Hamilton Mourão

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Hamilton Mourão
Hamilton Mourão, vice-presidente do Brasil (cropped).jpg
Mourão in September 2020
Vice President of Brazil
Assumed office
1 January 2019
PresidentJair Bolsonaro
Preceded byMichel Temer
President of the Military Club
In office
26 June 2018 – 10 September 2018
Preceded byGilberto Pimentel
Succeeded byEduardo José Barbosa
Personal details
Born
Antônio Hamilton Martins Mourão

(1953-08-15) 15 August 1953 (age 69)
Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
Political partyRepublicans (2022–present)
Other political
affiliations
PRTB (2018–22)
Spouse(s)
Elisabeth Rossell
(m. 1976; died 2016)

(m. 2018)
Children2
ResidencePalácio do Jaburu
EducationAgulhas Negras Military Academy
Signature
Military service
AllegianceBrazil Brazil
Branch/service Brazilian Army
Years of service1971–2018
RankGeneral do Exército.gif General
Commands27th Field Artillery Group
2nd Jungle Infantry Brigade
6th Army Division
South Military Command
Secretariat of Economy and Finances

Antônio Hamilton Martins Mourão (Portuguese pronunciation: [ɐ̃ˈtõniu ɐˈmiwtõw̃ maʁˈtʃĩs mowˈɾɐ̃w̃]; born 15 August 1953) is a Brazilian military officer and politician serving as the 25th vice president of Brazil. He has served as vice president under Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro since 1 January 2019. Mourão is the first person of Indigenous background to serve as vice president.

Mourão served in the Brazilian Army for almost five decades, from 19712018, retiring as a General, the highest rank a Brazilian soldier can reach during peace time.[1] During his tenure in the military, he became nationally-known after a 2015 incident in which he criticized then-President Dilma Rousseff and called for "the awakening of a patriotic struggle".[2]

In the 2018 election, Mourão intended to run for President in his own right as a member of the far-right Brazilian Labour Renewal Party.[3] However, he dropped out of the race in order to join Bolsonaro's successful campaign as his running mate. The two were elected in the second round of the election, and Mourão took office as Vice President on 1 January 2019.

Mourão is a controversial[4][5] figure owing to his views on the 1964–1985 military dictatorship, which he has praised.[6][7][8][9] Nonetheless, during the Bolsonaro presidency, he has sometimes been seen as a moderate voice in the administration.[10][11] His public disputes with Bolsonaro have led to calls for impeachment from Bolsonaro-supporting members of Congress[12] as well as speculation he may not be chosen as Bolsonaro's running-mate in 2022.[13][14] Bolsonaro ultimately picked Walter Souza Braga Netto as his 2022 running mate.[15]

Early life[edit]

Mourão was born in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, the son of General Antônio Hamilton Mourão and Wanda Coronel Martins. He retired on 28 February 2018.[16] He is of Indigenous Brazilian descent, and declares himself Indigenous Brazilian.[17] Hamilton is a practicing Roman Catholic and a Freemason, although the Catholic Church prohibits Catholics from being freemasons.[18][19]

Military career[edit]

Military career[edit]

General Mourão in 2016

Mourão joined the Brazilian Army in February 1972, in the Academia Militar das Agulhas Negras (AMAN), in Resende, Rio de Janeiro, where he became on officer on December 12, 1975. As lieutenant, he was instructor at Military Academy and as Captain, he worked with Jair Bolsonaro in the 8th Paratrooper Field Artillery Group, placed in Rio de Janeiro.

He later had classes at the Escola de Comando e Estado-Maior do Exército (ECEME) where he graduated as Staff Officer and attended classes of Politics, Strategy and Army High Administration. He also trained in Basic Parachuting, Jump Master and Free Jump.

During his military career he was an instructor at AMAN, was part of a peace mission in Angola and was the Military Attache for Brazil's Embassy to Venezuela. He commanded the 27th Field Artillery Group in Ijuí, Rio Grande do Sul; the 2nd Jungle Infantry Brigade in São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Amazonas; the 6th Army Division and Military Command of the South in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul. Leaving the active service in 2018, Mourão considered running for president of the Military Club.[20]

Political career[edit]

Entrance into politics in 2015[edit]

Mourão with Chinese President Xi Jinping, Beijing, 24 May 2019

Mourão gained fame in 2015 during the political crisis in the second term of president Dilma Rousseff, when he was transferred from the Military Command of the South (CMS) to the Secretary of Economy and Finance, in the Federal District, due to statements made in a speech about the current state of politics.

In a public announcement of the Masonic Lodge Grande Oriente in September 2017, in the Federal District, Mourão stated that, "among the duties of the Brazilian Army, there was the guarantee of the operation of the institutions and of the law and order", and that, if the judiciary "couldn't be able to heal the existing politics in the country, this would be imposed by the army through a military intervention", which, in his vision, "is provided by the Federal Constitution of 1988".[21]

However, in May 2018, following the truck drivers' strike, Mourão spoke against calls for military intervention in the government, stating that "if the government lacks conditions to govern, leave, resign. Call elections earlier, do whatever, but end its immobilism", and that "the country cannot descend to chaos". He also called the Unified Federation of Oil Workers' strike, "shameful", and said "there are people taking advantage [of the situation] on both sides".[22]

2018 vice presidential candidacy[edit]

On 8 May 2018, Mourão announced his membership in the Brazilian Labor Renewal Party (PRTB) and his intention to run for President of Brazil, along with Levy Fidelix.[23] However, in August 2018, Mourão became vice presidential running mate of far-right Presidential candidate Jair Bolsonaro.[24]

On 28 October 2018, Jair Bolsonaro won 55.2% of the vote against 44.8% for Fernando Haddad of the left-wing Workers' Party in the Brazilian presidential election.[25]

Vice President of Brazil since 2019[edit]

On 1 January 2019, Mourão was sworn in as the Vice President of Brazil.[26] He has been seen as a more moderate figure in the President Jair Bolsonaro’s government, causing rivalry with Bolsonaro.[27]

In February 2022, Mourão was disauthorized by Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro for saying that Brazil opposed the Russian invasion of Ukraine. Bolsonaro stated that The President is the one who makes statements about that subject.[28]

In March 2022, Mourão changed his political affiliation to Republicanos, declaring his intention to run for the Senate in the 2022 Brazilian general election, representing the state of Rio Grande do Sul. He also declared his support for the reelection of Jair Bolsonaro.[29]

Personal life[edit]

Mourão became a widower in December 2016. He married Paula Mourão in October 2018. Paula is a first lieutenant of the Brazilian Army, where the couple met. They made their relationship public in 2017. The Mourãos own residences in Brasília and Rio de Janeiro.[30]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Comando Militar do Sul terá novo comandante" [Southern Military Command will have new commander] (in Portuguese). DefesaNet. 25 April 2014. Retrieved 18 September 2018.
  2. ^ "Comandante do Exército demite general que pediu "despertar de luta patriótica"". GZH (in Brazilian Portuguese). 2015-10-29. Retrieved 2021-03-01.
  3. ^ "General Mourão filia-se ao PRTB e pode ser candidato a presidente pelo partido". Folha de S.Paulo (in Brazilian Portuguese). 2018-05-08. Retrieved 2021-03-01.
  4. ^ "General Mourão: from back to frontstage as Bolsonaro's controversial spokesman | Texto em inglês com áudio". Wise Up News: textos em inglês com áudio da Gazeta do Povo. 2018-09-14. Retrieved 2021-03-01.
  5. ^ "Bolsonaro's Running Mate Threatens to Derail His Moderation Strategy". Bloomberg.com. 2018-09-19. Retrieved 2021-03-01.
  6. ^ Waldron, Travis; Rosa, Ana Beatriz (2018-09-11). "Brazil's Far-Right Vice Presidential Candidate Sees A Scenario For Military Rule". HuffPost. Retrieved 2021-03-01.
  7. ^ Alexandre Putti (2020-03-31). "Mourão exalta golpe de 64 e diz que ditadura desenvolveu o Brasil". CartaCapital (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 2021-03-01.
  8. ^ "Mourão elogia ditadura militar nos 56 anos do golpe e é criticado na web [31/03/2020]". noticias.uol.com.br (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 2021-03-01.
  9. ^ "No aniversário do golpe, Mourão exalta ditadura militar pelo Twitter - Política". Estadão (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 2021-03-01.
  10. ^ "A Conversation with His Excellency Hamilton Mourão, Vice President of the Republic of Brazil | Wilson Center". www.wilsoncenter.org. Retrieved 2021-03-01.
  11. ^ "Hamilton Mourão: Loyal deputy to Brazil's Bolsonaro or dangerous rival?". France 24. 2019-04-22. Retrieved 2021-03-01.
  12. ^ Minas, Estado de (2019-04-24). "Rodrigo Maia nega pedido de impeachment de Mourão e diz que denúncia é 'inadmissível'". Estado de Minas (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 2021-03-01.
  13. ^ "Bolsonaro quer Tarcísio de Freitas para o lugar de Mourão em 2022". br.noticias.yahoo.com (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 2021-03-01.
  14. ^ "A corrida pela vaga de vice na chapa de Bolsonaro em 2022 já começou". VEJA (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 2021-03-01.
  15. ^ "Bolsonaro afirma que pretende indicar Braga Netto como vice na chapa – Jovem Pan". Bolsonaro afirma que pretende indicar Braga Netto como vice na chapa – Jovem Pan (in Brazilian Portuguese). 2022-06-26. Retrieved 2022-06-27.
  16. ^ Coutinho, Mateus (28 February 2018). "Judiciário tem que 'expurgar' Temer, diz general Mourão" [Judiciary has to 'expurgate' Temer, says general Mourão]. O Globo (in Portuguese). Infoglobo. Retrieved 18 September 2018.
  17. ^ ""É só olhar para o meu rosto", diz vice de Bolsonaro sobre se declarar indígena" ["Just look at my face", says deputy of Bolsonaro about declaring himself indigenous]. Folha de São Paulo (in Portuguese). Retrieved 23 October 2018.
  18. ^ epoca.globo.com
  19. ^ "Hamilton Mourão é promovido, agora falta pouco para ocupar o posto mais alto da maçonaria no BRASIL". 2019-10-20.
  20. ^ "Mourão exonerado de cargos e transferido para a reserva no início de 2018" (in Portuguese). Revista Sociedade Militar. 16 October 2017. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
  21. ^ Marés, Chico (18 September 2017). "Quem é o general que falou em intervenção militar para resolver crise política do país" (in Portuguese). O Globo. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
  22. ^ General repudiates military action against government and says that the people become hostages of the protests (in Portuguese)
  23. ^ Mantovani, Kelly (8 May 2018). "General Mourão filia-se ao PRTB e pode ser candidato a presidente pelo partido" (in Portuguese). Folha de S. Paulo. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
  24. ^ "Bolsonaro anuncia general Hamilton Mourão como vice" (in Portuguese). G1. 5 August 2018. Retrieved 10 August 2018.
  25. ^ "Jair Bolsonaro: Far-right candidate wins Brazil poll". BBC News. 29 October 2018.
  26. ^ Londoño, Ernesto (2 January 2019). "Jair Bolsonaro Sworn In as Brazil's President, Cementing Rightward Shift". The New York Times.
  27. ^ "Turf war breaks between Bolsonaro's sons and Brazil's vice president". the Guardian. 28 April 2019.
  28. ^ "Brazil's Bolsonaro disauthorizes vice president who condemned Russian invasion of Ukraine". Reuters. 24 February 2022.
  29. ^ Gomes, Pedro Henrique (16 March 2022). "Vice Hamilton Mourão se filia ao Republicanos e declara 'apoio irrestrito' à reeleição de Bolsonaro". g1. Retrieved 17 March 2022.
  30. ^ General Mourão é casado com tenente 23 anos mais nova, fã de ‘50 Tons’ e ciumenta, Extra (Globo)
Party political offices
Preceded by
José Alves de Oliveira
PRTB nominee for Vice President of Brazil
2018
Most recent
Political offices
Vacant
Title last held by
Michel Temer
Vice President of Brazil
2019–present
Incumbent
Lines of succession
First Brazilian presidential line of succession
as Vice President of Brazil
Followed by
Rodrigo Pacheco
as President of the Federal Senate
Order of precedence
Preceded by Brazilian order of precedence
as Vice President of Brazil
Followed by
Brazilian cardinals