In the early 14th century, there was no centralized political authority on Okinawa, just a loose confederation of local chieftains, of which Haniji was one, under a nominal head chieftain. The hereditary chief of Nakijin, Haniji gathered the chieftains of the north of the island into alliance with him and formed the polity of Hokuzan (Northern Mountain) after Tamagusuku became head chieftain of the island. Tamagusuku lacked the political ability, charisma, or leadership skills to command the loyalty of the chiefs, and so a number sided with Haniji, while a number of the chiefs of the southern portion of the island sided with Ofusato, chief of Ōzato and formed the polity of Nanzan (Southern Mountain), leaving Tamagusuku with the central portion of the island, and the polity known as Chūzan (Middle Mountain).
Very little is known of the details of Haniji's life, or his rule. A lineage of officials in the royal bureaucracy by the name Haneji (羽地) would come to be descended from him; the most famous of these being Shō Shōken (1617–1675), also known as Haneji Chōshū.
|King of Hokuzan
- Kerr, George H. (2000). Okinawa: the History of an Island People. (revised ed.) Boston: Tuttle Publishing.
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