Hangul Syllables

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Hangul Syllables
Range U+AC00..U+D7AF
(11,184 code points)
Plane BMP
Scripts Hangul
Major alphabets Hangul
Assigned 11,172 code points
Unused 12 reserved code points
Source standards KS C 5601-1992
Unicode version history
1.0.0 2,350 (+2,350)
1.1 6,656 (+4,306)
2.0 11,172 (+4,516)
Note: Characters moved from U+3400..U+4DFF to their current locations with Unicode version 2.0.[1][2]

Hangul Syllables is a Unicode block containing precomposed Hangul syllable blocks for Modern Korean. The syllables can be directly mapped by algorithm to sequences of characters in the Hangul Jamo Unicode block.

Block[edit]

Hangul Syllables[1][2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+AC0x
U+AC1x
U+AC2x
U+AC3x 갿
U+AC4x
U+AC5x
U+AC6x
U+AC7x 걿
U+AC8x
U+AC9x
U+ACAx
U+ACBx 겿
U+ACCx
U+ACDx
U+ACEx
U+ACFx 곿
U+AD0x
U+AD1x
U+AD2x
U+AD3x 괿
U+AD4x
U+AD5x
U+AD6x
U+AD7x 굿
U+AD8x
U+AD9x
U+ADAx
U+ADBx 궿
U+ADCx
U+ADDx
U+ADEx
U+ADFx 귿
U+AE0x
U+AE1x
U+AE2x
U+AE3x 긿
U+AE4x
U+AE5x
U+AE6x
U+AE7x 깿
U+AE8x
U+AE9x
U+AEAx
U+AEBx 꺿
U+AECx
U+AEDx
U+AEEx
U+AEFx 껿
U+AF0x
U+AF1x
U+AF2x
U+AF3x 꼿
U+AF4x
U+AF5x
U+AF6x
U+AF7x 꽿
U+AF8x
U+AF9x
U+AFAx
U+AFBx 꾿
U+AFCx
U+AFDx
U+AFEx
U+AFFx 꿿
U+B00x 뀀
U+B01x
U+B02x
U+B03x
U+B04x
U+B05x
U+B06x
U+B07x
U+B08x
U+B09x
U+B0Ax
U+B0Bx
U+B0Cx
U+B0Dx
U+B0Ex
U+B0Fx
U+B10x
U+B11x
U+B12x
U+B13x
U+B14x
U+B15x
U+B16x
U+B17x
U+B18x
U+B19x
U+B1Ax
U+B1Bx
U+B1Cx
U+B1Dx
U+B1Ex
U+B1Fx
U+B20x
U+B21x
U+B22x
U+B23x
U+B24x
U+B25x
U+B26x
U+B27x
U+B28x
U+B29x
U+B2Ax
U+B2Bx
U+B2Cx
U+B2Dx
U+B2Ex
U+B2Fx
U+B30x
U+B31x
U+B32x
U+B33x
U+B34x
U+B35x
U+B36x
U+B37x
U+B38x
U+B39x
U+B3Ax
U+B3Bx
U+B3Cx
U+B3Dx
U+B3Ex
U+B3Fx
U+B40x
U+B41x
U+B42x
U+B43x
U+B44x
U+B45x
U+B46x
U+B47x
U+B48x
U+B49x
U+B4Ax
U+B4Bx
U+B4Cx
U+B4Dx
U+B4Ex
U+B4Fx
U+B50x
U+B51x
U+B52x
U+B53x
U+B54x
U+B55x
U+B56x
U+B57x
U+B58x
U+B59x
U+B5Ax
U+B5Bx
U+B5Cx
U+B5Dx
U+B5Ex
U+B5Fx
U+B60x
U+B61x
U+B62x
U+B63x
U+B64x
U+B65x
U+B66x
U+B67x
U+B68x
U+B69x
U+B6Ax
U+B6Bx
U+B6Cx
U+B6Dx
U+B6Ex
U+B6Fx
U+B70x
U+B71x
U+B72x
U+B73x
U+B74x
U+B75x
U+B76x
U+B77x
U+B78x
U+B79x
U+B7Ax
U+B7Bx
U+B7Cx
U+B7Dx
U+B7Ex
U+B7Fx
U+B80x
U+B81x
U+B82x
U+B83x
U+B84x
U+B85x
U+B86x
U+B87x
U+B88x
U+B89x
U+B8Ax
U+B8Bx
U+B8Cx
U+B8Dx
U+B8Ex
U+B8Fx
U+B90x
U+B91x
U+B92x
U+B93x 뤿
U+B94x
U+B95x
U+B96x
U+B97x 륿
U+B98x
U+B99x
U+B9Ax
U+B9Bx 릿
U+B9Cx
U+B9Dx
U+B9Ex
U+B9Fx 맿
U+BA0x
U+BA1x
U+BA2x
U+BA3x 먿
U+BA4x
U+BA5x
U+BA6x
U+BA7x 멿
U+BA8x
U+BA9x
U+BAAx
U+BABx 몿
U+BACx
U+BADx
U+BAEx
U+BAFx 뫿
U+BB0x
U+BB1x
U+BB2x
U+BB3x 묿
U+BB4x
U+BB5x
U+BB6x
U+BB7x 뭿
U+BB8x
U+BB9x
U+BBAx
U+BBBx 뮿
U+BBCx
U+BBDx
U+BBEx
U+BBFx 믿
U+BC0x
U+BC1x
U+BC2x
U+BC3x 밿
U+BC4x
U+BC5x
U+BC6x
U+BC7x 뱿
U+BC8x
U+BC9x
U+BCAx
U+BCBx 벿
U+BCCx
U+BCDx
U+BCEx
U+BCFx 볿
U+BD0x
U+BD1x
U+BD2x
U+BD3x 봿
U+BD4x
U+BD5x
U+BD6x
U+BD7x 뵿
U+BD8x
U+BD9x
U+BDAx
U+BDBx 붿
U+BDCx
U+BDDx
U+BDEx
U+BDFx 뷿
U+BE0x
U+BE1x
U+BE2x
U+BE3x 븿
U+BE4x
U+BE5x
U+BE6x
U+BE7x 빿
U+BE8x
U+BE9x
U+BEAx
U+BEBx 뺿
U+BECx
U+BEDx
U+BEEx
U+BEFx 뻿
U+BF0x
U+BF1x
U+BF2x
U+BF3x 뼿
U+BF4x
U+BF5x
U+BF6x
U+BF7x 뽿
U+BF8x
U+BF9x
U+BFAx
U+BFBx 뾿
U+BFCx
U+BFDx
U+BFEx
U+BFFx 뿿
U+C00x 쀀
U+C01x
U+C02x
U+C03x
U+C04x
U+C05x
U+C06x
U+C07x
U+C08x
U+C09x
U+C0Ax
U+C0Bx
U+C0Cx
U+C0Dx
U+C0Ex
U+C0Fx
U+C10x
U+C11x
U+C12x
U+C13x
U+C14x
U+C15x
U+C16x
U+C17x
U+C18x
U+C19x
U+C1Ax
U+C1Bx
U+C1Cx
U+C1Dx
U+C1Ex
U+C1Fx
U+C20x
U+C21x
U+C22x
U+C23x
U+C24x
U+C25x
U+C26x
U+C27x
U+C28x
U+C29x
U+C2Ax
U+C2Bx
U+C2Cx
U+C2Dx
U+C2Ex
U+C2Fx
U+C30x
U+C31x
U+C32x
U+C33x
U+C34x
U+C35x
U+C36x
U+C37x
U+C38x
U+C39x
U+C3Ax
U+C3Bx
U+C3Cx
U+C3Dx
U+C3Ex
U+C3Fx
U+C40x
U+C41x
U+C42x
U+C43x
U+C44x
U+C45x
U+C46x
U+C47x
U+C48x
U+C49x
U+C4Ax
U+C4Bx
U+C4Cx
U+C4Dx
U+C4Ex
U+C4Fx
U+C50x
U+C51x
U+C52x
U+C53x
U+C54x
U+C55x
U+C56x
U+C57x
U+C58x
U+C59x
U+C5Ax
U+C5Bx
U+C5Cx
U+C5Dx
U+C5Ex
U+C5Fx
U+C60x
U+C61x
U+C62x
U+C63x
U+C64x
U+C65x
U+C66x
U+C67x
U+C68x
U+C69x
U+C6Ax
U+C6Bx
U+C6Cx
U+C6Dx
U+C6Ex
U+C6Fx
U+C70x
U+C71x
U+C72x
U+C73x
U+C74x
U+C75x
U+C76x
U+C77x
U+C78x
U+C79x
U+C7Ax
U+C7Bx
U+C7Cx
U+C7Dx
U+C7Ex
U+C7Fx
U+C80x
U+C81x
U+C82x
U+C83x
U+C84x
U+C85x
U+C86x
U+C87x
U+C88x
U+C89x
U+C8Ax
U+C8Bx
U+C8Cx
U+C8Dx
U+C8Ex
U+C8Fx
U+C90x
U+C91x
U+C92x
U+C93x 줿
U+C94x
U+C95x
U+C96x
U+C97x 쥿
U+C98x
U+C99x
U+C9Ax
U+C9Bx 즿
U+C9Cx
U+C9Dx
U+C9Ex
U+C9Fx 짿
U+CA0x
U+CA1x
U+CA2x
U+CA3x 쨿
U+CA4x
U+CA5x
U+CA6x
U+CA7x 쩿
U+CA8x
U+CA9x
U+CAAx
U+CABx 쪿
U+CACx
U+CADx
U+CAEx
U+CAFx 쫿
U+CB0x
U+CB1x
U+CB2x
U+CB3x 쬿
U+CB4x
U+CB5x
U+CB6x
U+CB7x 쭿
U+CB8x
U+CB9x
U+CBAx
U+CBBx 쮿
U+CBCx
U+CBDx
U+CBEx
U+CBFx 쯿
U+CC0x
U+CC1x
U+CC2x
U+CC3x 찿
U+CC4x
U+CC5x
U+CC6x
U+CC7x 챿
U+CC8x
U+CC9x
U+CCAx
U+CCBx 첿
U+CCCx
U+CCDx
U+CCEx
U+CCFx 쳿
U+CD0x
U+CD1x
U+CD2x
U+CD3x 촿
U+CD4x
U+CD5x
U+CD6x
U+CD7x 쵿
U+CD8x
U+CD9x
U+CDAx
U+CDBx 춿
U+CDCx
U+CDDx
U+CDEx
U+CDFx 췿
U+CE0x
U+CE1x
U+CE2x
U+CE3x 츿
U+CE4x
U+CE5x
U+CE6x
U+CE7x 칿
U+CE8x
U+CE9x
U+CEAx
U+CEBx 캿
U+CECx
U+CEDx
U+CEEx
U+CEFx 컿
U+CF0x
U+CF1x
U+CF2x
U+CF3x 켿
U+CF4x
U+CF5x
U+CF6x
U+CF7x 콿
U+CF8x
U+CF9x
U+CFAx
U+CFBx 쾿
U+CFCx
U+CFDx
U+CFEx
U+CFFx 쿿
U+D00x 퀀
U+D01x
U+D02x
U+D03x
U+D04x
U+D05x
U+D06x
U+D07x
U+D08x
U+D09x
U+D0Ax
U+D0Bx
U+D0Cx
U+D0Dx
U+D0Ex
U+D0Fx
U+D10x
U+D11x
U+D12x
U+D13x
U+D14x
U+D15x
U+D16x
U+D17x
U+D18x
U+D19x
U+D1Ax
U+D1Bx
U+D1Cx
U+D1Dx
U+D1Ex
U+D1Fx
U+D20x
U+D21x
U+D22x
U+D23x
U+D24x
U+D25x
U+D26x
U+D27x
U+D28x
U+D29x
U+D2Ax
U+D2Bx
U+D2Cx
U+D2Dx
U+D2Ex
U+D2Fx
U+D30x
U+D31x
U+D32x
U+D33x
U+D34x
U+D35x
U+D36x
U+D37x
U+D38x
U+D39x
U+D3Ax
U+D3Bx
U+D3Cx
U+D3Dx
U+D3Ex
U+D3Fx
U+D40x
U+D41x
U+D42x
U+D43x
U+D44x
U+D45x
U+D46x
U+D47x
U+D48x
U+D49x
U+D4Ax
U+D4Bx
U+D4Cx
U+D4Dx
U+D4Ex
U+D4Fx
U+D50x
U+D51x
U+D52x
U+D53x
U+D54x
U+D55x
U+D56x
U+D57x
U+D58x
U+D59x
U+D5Ax
U+D5Bx
U+D5Cx
U+D5Dx
U+D5Ex
U+D5Fx
U+D60x
U+D61x
U+D62x
U+D63x
U+D64x
U+D65x
U+D66x
U+D67x
U+D68x
U+D69x
U+D6Ax
U+D6Bx
U+D6Cx
U+D6Dx
U+D6Ex
U+D6Fx
U+D70x
U+D71x
U+D72x
U+D73x
U+D74x
U+D75x
U+D76x
U+D77x
U+D78x
U+D79x
U+D7Ax
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 11.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

History[edit]

Encoding hangul syllables in Unicode was complicated by a reorganization of the code points:

  • Unicode version 1.0.0 encoded 2,350 modern Korean hangul syllables from KS C 5601-1987 at U+3400..3D2D. This range is now part of CJK Unified Ideographs Extension A.
  • Version 1.1 added 1,930 additional modern syllables (from KS C 5659-1990) at U+3D2E..44BD and 2,376 old Korean syllables (from KS C 5657-1991) at U+44BE-4DFF. These collectively cover the remainder of what is now CJK Unified Ideographs Extension A and all of what is now Yijing Hexagram Symbols.
  • Version 2.0 added the 4,516 remaining possible syllables from KS C 5601-1992 and rearranged[3][4] all of the encoded syllables into the current U+AC00-D7AF range which allows algorithmic decomposition into individual jamo.

RFC 2279 explains that this significant incompatible change was made on the assumption that no data or software using Unicode for Korean existed:

"The official justification for allowing such an incompatible change was that no implementations and no data containing Hangul existed, a statement that is likely to be true but remains unprovable. The incident has been dubbed the "Korean mess", and the relevant committees have pledged to never, ever again make such an incompatible change." - RFC 2279

Subsequently, Unicode adopted an encoding stability policy which states that "Once a character is encoded, it will not be moved or removed".[5]

The following Unicode-related documents record the purpose and process of defining specific characters in the Hangul Syllables block:

Version Final code points[a] Count L2 ID WG2 ID Document
2.0 U+AC00..D7A3 11,172 L2/99-022 N1942 Paterson, Bruce (1998-12-08), Hangul syllable name rules, proposed for ISO/IEC 10646 2nd Edition 
L2/99-114 N2018 Paterson, Bruce (1999-03-31), Draft Technical Technical Corrigendum No. 3 to ISO/IEC 10646-1: 1993 
L2/99-297 N2119 Disposition of Comments Report on SC 2 N 3306, Draft Technical Corrigendum No. 3 to ISO/IEC 10646-1: 1993, 1999-09-20 
L2/99-298 N2120 Paterson, Bruce (1999-09-21), Final Text for Technical Corrigendum No. 3 to ISO/IEC 10646-1: 1993 
L2/03-100 Edberg, Peter (2002-11-05), Hangul Mapping Errors 
L2/02-463 N2564 Kyongsok, Kim (2002-11-30), 3-way cross-reference tables - KS X 1001, KPS 9566, and UCS 
L2/04-392 West, Andrew (2004-10-21), Unicode 1 Hangul Mapping Errors 
L2/04-361 Moore, Lisa (2004-11-23), "Properties - Unicode 1 Hangul Mapping Errors", UTC #101 Minutes 
  1. ^ Proposed code points and characters names may differ from final code points and names

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Unicode character database". The Unicode Standard. Retrieved 2016-07-09. 
  2. ^ "Enumerated Versions of The Unicode Standard". The Unicode Standard. Retrieved 2016-07-09. 
  3. ^ Chang, K. D.; Choi, In Sook; Kim, Jung Ho (1995-10-04). "Korean Hangul Encoding Conversion Table". 
  4. ^ "Notes and corrections for HANGUL.TXT". 2005-10-13. 
  5. ^ "Unicode Character Encoding Stability Policies". Unicode Consortium. 2016-11-14.