Hamilton, Victoria: Difference between revisions

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{{Infobox Australian Place | type = city
| name = Hamilton
| state = vic
| image = Hamilton location map in Victoria.PNG
| caption = Home of Billy and Charlie
| area = 22.8
| lga = [[Shire of Southern Grampians]]
| postcode =
| pop = 10,614 (2006)<ref name="abs">{{Census 2006 AUS | id = SSC25723 | name = Hamilton (State Suburb) | accessdate = 2007-10-01 | quick = on}}</ref>
| density = 400.4
| est =
| elevation=
| maxtemp =
| mintemp =
| rainfall =
| stategov = [[Electoral district of Lowan|Lowan]]
| fedgov = [[Division of Wannon|Wannon]]
| dist1 =
| location1=
'''Hamilton''' is a city in western [[Victoria, Australia|Victoria]], [[Australia]]. It is located at the intersection of the [[Glenelg Highway]] (from [[Ballarat, Victoria|Ballarat]] to [[Mount Gambier, South Australia|Mount Gambier]]) and the [[Henty Highway]] (from [[Portland, Victoria|Portland]] to [[Horsham, Victoria|Horsham]]). The [[Hamilton Highway]] connects it to [[Geelong, Victoria|Geelong]].
Hamilton is in the [[Australian House of Representatives|federal]] [[Division of Wannon]], and is in the [[Shire of Southern Grampians|Southern Grampians]] [[Local Government Areas of Victoria|local government area]].
Hamilton claims to be the "Wool Capital of the World", based on its strong historical links to sheep grazing which continue today.
===Early history===
Hamilton was built near the border of three traditional [[Indigenous Australians|indigenous]] tribal territories: the [[Gunditjmara]] land that stretches south to the coast, the [[Tjapwurong]] land to the north east and the [[Bunganditj]] territory to the west. People who lived in these areas tended to be settled rather than nomadic. The region was (and is) fertile and well-watered, leading to an abundance of wildlife, and no need to travel far for food. Physical remains such as the weirs and fish traps found in Lake Condah to the south of Hamilton , as well as accounts of early white settlers support local indigenous oral histories of well established settlements in the area.
===White settlement and conflict===
On [[12 September]] [[1836]], the explorer, [[Major Thomas Mitchell]] was the first European to travel through the area where Hamilton later developed. His reports of the fertility and abundance of ‘[[Australia Felix]]’ (as he called this region of Western Victoria) encouraged [[pastoralist]]s to move to the area and establish large sheep runs. By 1839 there were a number of settlers in the area including the Wedge family whose property ‘The Grange' was located within the present town site.
Conflict between the pastoralists and the indigenous population soon arose. The local people resisted encroachment on their traditional tribal lands. They stole and killed sheep for food and out of retaliation for the settlers' use of their hunting territory as grazing-land. It seems apparent that a number of Aborigines in the Western district were murdered in this period in the resulting conflicts.
When [[Charles La Trobe|Governor La Trobe]] visited The Grange in 1841 he noted the extent of interracial violence and appointed [[Acheson French]] as police magistrate to the area. A constable and a detachment of mounted police, to be based at The Grange, were also appointed and convicts from Portland erected a hut for the magistrate and barracks for the troopers on the site of the present courthouse and police station on Martin and Thompson Streets.
Another result of the conflict was the establishment of an [[Aboriginal reserve]], intended for the protection of the indigenous people. This further angered the pastoralists who regarded the reserve and its administration as hostile to their interests. Violence and brutality appear to have continued unchecked until Governor La Trobe ordered the Portland Commissioner, all his border police and a contingent of ‘[[native police]]’ to the Grange in September 1842. This, along with the effects of dislocation, European diseases, and killings marked the end of most of the indigenous resistance in the area.
===Birth of the town===
[[Image:Hamilton1927.jpg|right|thumb|Hamilton in 1927]]
The proximity of The Grange to other properties and to important tracks between Portland and New South Wales led to the gradual emergence of a small town. This included an inn, blacksmith, a small store and some shanties and businesses nearby. The site was a small social centre for surrounding pastoral properties, with horse races being held along the Grange Burn flat.
A Post Office opened on [[July 1]], [[1844]] (Hamilton from [[January 1]], [[1854]]).<ref name = "a">{{Citation
| last = Premier Postal History | title = Post Office List | url = https://www.premierpostal.com/cgi-bin/wsProd.sh/Viewpocdwrapper.p?SortBy=VIC&country= | access-date = 2008-04-11 }}</ref>
The desire for a school prompted a town survey that commenced in 1849. The township of Hamilton was formally declared in 1851. The town was most likely named after [[Hamilton, Scotland|Hamilton]] near [[Glasgow]] in [[Scotland]] due to the large proportion of Scottish settlers.
==Industry and Employment==
Sheep grazing and agriculture are the primary industries in the surrounding shire, the area producing as much as 15% of Australia’s total wool clip <ref>[http://www.dvc.vic.gov.au/web20/dvclgv.nsf/AllDocs/E2778992BC7B75ACCA25716100824923 Shire of Southern Grampians Council- Department of Planning and Community Development<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>. Inside the city of Hamilton the majority of employment is provided by the retail industry (20%) and the Health and Community Services sector (14.5%). The unemployment rate at the 2001 Census was put at 6.1%, with a workforce participation rate of 58.9% <ref>[http://www.doi.vic.gov.au/DOI/knowyour.nsf/webPageSummaries/NEWTON-Hamilton-All#TESTINGSUMMARY Know your area - Southern Grampians (S)<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>.
Hamilton and the surrounding areas is serviced by [http://www.spec.com.au The Hamilton Spectator], a tri-weekly local newspaper published by the Spectator Observer newspaper group. Established in 1859 as the Hamilton Courier, it became the Hamilton Spectator and Grange District Advertiser in 1860, and later The Hamilton Spectator.
There are two radio stations that services Hamilton and the surrounding areas:
* [http://theradio.com.au/localworks.aspx?PageID=6223&Station=3HA_Hamilton 3HA]
* [http://theradio.com.au/hitmusic.aspx?PageID=6710&Station=Mixx_FM_Hamilton Mixx FM]
Both are owned by the [[Ace Radio]] network which operates radio stations in the Western District of Victoria.
==Attractions and events==
From [[1881]] [[William Guilfoyle]], the director of the [[Royal Botanic Gardens, Melbourne]] was employed to design the '''Hamilton Botanic Gardens'''. Set in four acres (16,000 m²), the gardens are distinguished by rare botanic species, a superbly restored rotunda, a small zoo featuring rabbits, cockatiels and budgies and playground and the ornate Thomson Fountain. The [[National Trust of Australia]] classified the gardens in [[1990]] with eight tree species listed on the Register of Significant Trees in Victoria.
'''Sheepvention''', a wool-related trade-show and exhibition is held in the Hamilton Show-grounds in the first Monday & Tuesday of August each year, and attracts up to 20,000 visitors. It has a similar feel to an [[Agricultural show]] but is focused on wool and sheep. The Hamilton Agricultural Show is normally held in November.
'''The Big Wool Bales''' is an attraction consisting of five linked structures designed to resemble five gigantic woolbales - a tribute to the importance of the local wool industry. Together they form a building containing wool-related displays such as historical memorabilia, including farming and shearing equipment, wool scales, old horse harnesses, wool presses and weaving looms, along with wool samples and rural clothing.
'''The Keeping Place''' is a small museum and living history centre run by local indigenous people.
'''The Sir Reginald Ansett Transport Museum''' celebrates the founding of [[Ansett Australia]] in Hamilton in [[1935]] and displays items from the early days of the Ansett Airlines' operation.
There are many sporting clubs and leagues in the Hamilton area. The town is served by its two [[Australian rules football]] teams; Hamilton Magpies and Hamilton Imperials. Both teams compete in the [[Western Border Football League]]. [[Netball]], [[field hockey]], [[basketball]] and [[cricket]] are other popular sports in the town. Hamilton opened a large Indoor Sports and Aquatic Centre in March 2006, which contains four basketball courts, a twenty-metre indoor [[swimming pool]], and a large [[gym]]. Hamilton also has an extensive rowing program, with two clubs; Hamilton Rowing Club (HRC) and The Hamilton and Alexandra College Rowing Club (HACRC).
== Wildlife and Parks ==
The [[Eastern Barred Bandicoot]] is native to the area, and a reserve has been built to protect the [[endangered species]]. In more recent times (2007), the numbers both within the reserve and without have been severely diminished to the point of near extinction as a result of extended drought. Within the city the public lands adjoining the river and Lake Hamilton have been subject to spasmodic tree-planting projects. To this date, these spaces await a serious undertaking to add to the city's natural aesthetic and create a more attractive recreation space.
[[Mount Napier]] the highest point on the Western District Plains is found 15&nbsp;km south of Hamilton.
==Prominent Hamiltonians==
*[[Edward Kenna]] awarded the [[Victoria Cross]] was born in Hamilton in 1919.
*Former Prime Minister [[Malcolm Fraser]] was the member for Wannon, and lived at ‘Nareen’ a [[Station (Australian agriculture)|station]] near Hamilton.
*[[Sir Reginald Ansett]], founder of [[Ansett Airways]], started his first air service there in 1936.
*[[David Hawker]] former speaker (Speaker until November 2007) for the Australian Parliament is the member for [[Division of Wannon|Wannon]]
*[[Sophie McDonald]] one of Hamilton's first settlers; the largest sheep holding in Hamilton with est. 20,000 sheep. Studies at a prominent Melbourne university.
==See also==
*[[Hamilton Airport (Australia)|Hamilton Airport]]
===Other references===
*Ian Clark, Scars in the Landscape: A Register of Massacre Sites in Western Victoria, 1803-1859 (Canberra: AIATSIS, 1995).
==External links==
*[http://www.sthgrampians.vic.gov.au/ Southern Grampians Shire Council (inc Hamilton)]
*[http://www.dvc.vic.gov.au/web20/dvclgv.nsf/AllDocs/E2778992BC7B75ACCA25716100824923 The Department for Victorian Communities - Southern Grampians]
*[http://www.doi.vic.gov.au/DOI/knowyour.nsf/webPageSummaries/NEWTON-Hamilton-All#TESTINGSUMMARY The Department of Sustainability and the Environment - Hamilton Statistics]
*[http://www.peoplesvoice.gov.au/stories/vic/hamilton/hamilton_c.htm The People's Voice: Australian Community History Online - Hamilton]
*[http://www.sheepvention.com/ Sheepvention]
*[http://www.ansett.com.au/museum/museum_f.htm The Sir Reginald Ansett Transport Museum]
{{Towns in Southern Grampians Shire}}
{{Cities of Victoria}}
[[Category:Towns in Victoria (Australia)]]
[[cy:Hamilton (Victoria)]]
[[fr:Hamilton (Victoria)]]

Revision as of 07:03, 16 October 2008