Hand percussion

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Modern half moon tambourine

Hand percussion is a percussion instrument that is held in the hand.[1] They can be made from wood, metal or plastic, bottles stops and are usually shaken, scraped, or tapped with fingers or a stick. It includes all instruments that are not drums or pitched percussion instruments such as the marimba or the xylophone.


Gourd shekere from Africa with seeds in the net.

A shaker (percussion) is any instrument that makes a noise when shaken. Historically they were naturally occurring items such as seed pods. A caxixi is a basketwork shaker with a gourd base. Gourds are used all over the world and covered with a net with shells or seeds to create an instrument such as the shekere. Modern shakers are often cylinders made from metal wood or plastic containing small hard items such as seeds, stones, or plastic - an example is the Egg Shaker.There is another category of shaken instrument using jingles, little discs of metal which tap together when shaken. Tambourines fall into this category.


Modern fibreglass güiro from South America
Frog shaped güiro from Japan

This can be a wood, metal or plastic instrument which has ridges on its body. Often known as Guiro, rhythms are created by running a thin stick up and down the ridges at different speeds. Gourds or bamboo have traditionally been used as they have a resonant hollow body and can easily be cut with ridges. A common type from Asia is a carved wooden frog which has ridges cut on its back and its mouth and belly hollowed out.


Modern agogo bell

Cowbells originate from the bells tied around the necks of livestock.[2] They are any type of hand held bell tapped with fingers, wood or metal. They occur all over the world and are used extensively in Latin Percussion music and often found as part of a standard rock drum kit. The name cowbell usually refers to a single bell. The Agogô bell usually refers to a double or triple bell.


A modern triangle

The triangle is a piece of steel bent in the shape of a triangle tapped with another piece of steel. It is suspended on one hand which can be open and closed to alter the sound. Very commonly used in South American Music to give a persistent high pitched pulse.


A pair of claves

Tapping two sticks together is the simplest form of hand percussion, and has developed a place in traditional music all over the world. Indigenous Australians use clapping sticks alongside the didgeridoo, and claves are an integral part of South American Music.

Small drums[edit]

There is a variety of small hand held drums such as tamborim which fall into the Hand Percussion category.



  1. ^ Jones, David Evan (1990). "Speech Extrapolated". Perspectives of New Music. 28 (1): 112–142. doi:10.2307/833346. ISSN 0031-6016. JSTOR 833346.
  2. ^ Washburne, Christopher (2020-04-28). Latin Jazz: The Other Jazz. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-970758-4.