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The Hammudid dynasty (Arabic: بنو حمود, translit. Banū Ḥammūd) was a Berberised Arab Muslim dynasty that briefly ruled the Caliphate of Córdoba and the taifas of Málaga and Algeciras and nominal control in Ceuta
The dynasty is named after their ancestor, Hammud, a descendant of Idris ibn Abdallah, whose ancestors had established themselves among the Berber tribes of northern Morocco. When Sulayman ibn al-Hakam carved out Andalusian land for his Berber allies, two members of the Hammudid family were given the governorship of Algeciras, Ceuta and Tangier. The Hammudids thus gained control of the traffic across the Straits of Gibraltar, suddenly becoming a powerful force. Claiming to act on behalf of the dethroned Hicham II, the Hammudi governor of Ceuta Ali ibn Hammud al-Nasir marched upon Córdoba in the year 1016, where he was crowned Caliph.
In the aftermath of the fall of Córdoba and the following civil conflicts, the Hammudids were part of the shi'at al-Barbariya (the Berber faction), while still being able to claim Chorfa descendence. Thus their Berber heritage gave them the nominal support of the Berber emirs (and that of a large North-African army), while their Chorfa heritage made a Caliphal claim acceptable to many in the Arab and Andalusian elite. In 1056, the last Hammudid Caliph was dethroned, losing Malaga to the Zirids of Granada, who had previously been the Hammudids' most important supporters. The Hammudi family was then forced to settle in Ceuta, Morocco.
- Molins 2010, pp. 26-27.
- Bosworth 2004, p. 15.
- Lane-Poole (1894), p.21
- Altamira, Rafael (1999). "Il califfato occidentale". Storia del mondo medievale. vol. II. pp. 477–515.
- Hammudids, A. Huici Miranda, The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. III, ed. B. Lewis, V.L. Menage, C. Pellat and J. Schacht, (Brill, 1986), 147;"HAMMUDIDS, dynasty which reigned over various towns in Muslim Spain from 407/1016 till 450/1058. Sulayman al-Musta'm [q.v.], on his second succession to the caliphal throne in Shawwal 4O3/ May 1013, had to distribute large fiefs among the Berbers who had raised him to power. He allotted to 'Ali b. Hammud the governorship of Ceuta and to his brother al-Kasim that of Algeciras, Tangier, and Arzila. The two were genuine Idrisids [q.v.], their great-grandfather Hammud being the great-grandson of Idris II."
- Collins 2012, p. 203.
- Scales, Peter (1994). The Fall of the Caliphate of Cordoba: Berbers and Andalusis in Conflict. vol. II. BRILL. pp. 38–109 & 142–182. ISBN 9789004098688.
- Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (2004). The New Islamic Dynasties: A Chronological and Genealogical Manual. Edinburgh University Press. pp. 14–16. ISBN 9780748621378.
- Lane-Poole, Stanley (1894). The Mohammadan Dynasties: Chronological and Genealogical Tables with Historicals Introductions. Constable. pp. 23–25.
- Molins, Viguera-Molins (2010). "Al-Andalus and the Maghrib (from the fifth/eleventh century to the fall of the Almoravids)". In Fierro, Maribel. The Western Islamic World, Eleventh to Eighteenth Centuries. The New Cambridge History of Islam. 2. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521200943.
Collins, Roger (2012). Caliphs and Kings: Spain 796-1031. Wiley-Blackwell.
— Royal house —
|Caliphs of Córdoba
|New title||Taifa kings of Malaga
|Annexed to the Taifa of Granada|
|New title||Taifa kings of Algeciras
|Annexed to the Taifa of Seville|
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