Hangul Syllables

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Hangul Syllables
RangeU+AC00..U+D7AF
(11,184 code points)
PlaneBMP
ScriptsHangul
Major alphabetsHangul
Assigned11,172 code points
Unused12 reserved code points
Source standardsKS C 5601-1992
Unicode version history
1.0.02,350 (+2,350)
1.16,656 (+4,306)
2.011,172 (+4,516)
Note: Characters moved from U+3400..U+4DFF to their current locations with Unicode version 2.0.[1][2]

Hangul Syllables is a Unicode block containing precomposed Hangul syllable blocks for modern Korean. The syllables can be directly mapped by algorithm to sequences of 2 or 3 characters in the Hangul Jamo Unicode block:

  • one of U+1100..U+1112: the 19 modern Hangul leading consonant jamos;
  • one of U+1161..U+1175: the 21 modern Hangul vowel jamos;
  • none, or one of U+11A8..U+11C2: the 27 modern Hangul trailing consonnant jamos.

This block is encoded according to the canonically equivalent order of these (2 or 3) jamos (one in each subrange of jamos above) composing each syllable.

Note that a full Hangul syllable may include one of these characters but may be preceded by one or more leading consonant jamos, and followed by one or more trailing jamos (possibly preceded by one or more vowel jamos if the encoded syllable is composed by 2 jamos does not include any trailing consonant jamos). As well some Hangul syllables may not include any one of these precomposed character. But such extension of the Hangul script (which allows creating more complex syllables composed in the same square) is not very common in modern Korean.

Block[edit]

Hangul Syllables[1][2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+AC0x
U+AC1x
U+AC2x
U+AC3x 갿
U+AC4x
U+AC5x
U+AC6x
U+AC7x 걿
U+AC8x
U+AC9x
U+ACAx
U+ACBx 겿
U+ACCx
U+ACDx
U+ACEx
U+ACFx 곿
U+AD0x
U+AD1x
U+AD2x
U+AD3x 괿
U+AD4x
U+AD5x
U+AD6x
U+AD7x 굿
U+AD8x
U+AD9x
U+ADAx
U+ADBx 궿
U+ADCx
U+ADDx
U+ADEx
U+ADFx 귿
U+AE0x
U+AE1x
U+AE2x
U+AE3x 긿
U+AE4x
U+AE5x
U+AE6x
U+AE7x 깿
U+AE8x
U+AE9x
U+AEAx
U+AEBx 꺿
U+AECx
U+AEDx
U+AEEx
U+AEFx 껿
U+AF0x
U+AF1x
U+AF2x
U+AF3x 꼿
U+AF4x
U+AF5x
U+AF6x
U+AF7x 꽿
U+AF8x
U+AF9x
U+AFAx
U+AFBx 꾿
U+AFCx
U+AFDx
U+AFEx
U+AFFx 꿿
U+B00x 뀀
U+B01x
U+B02x
U+B03x
U+B04x
U+B05x
U+B06x
U+B07x
U+B08x
U+B09x
U+B0Ax
U+B0Bx
U+B0Cx
U+B0Dx
U+B0Ex
U+B0Fx
U+B10x
U+B11x
U+B12x
U+B13x
U+B14x
U+B15x
U+B16x
U+B17x
U+B18x
U+B19x
U+B1Ax
U+B1Bx
U+B1Cx
U+B1Dx
U+B1Ex
U+B1Fx
U+B20x
U+B21x
U+B22x
U+B23x
U+B24x
U+B25x
U+B26x
U+B27x
U+B28x
U+B29x
U+B2Ax
U+B2Bx
U+B2Cx
U+B2Dx
U+B2Ex
U+B2Fx
U+B30x
U+B31x
U+B32x
U+B33x
U+B34x
U+B35x
U+B36x
U+B37x
U+B38x
U+B39x
U+B3Ax
U+B3Bx
U+B3Cx
U+B3Dx
U+B3Ex
U+B3Fx
U+B40x
U+B41x
U+B42x
U+B43x
U+B44x
U+B45x
U+B46x
U+B47x
U+B48x
U+B49x
U+B4Ax
U+B4Bx
U+B4Cx
U+B4Dx
U+B4Ex
U+B4Fx
U+B50x
U+B51x
U+B52x
U+B53x
U+B54x
U+B55x
U+B56x
U+B57x
U+B58x
U+B59x
U+B5Ax
U+B5Bx
U+B5Cx
U+B5Dx
U+B5Ex
U+B5Fx
U+B60x
U+B61x
U+B62x
U+B63x
U+B64x
U+B65x
U+B66x
U+B67x
U+B68x
U+B69x
U+B6Ax
U+B6Bx
U+B6Cx
U+B6Dx
U+B6Ex
U+B6Fx
U+B70x
U+B71x
U+B72x
U+B73x
U+B74x
U+B75x
U+B76x
U+B77x
U+B78x
U+B79x
U+B7Ax
U+B7Bx
U+B7Cx
U+B7Dx
U+B7Ex
U+B7Fx
U+B80x
U+B81x
U+B82x
U+B83x
U+B84x
U+B85x
U+B86x
U+B87x
U+B88x
U+B89x
U+B8Ax
U+B8Bx
U+B8Cx
U+B8Dx
U+B8Ex
U+B8Fx
U+B90x
U+B91x
U+B92x
U+B93x 뤿
U+B94x
U+B95x
U+B96x
U+B97x 륿
U+B98x
U+B99x
U+B9Ax
U+B9Bx 릿
U+B9Cx
U+B9Dx
U+B9Ex
U+B9Fx 맿
U+BA0x
U+BA1x
U+BA2x
U+BA3x 먿
U+BA4x
U+BA5x
U+BA6x
U+BA7x 멿
U+BA8x
U+BA9x
U+BAAx
U+BABx 몿
U+BACx
U+BADx
U+BAEx
U+BAFx 뫿
U+BB0x
U+BB1x
U+BB2x
U+BB3x 묿
U+BB4x
U+BB5x
U+BB6x
U+BB7x 뭿
U+BB8x
U+BB9x
U+BBAx
U+BBBx 뮿
U+BBCx
U+BBDx
U+BBEx
U+BBFx 믿
U+BC0x
U+BC1x
U+BC2x
U+BC3x 밿
U+BC4x
U+BC5x
U+BC6x
U+BC7x 뱿
U+BC8x
U+BC9x
U+BCAx
U+BCBx 벿
U+BCCx
U+BCDx
U+BCEx
U+BCFx 볿
U+BD0x
U+BD1x
U+BD2x
U+BD3x 봿
U+BD4x
U+BD5x
U+BD6x
U+BD7x 뵿
U+BD8x
U+BD9x
U+BDAx
U+BDBx 붿
U+BDCx
U+BDDx
U+BDEx
U+BDFx 뷿
U+BE0x
U+BE1x
U+BE2x
U+BE3x 븿
U+BE4x
U+BE5x
U+BE6x
U+BE7x 빿
U+BE8x
U+BE9x
U+BEAx
U+BEBx 뺿
U+BECx
U+BEDx
U+BEEx
U+BEFx 뻿
U+BF0x
U+BF1x
U+BF2x
U+BF3x 뼿
U+BF4x
U+BF5x
U+BF6x
U+BF7x 뽿
U+BF8x
U+BF9x
U+BFAx
U+BFBx 뾿
U+BFCx
U+BFDx
U+BFEx
U+BFFx 뿿
U+C00x 쀀
U+C01x
U+C02x
U+C03x
U+C04x
U+C05x
U+C06x
U+C07x
U+C08x
U+C09x
U+C0Ax
U+C0Bx
U+C0Cx
U+C0Dx
U+C0Ex
U+C0Fx
U+C10x
U+C11x
U+C12x
U+C13x
U+C14x
U+C15x
U+C16x
U+C17x
U+C18x
U+C19x
U+C1Ax
U+C1Bx
U+C1Cx
U+C1Dx
U+C1Ex
U+C1Fx
U+C20x
U+C21x
U+C22x
U+C23x
U+C24x
U+C25x
U+C26x
U+C27x
U+C28x
U+C29x
U+C2Ax
U+C2Bx
U+C2Cx
U+C2Dx
U+C2Ex
U+C2Fx
U+C30x
U+C31x
U+C32x
U+C33x
U+C34x
U+C35x
U+C36x
U+C37x
U+C38x
U+C39x
U+C3Ax
U+C3Bx
U+C3Cx
U+C3Dx
U+C3Ex
U+C3Fx
U+C40x
U+C41x
U+C42x
U+C43x
U+C44x
U+C45x
U+C46x
U+C47x
U+C48x
U+C49x
U+C4Ax
U+C4Bx
U+C4Cx
U+C4Dx
U+C4Ex
U+C4Fx
U+C50x
U+C51x
U+C52x
U+C53x
U+C54x
U+C55x
U+C56x
U+C57x
U+C58x
U+C59x
U+C5Ax
U+C5Bx
U+C5Cx
U+C5Dx
U+C5Ex
U+C5Fx
U+C60x
U+C61x
U+C62x
U+C63x
U+C64x
U+C65x
U+C66x
U+C67x
U+C68x
U+C69x
U+C6Ax
U+C6Bx
U+C6Cx
U+C6Dx
U+C6Ex
U+C6Fx
U+C70x
U+C71x
U+C72x
U+C73x
U+C74x
U+C75x
U+C76x
U+C77x
U+C78x
U+C79x
U+C7Ax
U+C7Bx
U+C7Cx
U+C7Dx
U+C7Ex
U+C7Fx
U+C80x
U+C81x
U+C82x
U+C83x
U+C84x
U+C85x
U+C86x
U+C87x
U+C88x
U+C89x
U+C8Ax
U+C8Bx
U+C8Cx
U+C8Dx
U+C8Ex
U+C8Fx
U+C90x
U+C91x
U+C92x
U+C93x 줿
U+C94x
U+C95x
U+C96x
U+C97x 쥿
U+C98x
U+C99x
U+C9Ax
U+C9Bx 즿
U+C9Cx
U+C9Dx
U+C9Ex
U+C9Fx 짿
U+CA0x
U+CA1x
U+CA2x
U+CA3x 쨿
U+CA4x
U+CA5x
U+CA6x
U+CA7x 쩿
U+CA8x
U+CA9x
U+CAAx
U+CABx 쪿
U+CACx
U+CADx
U+CAEx
U+CAFx 쫿
U+CB0x
U+CB1x
U+CB2x
U+CB3x 쬿
U+CB4x
U+CB5x
U+CB6x
U+CB7x 쭿
U+CB8x
U+CB9x
U+CBAx
U+CBBx 쮿
U+CBCx
U+CBDx
U+CBEx
U+CBFx 쯿
U+CC0x
U+CC1x
U+CC2x
U+CC3x 찿
U+CC4x
U+CC5x
U+CC6x
U+CC7x 챿
U+CC8x
U+CC9x
U+CCAx
U+CCBx 첿
U+CCCx
U+CCDx
U+CCEx
U+CCFx 쳿
U+CD0x
U+CD1x
U+CD2x
U+CD3x 촿
U+CD4x
U+CD5x
U+CD6x
U+CD7x 쵿
U+CD8x
U+CD9x
U+CDAx
U+CDBx 춿
U+CDCx
U+CDDx
U+CDEx
U+CDFx 췿
U+CE0x
U+CE1x
U+CE2x
U+CE3x 츿
U+CE4x
U+CE5x
U+CE6x
U+CE7x 칿
U+CE8x
U+CE9x
U+CEAx
U+CEBx 캿
U+CECx
U+CEDx
U+CEEx
U+CEFx 컿
U+CF0x
U+CF1x
U+CF2x
U+CF3x 켿
U+CF4x
U+CF5x
U+CF6x
U+CF7x 콿
U+CF8x
U+CF9x
U+CFAx
U+CFBx 쾿
U+CFCx
U+CFDx
U+CFEx
U+CFFx 쿿
U+D00x 퀀
U+D01x
U+D02x
U+D03x
U+D04x
U+D05x
U+D06x
U+D07x
U+D08x
U+D09x
U+D0Ax
U+D0Bx
U+D0Cx
U+D0Dx
U+D0Ex
U+D0Fx
U+D10x
U+D11x
U+D12x
U+D13x
U+D14x
U+D15x
U+D16x
U+D17x
U+D18x
U+D19x
U+D1Ax
U+D1Bx
U+D1Cx
U+D1Dx
U+D1Ex
U+D1Fx
U+D20x
U+D21x
U+D22x
U+D23x
U+D24x
U+D25x
U+D26x
U+D27x
U+D28x
U+D29x
U+D2Ax
U+D2Bx
U+D2Cx
U+D2Dx
U+D2Ex
U+D2Fx
U+D30x
U+D31x
U+D32x
U+D33x
U+D34x
U+D35x
U+D36x
U+D37x
U+D38x
U+D39x
U+D3Ax
U+D3Bx
U+D3Cx
U+D3Dx
U+D3Ex
U+D3Fx
U+D40x
U+D41x
U+D42x
U+D43x
U+D44x
U+D45x
U+D46x
U+D47x
U+D48x
U+D49x
U+D4Ax
U+D4Bx
U+D4Cx
U+D4Dx
U+D4Ex
U+D4Fx
U+D50x
U+D51x
U+D52x
U+D53x
U+D54x
U+D55x
U+D56x
U+D57x
U+D58x
U+D59x
U+D5Ax
U+D5Bx
U+D5Cx
U+D5Dx
U+D5Ex
U+D5Fx
U+D60x
U+D61x
U+D62x
U+D63x
U+D64x
U+D65x
U+D66x
U+D67x
U+D68x
U+D69x
U+D6Ax
U+D6Bx
U+D6Cx
U+D6Dx
U+D6Ex
U+D6Fx
U+D70x
U+D71x
U+D72x
U+D73x
U+D74x
U+D75x
U+D76x
U+D77x
U+D78x
U+D79x
U+D7Ax
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 12.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

History[edit]

Encoding hangul syllables in Unicode was complicated by a reorganization of the code points:

  • Unicode version 1.0.0 encoded 2,350 modern Korean hangul syllables from KS C 5601-1987 at U+3400..3D2D. This range is now part of CJK Unified Ideographs Extension A.
  • Version 1.1 added 1,930 additional modern syllables (from KS C 5659-1990) at U+3D2E..44BD and 2,376 old Korean syllables (from KS C 5657-1991) at U+44BE-4DFF. These collectively cover the remainder of what is now CJK Unified Ideographs Extension A and all of what is now Yijing Hexagram Symbols.
  • Version 2.0 added the 4,516 remaining possible syllables from KS C 5601-1992 and rearranged[3][4] all of the encoded syllables into the current U+AC00-D7AF range which allows algorithmic decomposition into individual jamo.

RFC 2279 explains that this significant incompatible change was made on the assumption that no data or software using Unicode for Korean existed:

"The official justification for allowing such an incompatible change was that no implementations and no data containing Hangul existed, a statement that is likely to be true but remains unprovable. The incident has been dubbed the "Korean mess", and the relevant committees have pledged to never, ever again make such an incompatible change." - RFC 2279

Subsequently, Unicode adopted an encoding stability policy which states that "Once a character is encoded, it will not be moved or removed".[5]

The following Unicode-related documents record the purpose and process of defining specific characters in the Hangul Syllables block:

Version Final code points[a] Count UTC ID L2 ID WG2 ID Document
2.0 U+AC00..D7A3 11,172 N767 Ksar, Mike (1991-11-25), Unconfirmed minutes WG2-Paris meeting of October 1991
X3L2/93-078 N848 Modified Korean Position, 1992-07-02
X3L2/95-031 N1158 Korean National Position for adding Hangul characters, 1995-03-08
N1170 Canadian Position on Korean Proposal in N 1158 for adding Hangul characters, 1995-03-10
UTC/1995-021B Aliprand, Joan (1995-03-10), Closed Caucus Minutes, UTC #64
N1198 Working Draft for a pDAM to 10646 on Korean Hangul, 1995-04-05
X3L2/95-053.1 N1199 Background on Korean Coding, 1995-04-30
N1203 Umamaheswaran, V. S.; Ksar, Mike (1995-05-03), "6.4.1", Unconfirmed minutes of SC2/WG2 Meeting 27, Geneva
X3L2/95-053 N1209 PDAM no. 5 to ISO/IEC 10646-1: Hangul Character Collections, 1995-05-09
UTC/1995-xxx "Discussion on Korean", Unicode Technical Committee Meeting #65, Minutes, 1995-06-02
X3L2/95-090 N1253 (doc, txt) Umamaheswaran, V. S.; Ksar, Mike (1995-09-09), "6.3", Unconfirmed Minutes of WG 2 Meeting # 28 in Helsinki, Finland; 1995-06-26--27
N1285 Hangul Syllable Character Name Generation Algorithm, 1995-11-08
N1303 (html, doc) Umamaheswaran, V. S.; Ksar, Mike (1996-01-26), "7. Disposition of comments on pDAM-5 - Korean Hangul", Minutes of Meeting 29, Tokyo
N1331 Paterson, Bruce (1996-03-14), DAM 5 (Korean Hangul) Submittal to JTC1
N1332 Paterson, Bruce (1996-03-14), BMP Revised Layout (DAM 5 diagram attachment)
N1391 Paterson, Bruce (1996-05-18), Hangul syllable name algorithm, simplified
N1353 Umamaheswaran, V. S.; Ksar, Mike (1996-06-25), "6.1", Draft minutes of WG2 Copenhagen Meeting # 30
N1537 Table of Replies and Feedback on Amendment 5 – Hangul, 1997-01-29
L2/97-125 N1561 Paterson, Bruce (1997-05-27), Draft Report on JTC1 letter ballot on DAM No. 5 to ISO/IEC 10646-1 (Hangul)
N1570 Paterson, Bruce (1997-06-23), Almost Final Text (pages 2-5 and 182 only) of DAM 5 – Hangul
L2/97-288 N1603 Umamaheswaran, V. S. (1997-10-24), "5.3.1", Unconfirmed Meeting Minutes, WG 2 Meeting # 33, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, 20 June - 4 July 1997
N1806 (pdf, doc) Kim, Kyongsok; Paterson, Bruce (1998-07-08), Defect Report on AMD 5 - Hangul Syllables with Editor's response
L2/99-022 N1942 Paterson, Bruce (1998-12-08), Hangul syllable name rules, proposed for ISO/IEC 10646 2nd Edition
L2/99-010 N1903 (pdf, html, doc) Umamaheswaran, V. S. (1998-12-30), "11.1", Minutes of WG 2 meeting 35, London, U.K.; 1998-09-21--25
L2/99-114 N2018 Paterson, Bruce (1999-03-31), Draft Technical Technical Corrigendum No. 3 to ISO/IEC 10646-1: 1993
L2/99-232 N2003 Umamaheswaran, V. S. (1999-08-03), "7.1.2 Hangul syllable name rules", Minutes of WG 2 meeting 36, Fukuoka, Japan, 1999-03-09--15
L2/99-297 N2119 Disposition of Comments Report on SC 2 N 3306, Draft Technical Corrigendum No. 3 to ISO/IEC 10646-1: 1993, 1999-09-20
L2/99-298 N2120 Paterson, Bruce (1999-09-21), Final Text for Technical Corrigendum No. 3 to ISO/IEC 10646-1: 1993
L2/03-100 Edberg, Peter (2002-11-05), Hangul Mapping Errors
L2/02-463 N2564 Kim, Kyongsok (2002-11-30), 3-way cross-reference tables - KS X 1001, KPS 9566, and UCS
L2/04-392 West, Andrew (2004-10-21), Unicode 1 Hangul Mapping Errors
L2/04-361 Moore, Lisa (2004-11-23), "Properties - Unicode 1 Hangul Mapping Errors", UTC #101 Minutes
  1. ^ Proposed code points and characters names may differ from final code points and names

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Unicode character database". The Unicode Standard. Retrieved 2016-07-09.
  2. ^ "Enumerated Versions of The Unicode Standard". The Unicode Standard. Retrieved 2016-07-09.
  3. ^ Chang, K. D.; Choi, In Sook; Kim, Jung Ho (1995-10-04). "Korean Hangul Encoding Conversion Table".
  4. ^ "Notes and corrections for HANGUL.TXT". 2005-10-13.
  5. ^ "Unicode Character Encoding Stability Policies". Unicode Consortium. 2016-11-14.

See also[edit]