Han Xin

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Han Xin
韓信 (Chinese)
Marquis of Huaiyin (淮陰侯)
Tenure201–196 BC
King of Chu (楚王)
Tenure202–201 BC
PredecessorXiang Yu
SuccessorLiu Jiao
King of Qi (齊王)
Tenure203–202 BC
PredecessorTian Guang
SuccessorLiu Fei
Personal Details
Died196 BC
Changle Palace, Chang'an (Modern day Xi'an, Shaanxi)
AllegianceXiang Liang
Xiang Yu
Liu Bang
RankCaptain of the Palace Guards (郎中) 208-206 BC
Captain of Rations(治粟都尉) 206 BC
Commander in Chief (大將軍) 206-202 BC
Left Chancellor (左丞相) 205 BC
Chancellor of Zhao (相國) 204 BC
Notable BattlesBattle of Anyi
Battle of Jingxing
Battle of Wei River
Battle of Gaixia

Han Xin (simplified Chinese: 韩信; traditional Chinese: 韓信; pinyin: Hán Xìn; Wade–Giles: Han2Hsin4; ? – early 196 BCE[1]) was a Chinese military general and politician who served Liu Bang during the Chu–Han Contention and contributed greatly to the founding of the Han dynasty. Han Xin was named as one of the "Three Heroes of the early Han dynasty" (Chinese: 漢初三傑), along with Zhang Liang and Xiao He.

Han Xin is best remembered as a brilliant military leader for the strategies and tactics he employed in warfare, some of which became the origins of certain Chinese idioms, he was undefeated in battle and for his accomplishments he was considered the "God of War". In recognition of Han Xin's contributions, Liu Bang conferred the titles of "King of Qi" on him in 203 BCE and "King of Chu" in the following year. However, Liu Bang feared Han Xin's growing influence and gradually reduced his authority, demoting him to "Marquis of Huaiyin" in late 202 BCE. In early 196 BCE, Han Xin was accused of participating in a rebellion, lured into a trap and executed on Empress Lü Zhi's orders.

Han Xin receiving food from an elderly lady, depicted in a 1503 painting by Guo Xu

Early life[edit]

Han Xin was born in Huaiyin (modern-day Jiangsu Province), which was an area of Chu during the warring states. According to legend, he may have been a descendant of the Han Sect of the Han Kingdom, but he was incredibly poor. The people from his hometown say that when his mother died, he did not have enough money to give her a proper burial. Regardless, he still searched until he came across a high and raised plot of land, thinking that one day, he could settle ten thousand households here to live and guard over his mother's grave.[2]

Because he was unable to obtain a government post nor become a merchant, he lived a life of destitution and was despised by those around him, as he often relied on others for his meals. He especially often went to the 亭長 (Chief) of Nanchang Pavilion for food, and as months passed the Chief's wife increasing began to hate Han Xin. At one point, she cooked and ate very early in the morning, so that when Han Xin arrived, there was no more food. Han Xin understood that he was no longer welcome and never visited them again.[3]

Once, when he was suffering from hunger, he met an old woman washing clothes by the river who provided him food. She did so for all the dozen days that she had laundry to do. Han Xin was incredibly delighted and promised to heavily repay her for her kindness. She, however, scolded him, saying: "A young man such as you cannot feed himself. I take pity that you are a descendant of nobility and so I feed you. I did not do so expecting anything in return!"[4]

A youngster from a butcher's family in Huaiyin would humiliate Han Xin, making fun of him by saying that despite Han Xin being tall and carrying around a sword, Han Xin was actually a coward. He said in front of a crowd: "If you do not fear death; stab me. If you fear death; come crawl between my legs." Han Xin gave it some thought, and eventually decided to crawl between the hooligan's legs. Because of this, he was mocked by all the town for his cowardice.[5]

Several years later, after becoming the King of Chu, Han Xin returned to his hometown. He found the woman who fed him and rewarded her with 1,000 taels of gold. He found the Chief of Nanchang Pavilion and gave him a hundred coins, saying, "You are not a good person. You do good things but your generosity is limited." Han Xin also found the hooligan and appointed the hooligan as a zhongwei (中尉; equivalent to a present-day lieutenant). He to his subordinates: "This man is a hero. Do you think I could not have killed him when he humiliated me? I would not become famous even if I killed him then. Hence, I endured the humiliation to preserve my life to achieve great things in the future."[6]

Service Under Xiang Yu[edit]

In 209 BC, Han Xin joined Xiang Liang's rebel army when rebellions erupted throughout China to overthrow the Qin dynasty. Han Xin continued serving Xiang Yu (Xiang Liang's nephew) after Xiang Liang was killed in action at the Battle of Dingtao. He was not placed in high regard and worked as a "langzhong" (郎中; sometimes translated as Captain of the Palace Guards[7]).[8] He constantly proposed strategies to Xiang Yu but was ignored. During this time, he became well acquainted with Zhongli Mo, one of Xiang Yu's top generals.[9]

In 206 BC, Han Xin deserted Xiang Yu's army and went to join Liu Bang.[10]

Service under Liu Bang during the Chu–Han Contention[edit]

Initially, after joining Liu Bang's army, Han Xin was not given any important roles. Once, he violated military law and was due to be punished by execution. When it was his turn to be beheaded, Han Xin saw Xiahou Ying (one of Liu Bang's trusted generals) and said, "I thought the King wanted to rule an empire. Why, then, is he killing valiant men?" Xiahou Ying was surprised by his words and his looks, and spared Han Xin's life. After conversing with Han Xin, Xiahou Ying was greatly delighted and recommended Han Xin to Liu Bang. Liu Bang was not overly impressed but made Han Xin the Captain of Rations (治粟都尉) to be in charge of food supplies.[11] During this time, Han Xin often met up with Xiao He (Liu Bang's Chancellor), who was greatly impressed by him.[12]

In April of that year,[13] Liu Bang faced a mass desertion of soldiers. Han Xin figured that despite both Xiahou Ying and Xiao He having recommended him to Liu Bang, Liu Bang did not use him, so he saw no reason to stay and also deserted. When Xiao He heard that Han Xin had left, he immediately rushed to personally find Han Xin and bring him back, and did not manage to inform Liu Bang in time. Xiao He eventually caught up with Han Xin and managed to persuade Han Xin to go back with him. This event gave rise to the saying, "Xiao He chases Han Xin under the moonlight" (蕭何月下追韓信). In the meantime, Liu Bang had a nervous breakdown after hearing that Xiao He had left him. When Xiao He returned after a few days, while Liu Bang was relieved, he was also furious. He angrily asked Xiao He, "Why did you run away?" Xiao He explained, "I did not run away; I was chasing down Han Xin." Liu Bang got angry again, saying, "There were dozens of deserters, yet you did not chase after them. When you say that you chased after Han Xin, you must be lying to me." Xiao He then explained Han Xin's talent and forcibly insisted that Liu Bang immediately promote Han Xin to the highest rank in the army, the Commander-in-Chief (大將軍). Xiao He also chided Liu Bang's usual ill-mannered behaviour, demanding that Liu Bang hold a formal ceremony for the event. Liu Bang relented and held a special ceremony for Han Xin's appointment.[14]

Conquering the Three Qins[edit]

After the ceremony, Han Xin analysed the situation for Liu Bang and devised a plan to conquer Xiang Yu's Western Chu kingdom.[15] In late 206 BCE, Liu Bang's forces left Hanzhong and prepared to attack the Three Qins in Guanzhong. Han Xin ordered some soldiers to pretend to repair the gallery roads linking Guanzhong and Hanzhong, while sending another army to secretly pass through Chencang and make a surprise attack on Zhang Han. Zhang Han was caught off guard and the Han forces emerged victorious, proceeding to take over Sima Xin and Dong Yi's kingdoms.[16][17] The strategy employed by Han Xin, known as mingxiu zhandao, andu Chencang (明修棧道, 暗度陳倉; lit. "appearing to repair the gallery roads while making secret advances through Chencang"), became one of the Thirty-Six Stratagems.[18]

Service during the Western Han dynasty[edit]


When Xiang Yu died in 202 BCE, Zhongli Mo (one of Xiang Yu's generals) came to Han Xin and requested refuge. On account of their past friendship, Han Xin protected Zhongli Mo and let him stay with him. When Emperor Gaozu heard that Zhongli Mo was hiding in Han Xin's territory, he ordered Han to arrest Zhongli Mo, but Han Xin refused.[19]

A year later, Gaozu heard rumours that Han Xin was plotting a rebellion. By this time, Zhang Liang had already retreated from political affairs, so Chen Ping was Gaozu's most trusted advisor. After discussion, they came to the conclusion that Gaozu could not best Han Xin in battle, so it would be most ideal to strike Han Xin when he was unprepared. Chen Ping proposed to lure Han Xin into meeting, on a pretext of Liu Bang touring the Yunmeng Marshes (present-day Jianghan Plains, Hubei Province). He sent this message out to all warlords across the land. When Han Xin heard that Gaozu was heading towards the land of Chu, his first instinct was to rebel, but he decided he had committed no crime and stayed put.[20] At this time, someone told Han Xin that if he were to present Zhongli Mo's head to Gaozu, than he would be happy and spare him. Han Xin then met Zhongli Mo to decide their next course of action, and brought up this idea. Zhongli Mo then promptly slit his own throat, but not before claiming Han Xin would follow soon after.[21] Han Xin brought Zhongli Mo's severed head to Gaozu and explained his innocence, but Gaozu ordered Han to be arrested.[22] Han Xin exclaimed, "It is true when people say: The hunting dog becomes food as well after it is used to hunt game; a good bow is discarded when there are no birds left for shooting; an advisor dies after he helps his lord conquer a rival kingdom. Now that the empire is in place, I no longer serve any purpose!"[23] Liu Bang's only response was: "Someone claimed you had rebelled", and proceeded to cuff Han Xin and bring him back to Luoyang. Although Gaozu pardoned Han Xin and released him later, he still demoted Han from "King of Chu" to "Marquis of Huaiyin".[24]

Downfall and Dispute over death[edit]

After his demotion, Han Xin knew that Gaozu was beginning to distrust him and had become wary of his talent. Hence, Han Xin claimed to be ill and stayed at home most of the time to reduce Gaozu's suspicions. Around 197 BCE, Chen Xi (Marquis of Yangxia) met Han Xin before leaving for Julu, where Han Xin promptly pulled him aside, dismissing all nearby servants. He promised to aid Chen Xi from inside the capital if Chen Xi were to start an uprising against the Han Dynasty. Not long after, Chen Xi rebelled and Gaozu personally led an army to suppress the rebellion, while Han Xin claimed sickness and stayed behind.[25]

While Gaozu was away, one of Han Xin's household servants offended him, so Han Xin locked him up as punishment. The servant's young brother gave news of Han Xin's desire to rebel to Empress Lü Zhi, who then plotted with Xiao He to lure Han Xin into a trap. They pretended Gaozu had returned from suppressing the rebellion and that there would be a feast to commemorate the success. Xiao He managed to persuade Han Xin into coming to Changle Palace, where the Empress lived, and he was bound and executed as soon as he stepped through the doors. Han Xin's clan was exterminated on the Empress's orders as well.[26] Upon return from his campaign, Gaozu expressed both relief and regret when he learnt of Han Xin's death. He asked the Empress for Han Xin's last words, which were, "I regret not listening to Kuai Che's advice, and now I have been deceived by such vile people. This is the heaven's will!"[27]

In another section of Sima Qian's Records of the Grand Historian, The Hereditary House of Chancellor Xiao, the events of the Chu-Han Contention are told from Xiao He's point of view, and puts a different narrative on the death of Han Xin. In this autobiography, Liu Bang was immediately notified of Han Xin's rebellion and execution, rather than waiting until after his return.[28]

Throughout history, historians and scholars alike have debated over the plausibility of Han Xin's rebellion. Although the Records of the Grand Historian have it written in black and white, many believe that Han Xin was loyal until his death. They believe that Lü Zhi and Xiao He framed Han Xin of treason, under the knowledge of Liu Bang, because Han Xin's reputation amongst the military was too high, and combined with his talents, became a threat to the throne. Although historians have always looked to Sima Qian's records for facts, some believe it is possible that as a citizen of the Han Dynasty, he could not go against the government acknowledged version of events. A Tang Dynasty poet, Xu Hun, once wrote a poem titled "The Shrine of Han Xin", in which it states that it is unlikely for Han Xin to stay loyal when he held military power, yet rebel when he had not a single soldier.[29]


Ukiyo-e print of Han Xin crawling under a hooligan's crotch

Some Chinese idioms and sayings originating from the events in Han Xin's life are listed as follows:

  • Shame of crawling through between someone's legs (胯下之辱): Used to describe a humiliating incident. This idiom originated from the incident when Han Xin was bullied by a hooligan.
  • When Han Xin selects his troops, the more the better (韓信點兵,多多益善): Originated from a conversation between Han Xin and Liu Bang. Liu asked Han, "How many men do you think I can command?", to which Han Xin replied, "A maximum of 100,000." Liu Bang asked, "What about you?", and Han Xin replied, "The more the better." Liu Bang said, "So that means I cannot defeat you?" Han Xin explained, "No, my lord, you command generals while I command soldiers."
  • Both success and failure are due to Xiao He, life and death are due to two women (成也蕭何, 敗也蕭何): Xiao He helped Han Xin become a general, which enabled Han to put his talent to good use. However, Han Xin's downfall was also due to Xiao He. In his early days, Han Xin was given "life" by the old woman, who provided him with food. His death was due to Empress Lü Zhi.

While Han Xin was under house arrest, he did a mass organization of military books together with Zhang Liang. They put together one hundred and eighty-two books, removed certain parts and chose the reliable bits, and came out with thirty-five books.[30] Han Xin himself also wrote three essays regarding military strategy.[31]

His descendants are said to have fled to the area of modern Guangdong and Guangxi and changed their name to Wéi (韋).[32]


At the end of Han Xin's biography in Shiji, Sima Qian commented on Han as follows:

I've been to Huaiyin (present-day Huai'an, Jiangsu), and the locals told me that when Han Xin was still a commoner, his ambition was very different from ordinary people's. When his mother died, he was too poor to give her a proper funeral. However, he found a scenic area, on high and flat ground and capable of housing thousands, and buried her there. I've personally been to his mother's grave and it was exactly like what the locals described to me. If Han Xin was more modest and unassuming, did not boast about his achievements, and not been so egoistic, he would have attained fame, glory and wealth. In that case, his contributions to the Han dynasty would be comparable to those of the Duke of Zhou, Duke of Shao, and Jiang Ziya, and his descendants would be proud of him. However, Han Xin did not change himself for the better. Instead, when peace and stability had been restored in the empire (China), he plotted a rebellion and caused his clan to be implicated and exterminated. Is this not Heaven's will?[33]

In volume 12 of Zizhi Tongjian, after the entry on Han Xin's death, Sima Guang commented on Han as follows:

Many people would think that Han Xin was the first person to propose the grand plan for unifying China: he started his plan together with (Emperor) Gaozu in Hanzhong, conquered the Three Qins, led a northern campaign to attack the kingdoms of Wei, Dai, Zhao, Yan and Qi, moved south to destroy Chu in Gaixia. As such, he is seen to have contributed greatly to the founding of the Han Dynasty. When we look at how he rejected Kuai Che's suggestion to declare independence, and how he received Gaozu at Chen (present-day Huaiyang, Henan), how can we say he had the intention of rebelling? The reason for his rebellion was that he felt unhappy about losing his noble title. Lu Wan was merely Gaozu's neighbour, yet he was appointed King of Yan, while Han Xin only received the title of a marquis and could only have audiences with Gaozu. Is this not an example of how Gaozu treated Han Xin unfairly? I think that Gaozu did treat Han Xin unfairly when he lured Han into a trap and captured him, but Han was also at fault, which led to his downfall. When Gaozu was at war with Xiang Yu in Xingyang, Han Xin had just conquered the Qi kingdom and did not turn back to support Gaozu because he saw more danger of losing more soldiers if he went for saving lives of people at Pengcheng. The appointment as acting King of Qi was proposed later after many months of war defeats for Liu Bang. Besides, during the Battle of Guling, Han Xin did not keep his promise to help Gaozu, and caused Gaozu to lose the battle. Since then, Gaozu had the intention of killing Han Xin but did not do so as he was not yet powerful enough. When Gaozu's empire came into place, Han Xin no longer served any purpose.[34]


  1. ^ Vol. 12 of Zizhi Tongjian placed Han Xin's death in the winter (10th to 12th month) of the 11th year of Liu Bang's reign (including his tenure as King of Han). The period corresponds to 23 Nov 197 BCE to 18 Feb 196 BCE in the proleptic Julian calendar. In the modified Zhuanxu calendar used during the era, the 11th year of Liu Bang's reign starts from 23 Nov 197 BCE and ends on 11 Nov 196 BCE in the proleptic Julian calendar.
  2. ^ Sima Qian. 《史記·卷九十二·淮陰侯列傳第三十二》 ["Ranked Biography of the Marquis of Huaiyin", Records of the Grand Historian]. 淮陰人為余言,韓信雖為布衣時,其志與眾異。其母死,貧無以葬,然乃行營高敞地,令其旁可置萬家。
  3. ^ Sima Qian. 《史記·卷九十二·淮陰侯列傳第三十二》 ["Ranked Biography of the Marquis of Huaiyin", Records of the Grand Historian]. 淮陰侯韓信者,淮陰人也。始為布衣時,貧無行,不得推擇為吏,又不能治生商賈,常從人寄食飲,人多厭之者,常數從其下鄉南昌亭長寄食,數月,亭長妻患之,乃晨炊蓐食。食時信往,不為具食。信亦知其意,怒,竟絕去。
  4. ^ Sima Qian. 《史記·卷九十二·淮陰侯列傳第三十二》 ["Ranked Biography of the Marquis of Huaiyin", Records of the Grand Historian]. 信釣於城下,諸母漂,有一母見信饑,飯信,竟漂數十日。信喜,謂漂母曰:「吾必有以重報母。」母怒曰:「大丈夫不能自食,吾哀王孫而進食,豈望報乎!」
  5. ^ Sima Qian. 《史記·卷九十二·淮陰侯列傳第三十二》 ["Ranked Biography of the Marquis of Huaiyin", Records of the Grand Historian]. 淮陰屠中少年有侮信者,曰:「若雖長大,好帶刀劍,中情怯耳。」眾辱之曰:「信能死,刺我;不能死,出我袴下。」於是信孰視之,俛出袴下,蒲伏。一市人皆笑信,以為怯。
  6. ^ Sima Qian. 《史記·卷九十二·淮陰侯列傳第三十二》 ["Ranked Biography of the Marquis of Huaiyin", Records of the Grand Historian]. 信至國,召所從食漂母,賜千金。及下鄉南昌亭長,賜百錢,曰:「公,小人也,為德不卒。」召辱己之少年令出胯下者以為楚中尉。告諸將相曰:「此壯士也。方辱我時,我寧不能殺之邪?殺之無名,故忍而就於此。」
  7. ^ "Wiktionary".
  8. ^ Sima Qian. 《史記·卷九十二·淮陰侯列傳第三十二》 ["Ranked Biography of the Marquis of Huaiyin", Records of the Grand Historian]. 及項梁渡淮,信杖劍從之,居戲下,無所知名。項梁敗,又屬項羽,羽以為郎中。數以策干項羽,羽不用。
  9. ^ Sima Qian. 《史記·卷九十二·淮陰侯列傳第三十二》 ["Ranked Biography of the Marquis of Huaiyin", Records of the Grand Historian]. 項王亡將鐘離眛家在伊廬,素與信善。
  10. ^ Sima Qian. 《史記·卷九十二·淮陰侯列傳第三十二》 ["Ranked Biography of the Marquis of Huaiyin", Records of the Grand Historian]. 漢王之入蜀,信亡楚歸漢
  11. ^ Sima Qian. 《史記·卷九十二·淮陰侯列傳第三十二》 ["Ranked Biography of the Marquis of Huaiyin", Records of the Grand Historian]. 漢王之入蜀,信亡楚歸漢,未得知名,為連敖。坐法當斬,其輩十三人皆已斬,次至信,信乃仰視,適見滕公,曰:「上不欲就天下乎?何為斬壯士!」滕公奇其言,壯其貌,釋而不斬。與語,大說之。言於上,上拜以為治粟都尉,上未之奇也。
  12. ^ Sima Qian. 《史記·卷九十二·淮陰侯列傳第三十二》 ["Ranked Biography of the Marquis of Huaiyin", Records of the Grand Historian]. 信數與蕭何語,何奇之。
  13. ^ Sima Qian. 《史記·卷八·高祖本紀》 ["The Basic Annals of Emperor Gaozu", Records of the Grand Historian]. 四月,兵罷戲下,諸侯各就國。漢王之國,項王使卒三萬人從,楚與諸侯之慕從者數萬人,從杜南入蝕中。去輒燒絕棧道,以備諸侯盜兵襲之,亦示項羽無東意。至南鄭。
  14. ^ Sima Qian. 《史記·卷九十二·淮陰侯列傳第三十二》 ["Ranked Biography of the Marquis of Huaiyin", Records of the Grand Historian]. 至南鄭,諸將行道亡者數十人,信度何等已數言上,上不我用,即亡。何聞信亡,不及以聞,自追之。人有言上曰:「丞相何亡。」上大怒,如失左右手。居一二日,何來謁上,上且怒且喜,罵何曰:「若亡,何也?」何曰:「臣不敢亡也,臣追亡者。」上曰:「若所追者誰何?」曰:「韓信也。」上復罵曰:「諸將亡者以十數,公無所追;追信,詐也。」何曰:「諸將易得耳。至如信者,國士無雙。王必欲長王漢中,無所事信;必欲爭天下,非信無所與計事者。顧王策安所決耳。」王曰:「吾亦欲東耳,安能郁郁久居此乎?」何曰:「王計必欲東,能用信,信即留;不能用,信終亡耳。」王曰:「吾為公以為將。」何曰:「雖為將,信必不留。」王曰:「以為大將。」何曰:「幸甚。」於是王欲召信拜之。何曰:「王素慢無禮,今拜大將如呼小兒耳,此乃信所以去也。王必欲拜之,擇良日,齋戒,設壇場,具禮,乃可耳。」王許之。
  15. ^ Sima Qian. 《史記·卷九十二·淮陰侯列傳第三十二》 ["Ranked Biography of the Marquis of Huaiyin", Records of the Grand Historian]. 信拜禮畢,上坐。王曰:「丞相數言將軍,將軍何以教寡人計策?」信謝,因問王曰:「今東鄉爭權天下,豈非項王邪?」漢王曰:「然。」曰:「大王自料勇悍仁彊孰與項王?」漢王默然良久,曰:「不如也。」信再拜賀曰:「惟信亦為大王不如也。然臣嘗事之,請言項王之為人也。項王喑噁叱,千人皆廢,然不能任屬賢將,此特匹夫之勇耳。項王見人恭敬慈愛,言語嘔嘔,人有疾病,涕泣分食飲,至使人有功當封爵者,印刓敝,忍不能予,此所謂婦人之仁也。項王雖霸天下而臣諸侯,不居關中而都彭城。有背義帝之約,而以親愛王,諸侯不平。諸侯之見項王遷逐義帝置江南,亦皆歸逐其主而自王善地。項王所過無不殘滅者,天下多怨,百姓不親附,特劫於威彊耳。名雖為霸,實失天下心。故曰其彊易弱。今大王誠能反其道:任天下武勇,何所不誅!以天下城邑封功臣,何所不服!以義兵從思東歸之士,何所不散!且三秦王為秦將,將秦子弟數歲矣,所殺亡不可勝計,又欺其眾降諸侯,至新安,項王詐阬秦降卒二十餘萬,唯獨邯、欣、翳得脫,秦父兄怨此三人,痛入骨髓。今楚彊以威王此三人,秦民莫愛也。大王之入武關,秋豪無所害,除秦苛法,與秦民約,法三章耳,秦民無不欲得大王王秦者。於諸侯之約,大王當王關中,關中民咸知之。大王失職入漢中,秦民無不恨者。今大王舉而東,三秦可傳檄而定也。」
  16. ^ Sima Qian. 《史記·卷九十二·淮陰侯列傳第三十二》 ["Ranked Biography of the Marquis of Huaiyin", Records of the Grand Historian]. 八月,漢王舉兵東出陳倉,定三秦。
  17. ^ Sima Qian. 《史記·卷八·高祖本紀》 ["The Basic Annals of Emperor Gaozu", Records of the Grand Historian]. 八月,漢王用韓信之計,從故道還,襲雍王章邯。邯迎擊漢陳倉,雍兵敗,還走;止戰好畤,又復敗,走廢丘。漢王遂定雍地。東至咸陽,引兵圍雍王廢丘,而遣諸將略定隴西、北地、上郡。
  18. ^ 《三十六計》 ["The Thirty-Six Strategems"]. 第08計暗渡陳倉。
  19. ^ Sima Qian. 《史記·卷九十二·淮陰侯列傳第三十二》 ["Ranked Biography of the Marquis of Huaiyin", Records of the Grand Historian]. 項王亡將鐘離眛家在伊廬,素與信善。項王死後,亡歸信。漢王怨眛,聞其在楚,詔楚捕眛。信初之國,行縣邑,陳兵出入。
  20. ^ Ban Gu; et al. 《漢書·卷四十·張陳王周傳第十》 ["Biographies of Zhang, Chen, Wang, Zhou", Book of Han]. 漢六年,人有上書告楚王韓信反。高帝問諸將,諸將曰:「亟發兵阬豎子耳。」高帝默然。以問平,平固辭謝,曰:「諸將云何?」上具告之。平曰:「人之上書言信反,人有聞知者乎?」曰:「未有。」曰:「信知之乎?」曰:「弗知。」平曰:「陛下兵精孰與楚?」上曰:「不能過也。」平曰:「陛下將用兵有能敵韓信者乎?」上曰:「莫及也。」平曰:「今兵不如楚精,將弗及,而舉兵擊之,是趣之戰也,竊為陛下危之。」上曰:「為之柰何?」平曰:「古者天子巡狩,會諸侯。南方有雲夢,陛下弟出偽游雲夢,會諸侯於陳。陳,楚之西界,信聞天子以好出游,其勢必郊迎謁。而陛下因禽之,特一力士之事耳。」高帝以為然,乃發使告諸侯會陳,「吾將南游雲夢」。
  21. ^ Sima Qian. 《史記·卷九十二·淮陰侯列傳第三十二》 ["Ranked Biography of the Marquis of Huaiyin", Records of the Grand Historian]. 信見眛計事。眛曰:「漢所以不擊取楚,以眛在公所。若欲捕我以自媚於漢,吾今日死,公亦隨手亡矣。」乃罵信曰:「公非長者!」卒自剄。
  22. ^ Sima Qian. 《史記·卷九十二·淮陰侯列傳第三十二》 ["Ranked Biography of the Marquis of Huaiyin", Records of the Grand Historian]. 信持其首,謁高祖於陳。上令武士縛信,載後車。
  23. ^ Sima Qian. 《史記·卷九十二·淮陰侯列傳第三十二》 ["Ranked Biography of the Marquis of Huaiyin", Records of the Grand Historian]. 信曰:「果若人言,『狡兔死,良狗亨;高鳥盡,良弓藏;敵國破,謀臣亡。』天下已定,我固當亨!」
  24. ^ Sima Qian. 《史記·卷九十二·淮陰侯列傳第三十二》 ["Ranked Biography of the Marquis of Huaiyin", Records of the Grand Historian]. 上曰:「人告公反。」遂械系信。至雒陽,赦信罪,以為淮陰侯。
  25. ^ Sima Qian. 《史記·卷九十二·淮陰侯列傳第三十二》 ["Ranked Biography of the Marquis of Huaiyin", Records of the Grand Historian]. 陳豨拜為鉅鹿守,辭於淮陰侯。淮陰侯挈其手,辟左右與之步於庭,仰天嘆曰:「子可與言乎?欲與子有言也。」豨曰:「唯將軍令之。」淮陰侯曰:「公之所居,天下精兵處也;而公,陛下之信幸臣也。人言公之畔,陛下必不信;再至,陛下乃疑矣;三至,必怒而自將。吾為公從中起,天下可圖也。」陳豨素知其能也,信之,曰:「謹奉教!」漢十年,陳豨果反。上自將而往,信病不從。
  26. ^ Sima Qian. 《史記·卷九十二·淮陰侯列傳第三十二》 ["Ranked Biography of the Marquis of Huaiyin", Records of the Grand Historian]. 其舍人得罪於信,信囚,欲殺之。舍人弟上變,告信欲反狀於呂后。呂后欲召,恐其黨不就,乃與蕭相國謀,詐令人從上所來,言豨已得死,列侯群臣皆賀。相國紿信曰:「雖疾,彊入賀。」信入,呂后使武士縛信,斬之長樂鐘室。
  27. ^ Sima Qian. 《史記·卷九十二·淮陰侯列傳第三十二》 ["Ranked Biography of the Marquis of Huaiyin", Records of the Grand Historian]. 吾悔不用蒯通之計,乃為兒女子所詐,豈非天哉!
  28. ^ Sima Qian. 《史記·卷五十四·蕭相國世家第二十三》 ["The Hereditary House of Chancellor Xiao", Records of the Grand Historian]. 漢十一年,陳豨反,高祖自將,至邯鄲。未罷,淮陰侯謀反關中,呂后用蕭何計,誅淮陰侯,語在淮陰事中。上已聞淮陰侯誅,使使拜丞相何為相國,益封五千戶,令卒五百人一都尉為相國衛。
  29. ^ 《韓信廟》朝言云夢暮南巡,已為功名少退身。盡握兵權猶不得,更將心計托何人。
  30. ^ Ban Gu; et al. 《漢書·卷三十·藝文志第十》 ["Treatise on Literature", Book of Han]. 漢興,張良、韓信序次兵法,凡百八十二家,刪取要用,定著三十五家。
  31. ^ Ban Gu; et al. 《漢書·卷三十·藝文志第十》 ["Treatise on Literature", Book of Han]. 韓信三篇。
  32. ^ The Oxford Dictionary of Family Names in Britain and Ireland
  33. ^ (吾如淮阴,淮阴人为余言,韩信虽为布衣时,其志与众异。其母死,贫无以葬,然乃行营高敞地,令其旁可置万家。余视其母冢,良然。假令韩信学道谦让,不伐己功,不矜其能,则庶几哉,於汉家勋可以比周、召、太公之徒,后世血食矣。不务出此,而天下已集,乃谋畔逆,夷灭宗族,不亦宜乎!)
  34. ^ (世或以韩信首建大策,与高祖起汉中,定三秦,遂分兵以北,擒魏,取代,仆赵,胁燕,东击齐而有之,南灭楚垓下,汉之所以得天下者,大抵皆信之功也。观其拒蒯彻之说,迎高祖于陈,岂有反心哉!良由失职怏怏,遂陷悖逆。夫以卢绾里用旧恩,犹南面王燕,信乃以列侯奉朝请;岂非高祖亦有负于信哉?臣以为高祖用诈谋擒信于陈,言负则有之;虽然,信亦有以取之也。始,汉与楚相距荥阳,信灭齐,不还报而自王;其后汉追楚至固陵,与信期共攻楚而信不至;当是之时,高祖固有取信之心,顾力不能耳。及天下已定,信复何恃哉!)


External links[edit]

Quotations related to Han Xin at Wikiquote

Chinese royalty
Preceded by King of Qi
203 BCE – 202 BCE
Succeeded by
Preceded byas Hegemon-King of Western Chu King of Chu
202 BCE – 201 BCE
Succeeded by
Chinese nobility
New title Marquis of Huaiyin
201 BCE – 196 BCE