Hammudid dynasty

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For the North African dynasty which became independent of the Zirids, see Hammadid.

The Hammudid dynasty (Arabic: بنو حمود‎, translit. Banū Ḥammūd‎) was a Berberised Arab Muslim[1][2] dynasty that briefly ruled the Caliphate of Córdoba[3][4] and the taifas of Málaga and Algeciras and nominal control in Ceuta[1]

The dynasty[edit]

The dynasty is named after their ancestor, Hammud, a descendant of Idris ibn Abdallah, whose ancestors had established themselves among the Berber tribes of northern Morocco.[5] When Sulayman ibn al-Hakam carved out Andalusian land for his Berber allies, two members of the Hammudid family were given the governorship of Algeciras, Ceuta and Tangier. The Hammudids thus gained control of the traffic across the Straits of Gibraltar, suddenly becoming a powerful force. Claiming to act on behalf of the dethroned Hicham II, the Hammudi governor of Ceuta Ali ibn Hammud al-Nasir marched upon Córdoba in the year 1016, where he was crowned Caliph.

In the aftermath of the fall of Córdoba and the following civil conflicts, the Hammudids were part of the shi'at al-Barbariya (the Berber faction), while still being able to claim Chorfa descendence. Thus their Berber heritage gave them the nominal support of the Berber emirs (and that of a large North-African army), while their Chorfa heritage made a Caliphal claim acceptable to many in the Arab and Andalusian elite. In 1056, the last Hammudid Caliph was dethroned, losing Malaga to the Zirids of Granada,[6] who had previously been the Hammudids' most important supporters. The Hammudi family was then forced to settle in Ceuta, Morocco.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Molins 2010, pp. 26-27.
  2. ^ Bosworth 2004, p. 15.
  3. ^ Lane-Poole (1894), p.21
  4. ^ Altamira, Rafael (1999). "Il califfato occidentale". Storia del mondo medievale. vol. II. pp. 477–515. 
  5. ^ Hammudids, A. Huici Miranda, The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. III, ed. B. Lewis, V.L. Menage, C. Pellat and J. Schacht, (Brill, 1986), 147;"HAMMUDIDS, dynasty which reigned over various towns in Muslim Spain from 407/1016 till 450/1058. Sulayman al-Musta'm [q.v.], on his second succession to the caliphal throne in Shawwal 4O3/ May 1013, had to distribute large fiefs among the Berbers who had raised him to power. He allotted to 'Ali b. Hammud the governorship of Ceuta and to his brother al-Kasim that of Algeciras, Tangier, and Arzila. The two were genuine Idrisids [q.v.], their great-grandfather Hammud being the great-grandson of Idris II."
  6. ^ Collins 2012, p. 203.

Bibliography[edit]

Collins, Roger (2012). Caliphs and Kings: Spain 796-1031. Wiley-Blackwell. 

Royal house
Hammudid dynasty
Preceded by
Umayyad dynasty
Caliphs of Córdoba
1016–1023
1025–1027
Succeeded by
Umayyad dynasty
(Restored)
New title Taifa kings of Malaga
1026–1057
Annexed to the Taifa of Granada
New title Taifa kings of Algeciras
1039–1058
Annexed to the Taifa of Seville