Hamsadhvani

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Hamsadhvani
ThaatBilaval
TypeAudava
Time of dayEarly night, 9–12[1]
ArohanaS R G P N Ṡ[1]
AvarohanaṠ N P G R S[1]
PakadG P N - Ṡ N P G
VadiP
SamavadiR
Synonym
  • Hansadhvani[1]
  • Hans Dhwani
SimilarShankara

Hamsadhvani (meaning "the cry of the swan"[1]) also spelled as Hansadhwani, is a rāga in Carnatic music (musical scale of Carnatic tradition of Indian classical music). It is an audava rāgam (or owdava rāga, meaning pentatonic scale). It is a janya rāga of the Melakartha raga, Dheerasankarabharanam (29th) but according to Hamsadhvani's prayoga or the way it is sung it is said to be the janya of Kalyani (65th).

Hamsadhvani is also extensively used in Hindustani music and said to be borrowed into it from Carnatic music.[2] It was created by the Carnatic composer Ramaswami Dikshitar (1735–1817),[3] father of Muthuswami Dikshitar (one of the musical trinity of Carnatic music), and brought into Hindustani music by Aman Ali Khan of the Bhendibazaar gharana. It has become popular due to Amir Khan.

Structure and Lakshana[edit]

Hamsadhvani scale with shadjam at C

Hamsadhvani does not contain madhyamam or dhavathum. It is a pentatonic scale (audava-audava ragam[2][4] in Carnatic music classification – audava meaning 'of 5'). Its ārohaṇa-avarohaṇa structure (ascending and descending scale) is as follows (see swaras in Carnatic music for details on below notation and terms):

Hamsadhwani

The notes used in this scale are shadjam, chatushruti rishabham, antara gandharam, panchamam and kakali nishadam. In Hindustani music, it is associated with Bilaval thaat (equivalent of Shankarabharanam).

Compositions[edit]

Hamsadhvani rāgam lends itself for elaboration and exploration and has many compositions in both classical music and film music. It is usually sung at the beginning of a performance.[2] There are many kritis (compositions) in praise of Lord Ganesha set in this musical scale.

Film Songs[edit]

Language:Tamil[edit]

Song Movie Composer Singer
Vaadaatha Pushpame.... Vanithaa Maniye Adutha Veettu Penn Adi Narayana Rao P. B. Sreenivas
Mazhalai Kaalamum Savithiri M. S. Viswanathan P. Jayachandran, Vani Jairam
Va Va Va Kanna Va Velaikkaran Ilaiyaraaja Mano, K. S. Chithra
Malargale Nadhaswarangal Kizhakke Pogum Rail Malaysia Vasudevan, S. Janaki
Mayile Mayile Kadavul Amaitha Medai S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, Jency Anthony
Sevvaname Ponmegame Nallathoru Kudumbam P. Jayachandran, Kalyani Menon, Jency,Sasirekha
Therkondu Sendravan Enakkul Oruvan P. Susheela
Kalam Maralam

(Ragamalika:Hamsadhvani,Vasanthi)

Vaazhkai S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, Vani Jairam
Iru vizhiyin Siva S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, K. S. Chithra
Poomudithu En Purushanthaan Enakku Mattumthaan P. Jayachandran,Sunandha
Nillavu Vandhadu

(Ragamalika:Hamsadhvani,Vasanthi)

Endrum Anbudan Mano, S. Janaki
Sriranga Ranganathanin

(Ragamalika:Hamsadhvani,Mohanam)

Mahanadi S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, Uma Ramanan,Shobana
Nandri Solla Chithirayil Nilachoru Karthik, Priyadarshini
Isaiyin Mazhaiyile Kadaikan Parvai V.Narasimhan K.J. Yesudas, Vani Jairam
Kuthuvilakkaga Cooliekkaran T. Rajendar S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, S. Janaki
Vellai Pookal Kannathil Muthamittal A. R. Rahman A. R. Rahman
Poovukkul Jeans P. Unnikrishnan, Sujatha Mohan
Manmadha Maasam (Ragamalika:Vasanthi) Paarthale Paravasam Shankar Mahadevan, Nithyasree Mahadevan
Dating Boys Blaaze, Vasundhara Das
Theekuruvi Kangalal Kaidhu Sei Johnson, Harini & Mukesh
En Manathai Kalloori Vaasal Deva Hariharan, Anuradha Sriram
Oru Mani Adithal Kaalamellam Kadhal Vaazhga Hariharan
Gadothkaja Pammal K. Sambandam Srinivas, Mahalakshmi Iyer
Vinodhamanavale Lovely Hariharan, Sujatha Mohan
Poongatru Veesum Mr. Madras Vidyasagar S. P. Balasubrahmanyam
Imaikkatha Vizhigal Kadhal Dot Com Bharadwaj Srinivas, Srimathumitha
Ena Ithu Ena Ithu Rojavanam P. Unnikrishnan, Anuradha Sriram
Unnodu Vaazhatha Amarkalam K. S. Chithra
Siragillai Vaaname Ellai Maragadha Mani
Nenjodu Kalanthidu Kaadhal Kondein Yuvan Shankar Raja P. Unnikrishnan, Sujatha Mohan
Manja Kaattu Maina Manadhai Thirudivittai Karthik, Sadhana Sargam
Uyire En Uyire Thotti Jaya Harris Jayaraj Karthik, Bombay Jayashri, Anuradha Sriram
Azhagana Chinna Devathai Samudhiram Sabesh Murali Shankar Mahadevan, Harini
Suppose Unnai Sukran Vijay Antony Ranjith,Vinaya
Aval Appadi Onrum Angadi Theru Vineeth Sreenivasan, Ranjith,Janaki Iyer
Natta Nadu Rathiri A Aa E Ee Karthik, Sangeetha Rajeshwaran,Christopher
Ingivalai Ninaithu Ninaithu Parthen Joshua Sridhar Goutham, Harini Sudhakar
Koba Kanalgal Theeradha Unarvugal Thodarkathai Amin Mirza Gowtham Bhardwaj

Related rāgas[edit]

Graha bhedham[edit]

Hamsadhvani's notes when shifted using Graha bhedam, yields another pentatonic rāgam, Nagasvaravali. Graha bhedam is the step taken in keeping the relative note frequencies same, while shifting the shadjam to the next note in the rāgam. For more details and illustration of this concept refer Graha bhedam on Hamsadhvani.

Scale similarities[edit]

  • Mohanam is a rāgam which has chatushruti dhaivatam in place of the nishadam. Structures are shown in second table.
  • Amritavarshini is a rāgam which has Prati Madhyamam in place of the rishabham. Structures are shown in first table.
  • Gambhiranata is a rāgam which has shuddha madhyamam in place of the rishabham. Structures are shown in first table.
  • Niroshta is a rāgam which has chatushruti dhaivatam in place of the panchamam. Structures are shown in second table.
Rāgam Śruti
Tonic
C D E F G A B C
Hamsadhvani C S R2 G3 P N3 S'
Amritavarshini C S G3 M2 P N3 S'
Gambhiranata C S G3 M1 P N3 S'
Rāgam Śruti
Tonic
C D E F G A B C
Hamsadhvani C S R2 G3 P - N3 S'
Mohanam C S R2 G3 P D2 - S'
Niroshta C S R2 G3 - D2 N3 S'

In Hindustani music[edit]

Vadi & Samavadi[edit]

Vadi: Sa

Samavadi: Pa

Pakad or Chalan[edit]

Re Ga Re Ni Pa Sa Re Sa

The Pakad is the one where one can identify to which raga does the composition belongs.

Organization & Relationships[edit]

Thaat: Bilaval.

Time[edit]

Late Evening [5]

Important Recordings[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Bor, Joep; Rao, Suvarnalata (1999). The Raga Guide: A Survey of 74 Hindusthani Ragas. Nimbus Records with Rotterdam Conservatory of Music. p. 80. ISBN 9780954397609.
  2. ^ a b c Raganidhi by P. Subba Rao, Pub. 1964, The Music Academy of Madras
  3. ^ P.P.Narayanaswami on www.carnatica.net
  4. ^ Ragas in Carnatic music by Dr. S. Bhagyalekshmy, Pub. 1990, CBH Publications
  5. ^ w.w.w.wikipedia

Literature[edit]

  • Bor, Joep (ed). Rao, Suvarnalata; der Meer, Wim van; Harvey, Jane (co-authors) The Raga Guide: A Survey of 74 Hindustani Ragas. Zenith Media, London: 1999.

External links[edit]