Hammerwood

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Hammerwood
St Stephen's Church, Hammerwood.jpg
St Stephen's Church, Hammerwood
Hammerwood is located in East Sussex
Hammerwood
Hammerwood
Location within East Sussex
Area8.5 km2 (3.3 sq mi) [1]
Population200 [1][2]
• Density60/sq mi (23/km2)
OS grid referenceTQ438391
• London28 miles (45 km) NNW
District
Shire county
Region
CountryEngland
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Post townEAST GRINSTEAD
Postcode districtRH19
Dialling code01342
PoliceSussex
FireEast Sussex
AmbulanceSouth East Coast
EU ParliamentSouth East England
UK Parliament
List of places
UK
England
East Sussex
51°08′02″N 0°03′14″E / 51.134°N 0.054°E / 51.134; 0.054Coordinates: 51°08′02″N 0°03′14″E / 51.134°N 0.054°E / 51.134; 0.054

Hammerwood is a hamlet in the civil parish of Forest Row in East Sussex, England. Its nearest town is East Grinstead, which lies approximately 3.5 miles (5.6 km) west from the village. The village is situated on the High Weald, on the East Sussex-West Sussex-Kent-Surrey border.

History[edit]

Early history[edit]

The village's name is derived from connections to the Wealden iron industry, and a reference to the hammer used in the furnace of the iron forge. A Romano-British iron bloomery (now listed as a site of historic interest) was located near the ponds to the south-east of where the modern village – which did not exist at the time – is located, and a blast furnace existed on another site nearby from at least the 1500s.[3][4] Areas of nearby woodland are similarly named, including Hammer Wood, Cansiron Wood and Cinder Wood. The settlement was, for several centuries, the central part of an estate known as The Bower, and is believed to have comprised part of a medieval deer park.[5][6]

Development[edit]

In 1792, a site to the south-east of the nucleus of the current settlement was selected by architect Benjamin Henry Latrobe and his commissioner, John Sperling, as the location on which they would build Hammerwood Park, a country house which was one of the first examples of Greek Revival architecture in Great Britain (it was Sperling who originally coined the name 'Hammerwood').[7] Many of the buildings which form part of Hammerwood today were constructed in the 19th century as tied cottages to support the Hammerwood estate, which at that time consisted of c. 2,500 acres; Oswald Augustus Smith provided in 1864 for a Hammerwood Cricket Club; in 1873 for a village school for 100 children; in 1875 for the Vicarage, and in 1880 for St Stephen's Church, Hammerwood – to the design of E. P. Loftus Brock – at the cost of £7,431 (the first vicar being Rev. Clement Colby Woodland of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge), as well as for a number of other buildings in Holtye and East Grinstead. On 9 July 1880, an ecclesiastical parish of Hammerwood was duly formed from portions of those of East Grinstead and Hartfield.[8] The population of Hammerwood reached a peak of 438 in 1891.[9][10][11] St Stephen's Church contains a two manual pipe organ, built by the firm of T. C. Lewis.[12]

20th century[edit]

Hammerwood Park

The Hammerwood estate entered a period of decline after the First World War, and much of the village was sold off. In c. 1930, the owner of Hammerwood Park at that time (a Lt. Col. Pollen) provided for a Hammerwood and Holtye Village Hall, next to the Vicarage. There was also a Hammerwood and Holtye Women's Institute, and a Hammerwood and Holtye Men's Club (both ceased to exist in the 1980s).[13] The Hammerwood County Primary School closed in 1959, and the ecclesiastical parish of Hammerwood was united with that of St Mary Magdalene, Cowden in June 1977.[14]

During the Second World War, on 2 March 1944 a Heinkel He 177 of the Luftwaffe's Kampfgeschwader 100 on a bombing mission to London was shot down over Hammerwood by a Mosquito Mk XIII of No. 151 Squadron RAF at 3:15 am. Six were on board the German aircraft; four survived, and wreckage was scattered widely in nearby woodland.[15] Hammerwood Park was requisitioned for use by the armed forces during that war, becoming home to 200 soldiers (including the cricketer Denis Compton, and a contingent from the Canadian Army).[16] From November 1943, No. 660 Squadron RAF operated from an unpaved airstrip (RAF Hammerwood) to the east of the village, from which the SOE flew Westland Lysanders for a time. Flying ceased by July 1944.[16] On 29 August 1944, a V-1 flying bomb which had been shot down by an aircraft came down in the village.[17] After the war, Hammerwood Park was divided into flats and the remnants of the estate were purchased by Led Zeppelin. It subsequently became derelict, before being purchased by the current owner in 1982. A programme of rolling restoration continues.[16][18][19][20]

Hammerwood today[edit]

The village now sits in the High Weald AONB, and development is thus strictly limited. The structure of the settlement, set along a lane from the A264, has remained unchanged for more than a century. Now more than 150 years old, Hammerwood Cricket Club continues to play friendly games on Sundays throughout the summer. It won the Hartfield Tournament in 1984.[21] Hammerwood Park has been open to the public since 1983; tours take place at least twice weekly in summer, and musical events are held regularly.[22] There is a Scout campsite at Hammerwood owned and operated by the Lewisham North District Scouts.[23] St Stephen's Church held its last service on 20 March 2016 (Palm Sunday), and the parish (which encompassed the villages of Hammerwood and Holtye) was dissolved later that year. That part of the former parish in Hammerwood were transferred to the parish of Forest Row and Ashurst Wood, whilst parts of the parish in Holtye were transferred to the parish of Hartfield.[24][25] In November 2016, the Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport decided to upgrade the Listing for St Stephen's Church to grade II* due to its architectural merit, preservation and connection to the historic estate.[26][27] Additionally, the 1879 decorated gothic lych gate and church walls were newly listed at grade II.[28] For a settlement of its size, Hammerwood thus has an unusual number of buildings of historic and architectural interest. The Bower House, a 15th-century timber-framed farmhouse, is listed at grade II*, its cottages at grade II, the Old School House, Brooklands, and Great Cansiron Farm at grade II, and Hammerwood Park at grade I.[29]

Geography[edit]

Transport[edit]

Much of the settlement is set along a lane running south from the A264, which links the hamlet to East Grinstead, Tunbridge Wells and beyond. Gatwick Airport is 12 miles (19 km) from the village, whilst Redhill Aerodrome and Biggin Hill Airport are both within half an hour's drive. Hammerwood Park has a registered unlicensed helicopter landing site for visiting pilots. The nearest railway stations are:

National Rail logo Cowden, 2.8 miles (4.5 km), with up to two trains per hour to London Bridge (from 45 minutes) via Oxted, and up to two trains per hour to Uckfield
National Rail logo Dormans, 2.9 miles (4.7 km), with two trains per hour to London Victoria (from 52 minutes) via Oxted, two trains per hour to East Grinstead, and peak hour Thameslink services to various London termini, and Bedford.

There is no bus service. Metrobus's 291 service stops hourly adjacent to the War Memorial in Ashurst Wood (approximately 45 minutes' walk south from Hammerwood) with services to Crawley, East Grinstead, Tunbridge Wells and surrounding villages.[30] Go Coach operates a thrice-daily 234 service from opposite the White Horse Inn in Holtye (approximately 45 minutes' walk east from Hammerwood) to Cowden, Edenbridge, Tunbridge Wells and surrounding villages as well as a daily 238 service to Cowden, Edenbridge, Chartwell and Sevenoaks.[31][32]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "East Sussex in Figures". East Sussex County Council. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
  2. ^ "St. Stephen, Hammerwood". A Church Near You. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
  3. ^ Historic England. "Far Blacklands Romano-British Iron Bloomery, 580m NNW of Great Cansiron Farm (1002231)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
  4. ^ "The 18th century parkland". hammerwood.mistral.co.uk. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
  5. ^ Small, Jonathan. "Pre-1792: origins". Hammerwood Park. Archived from the original on 22 April 2016. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
  6. ^ Bannister, Dr Nicola (September 2009). Medieval Deer Parks And Designed Landscapes in the High Weald Historic Landscape Characterisation Analysis Stages 1&2. A report to the High Weald Joint Advisory Committee. pp. 14–17. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  7. ^ Fazio, Michael W.; Snadon, Patrick A. (2005). The Domestic Architecture of Benjamin Henry Latrobe. JHU Press. pp. 86–140. ISBN 9780801881046.
  8. ^ "Parish of Hammerwood PAR364". The National Archives. Retrieved 18 January 2016.
  9. ^ Hatswell, Dorothy (September 2014). Secret East Grinstead. Stroud: Amberley Publishing. ISBN 9781445639529.
  10. ^ "Forest Row: local attractions". forestrow.gov.uk. Retrieved 9 August 2015.[permanent dead link]
  11. ^ "Hammerwood genealogy and history". Forebears. Retrieved 9 August 2015.
  12. ^ "The National Pipe Organ Register – NPOR".
  13. ^ "Trustees". Hammerwood and Holtye Hall. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
  14. ^ East Sussex Record Office
  15. ^ "Heinkel He 177". Aircrew Remembrance Society. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
  16. ^ a b c "1792 to WWII: House and Home at Hammerwood". Hammerwood Park. Archived from the original on 17 March 2016. Retrieved 9 August 2015.
  17. ^ "Nutley at War 1939-1945" (PDF). Maresfield Parish Council. Retrieved 24 May 2017.
  18. ^ "1989 news piece with before/after shots on the day President George H. W. Bush moved into the White House". YouTube. Retrieved 9 August 2015.
  19. ^ Carter, Meg (30 August 1997). "How the other half lives". The Independent. Retrieved 9 August 2015.
  20. ^ "1988 Blue Peter and the Army Air Corps help Hammerwood Park". YouTube. Retrieved 9 August 2015.
  21. ^ "Defeat spoils party as club 150 not out". East Grinstead Courier. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
  22. ^ "Hammerwood Park :: Visiting". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 9 August 2015.
  23. ^ "Hammerwood Scout Campsite".
  24. ^ "St Stephen's at Hammerwood to be dissolved?". East Grinstead Online. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
  25. ^ "Diocesan Response on the Representations" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 April 2016. Retrieved 21 March 2016.
  26. ^ "Files for Case Number: 1436030". Historic England. Retrieved 3 November 2016.
  27. ^ Historic England. "Church of St Stephen (1028406)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 3 November 2016.
  28. ^ "Files for Case Number: 1438568". Historic England. Retrieved 3 November 2016.
  29. ^ "Search Results for 'hammerwood'". Historic England. Retrieved 3 November 2016.
  30. ^ "291 - Crawley - East Grinstead - Tunbridge Wells". Bus Times. Retrieved 5 May 2017.
  31. ^ "234 - Edenbridge - Hever - Cowden - Tunbridge Wells". Bus Times. Retrieved 5 May 2017.
  32. ^ "238 - Holtye Common - Edenbridge - Chartwell - Sevenoaks". Bus Times. Retrieved 5 May 2017.