, March 2013, p. 110.
  7. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Borough of Hamburg, Geographic Names Information System. Accessed March 5, 2013.
  8. ^ a b c d e f DP-1 - Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 for Hamburg borough, Sussex County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed February 20, 2013.
  9. ^ a b c d Municipalities Grouped by 2011-2020 Legislative Districts, New Jersey Department of State, p. 11. Accessed January 6, 2013.
  10. ^ a b c Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2010 for Hamburg borough, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development. Accessed February 20, 2013.
  11. ^ a b PEPANNRES - Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015 - 2015 Population Estimates for New Jersey municipalities, United States Census Bureau. Accessed May 22, 2016.
  12. ^ a b GCT-PH1 Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - State -- County Subdivision from the 2010 Census Summary File 1 for New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed February 20, 2013.
  13. ^ Look Up a ZIP Code for Hamburg, NJ, United States Postal Service. Accessed February 20, 2013.
  14. ^ Zip Codes, State of New Jersey. Accessed August 28, 2013.
  15. ^ Area Code Lookup - NPA NXX for Hamburg, NJ, Area-Codes.com. Accessed January 18, 2015.
  16. ^ a b American FactFinder, United States Census Bureau. Accessed September 4, 2014.
  17. ^ A Cure for the Common Codes: New Jersey, Missouri Census Data Center. Accessed October 28, 2012.
  18. ^ US Board on Geographic Names, United States Geological Survey. Accessed September 4, 2014.
  19. ^ Table 7. Population for the Counties and Municipalities in New Jersey: 1990, 2000 and 2010, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development, February 2011. Accessed February 20, 2013.
  20. ^ Snyder, John P. The Story of New Jersey's Civil Boundaries: 1606-1968, Bureau of Geology and Topography; Trenton, New Jersey; 1969. p. 230. Accessed October 26, 2012.
  21. ^ Hutchinson, Viola L. The Origin of New Jersey Place Names, New Jersey Public Library Commission, May 1945. Accessed August 31, 2015.
  22. ^ Census Estimates for New Jersey April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015, United States Census Bureau. Accessed December 29, 2016.
  23. ^ Report on Population of the United States at the Eleventh Census: 1890. Part I, p. 239. United States Census Bureau, 1895. Accessed October 20, 2016.
  24. ^ Fifteenth Census of the United States : 1930 - Population Volume I, United States Census Bureau, p. 719. Accessed February 18, 2013.
  25. ^ Table 6. New Jersey Resident Population by Municipality: 1930 - 1990, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development. Accessed June 28, 2015.
  26. ^ a b c d e Census 2000 Profiles of Demographic / Social / Economic / Housing Characteristics for Hamburg borough, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed February 20, 2013.
  27. ^ a b c d e DP-1: Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2000 - Census 2000 Summary File 1 (SF 1) 100-Percent Data for Hamburg borough, Sussex County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed February 20, 2013.
  28. ^ DP03: Selected Economic Characteristics from the 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates for Hamburg borough, Sussex County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed January 1, 2013.
  29. ^ Cerra, Michael F. "Forms of Government: Everything You've Always Wanted to Know, But Were Afraid to Ask", New Jersey State League of Municipalities. Accessed November 30, 2014.
  30. ^ "Forms of Municipal Government in New Jersey", p. 6. Rutgers University Center for Government Studies. Accessed June 3, 2015.
  31. ^ 2016 Municipal User Friendly Budget, Hamburg Borough. Accessed August 2, 2016.
  32. ^ Sussex County General Election November 3, 2015 Summary Report Official Results, Sussex County, New Jersey Clerk, updated November 6, 2015. Accessed August 1, 2016.
  33. ^ a b Sussex County General Election November 4, 2014 Summary Report Official Results, Sussex County, New Jersey Clerk, updated November 10, 2014. Accessed August 1, 2016.
  34. ^ Sussex County General and School Election November 5, 2013 Summary Report Official Results, Sussex County, New Jersey Clerk, updated November 7, 2013. Accessed August 1, 2016.
  35. ^ Staff. "Hamburg names new councilman", The Advertiser News, April 8, 2014. Accessed January 18, 2015. "Russell Law is sworn into his council seat to fill Chris Kelly's seat until someone is elected in November to finish the term ending Dec. 31, 2016."
  36. ^ Plan Components Report, New Jersey Redistricting Commission, December 23, 2011. Accessed January 6, 2013.
  37. ^ 2016 New Jersey Citizen's Guide to Government, p. 58, New Jersey League of Women Voters. Accessed July 20, 2016.
  38. ^ Districts by Number for 2011-2020, New Jersey Legislature. Accessed January 6, 2013.
  39. ^ Directory of Representatives: New Jersey, United States House of Representatives. Accessed January 5, 2012.
  40. ^ About Cory Booker, United States Senate. Accessed January 26, 2015. "He now owns a home and lives in Newark's Central Ward community."
  41. ^ Biography of Bob Menendez, United States Senate, January 26, 2015. "He currently lives in Paramus and has two children, Alicia and Robert."
  42. ^ Senators of the 114th Congress from New Jersey. United States Senate. Accessed January 26, 2015. "Booker, Cory A. - (D - NJ) Class II; Menendez, Robert - (D - NJ) Class I"
  43. ^ Legislative Roster 2016-2017 Session, New Jersey Legislature. Accessed January 17, 2016.
  44. ^ "About the Governor". State of New Jersey. Retrieved 2010-01-21. 
  45. ^ "About the Lieutenant Governor". State of New Jersey. Retrieved 2010-01-21. 
  46. ^ a b Sussex County Board of Chosen Freeholders, Sussex County, New Jersey. Accessed July 28, 2014.
  47. ^ Richard A. Vohden, Sussex County, New Jersey. Accessed July 28, 2014.
  48. ^ Dennis J. Mudrick, Sussex County, New Jersey. Accessed July 28, 2014.
  49. ^ Phillip R. Crabb, Sussex County, New Jersey. Accessed July 28, 2014.
  50. ^ George Graham, Sussex County, New Jersey. Accessed July 28, 2014.
  51. ^ Gail Phoebus, Sussex County, New Jersey. Accessed July 28, 2014.
  52. ^ a b Miller, Jennifer Jean. "George Graham Chosen as Freeholder at Sussex County Republican Convention", TheAlternativePress.com, April 13, 2013. Accessed April 25, 2013. "Graham will fill the freeholder seat that New Jersey Assemblyman Parker Space left to take his new position. Space recently took the seat, which formerly belonged to Gary Chiusano, who in turn, was appointed to the spot of Sussex County Surrogate, following the retirement of Surrogate Nancy Fitzgibbons."
  53. ^ Home Page, Sussex County Clerk's Office. Accessed July 28, 2014.
  54. ^ Sheriff's Office, Sussex County, New Jersey. Accessed July 28, 2014.
  55. ^ Home Page, Sussex County Surrogate. Accessed July 28, 2014.
  56. ^ County Administrator, Sussex County, New Jersey. Accessed July 28, 2014.
  57. ^ Sussex County Official Directory 2014, Sussex County, New Jersey. Accessed July 28, 2014.
  58. ^ a b Voter Registration Summary - Sussex, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, March 23, 2011. Accessed February 20, 2013.
  59. ^ GCT-P7: Selected Age Groups: 2010 - State -- County Subdivision; 2010 Census Summary File 1 for New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed February 20, 2013.
  60. ^ General Election November 6, 2012: District Report - Group Detail, Sussex County, New Jersey Clerk, run date November 30, 2012. Accessed February 20, 2013.
  61. ^ 2008 Presidential General Election Results: Sussex County, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, December 23, 2008. Accessed February 20, 2013.
  62. ^ 2004 Presidential Election: Sussex County, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, December 13, 2004. Accessed February 20, 2013.
  63. ^ "Governor - Sussex County" (PDF). New Jersey Department of Elections. January 29, 2014. Retrieved December 24, 2014. 
  64. ^ "Number of Registered Voters and Ballots Cast - November 5, 2013 - General Election Results - Sussex County" (PDF). New Jersey Department of Elections. January 29, 2014. Retrieved December 24, 2014. 
  65. ^ 2009 Governor: Sussex County, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, December 31, 2009. Accessed February 20, 2013.
  66. ^ District information for Hamburg School District, National Center for Education Statistics. Accessed March 18, 2015.
  67. ^ Regular Meeting minutes, Wallkill Valley Regional High School Board of Education, October 26, 2010. Accessed March 16, 2011. "Clerks of the four municipalities of Franklin, Hamburg, Hardyston and Ogdensburg and also was posted on the bulletin board maintained by the Board of Education at the high school."
  68. ^ Sussex County Mileage by Municipality and Jurisdiction, New Jersey Department of Transportation, May 2010. Accessed July 18, 2014.
  69. ^ Skylands Connect, Sussex County, effective March 5, 2012. Accessed December 2, 2014.
  70. ^ Joseph E. Edsalll, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Accessed September 1, 2007.
  71. ^ Robert Hamilton, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Accessed September 3, 2007.
  72. ^ Bialas, Michael. "Taking the High Road, Heather Maloney Keeps Making All the Right Turns", The Huffington Post, October 7, 2015. Accessed April 16, 2016. "'It ends up sounding so cliche when you talk about it,' said the only daughter among three children who were raised in the northern New Jersey town of Hamburg and watched their parents go through a divorce."
  73. ^ Andrew Jackson Rogers, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Accessed September 2, 2007.
Further reading
  • McCabe, Wayne T.; and McCabe, Margaret L. A Penny A View...An Album of Postcard Views...Hamburg, N.J. (Newton, NJ: Historic Preservation Alternatives, 2006).
  • Truran, William R. Franklin, Hamburg, Ogdensburg, and Hardyston (Images of America). (Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing, 2004).

External links[edit]