Not evaluated (IUCN 3.1)
|Natural range in United States|
Hamelia patens is a large perennial shrub or small tree in the coffee family, Rubiaceae, that is native to the American subtropics and tropics. Its range extends from Florida in the southern United States to as far south as Argentina. Common names include firebush, hummingbird bush, scarlet bush, and redhead. In Belize, this plant's Mayan name is Ix Canaan and is also known as "Guardian of the Forest".
Firebush has orangish-red tubular flowers, which recruit hummingbirds and butterflies for pollination. The corollas vary greatly in length, making them attractive to a wide range of pollinators. The fruit is a small dark red berry, turning black at maturity.
Hummingbirds are attracted by its flowers and other birds feed on the fruit, both of which will also forage on small insects found in the vicinity, helping to keep down pests. These flowers are also fed on by butterflies, such as the statira sulphur (Aphrissa statira), which are attracted to red flowering plants. The fruits have a refreshing, acidic taste and are also edible by humans; in Mexico, they are made into a fermented drink.
The plants are used in folk medicine for a range of ailments.https://floridata.com/Plants/Rubiaceae/Hamelia+patens/174
A number of active compounds have been found in firebush, including maruquine, isomaruquine, pteropodine, isopteropodine, palmirine, rumberine, seneciophylline and stigmast-4-ene-3,6-dione. The bark contains significant amounts of tannins.
- "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". Retrieved March 13, 2014.
- "Hamelia patens". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2009-12-17.
- Welch, Willam C. (2003): Horticulture Update - Firebush (Hamelia patens). Version of June 2003. Retrieved 2009-AUG-25.
- Fenster, Charles B. (1991): Selection on Floral Morphology by Hummingbirds. Biotropica 23(1): 98-101. doi:10.2307/2388696 (First page image)
- Francis, John K. (undated) http://www.fs.fed.us/global/iitf/pdf/shrubs/Hamelia%20patens.pdf Hamelia patens.pdf. Retrieved 2009-AUG-25.
- Duke, Jim (2007): Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases - Hamelia patens. Retrieved 2007-09-19.
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Data related to Hamelia patens at Wikispecies