Hanley, Staffordshire

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Hanley
Hanley stoke on trent city centre.jpg
Central Hanley, looking south along Town Road showing (centre right) the statue of Sir Stanley Matthews
Hanley is located in Staffordshire
Hanley
Hanley
Hanley shown within Staffordshire
OS grid referenceSJ880480
Unitary authority
Ceremonial county
Region
CountryEngland
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Post townSTOKE-ON-TRENT
Postcode districtST1
Dialling code01782
PoliceStaffordshire
FireStaffordshire
AmbulanceWest Midlands
EU ParliamentWest Midlands
UK Parliament
List of places
UK
England
Staffordshire
53°01′29″N 2°10′22″W / 53.0246°N 2.1729°W / 53.0246; -2.1729Coordinates: 53°01′29″N 2°10′22″W / 53.0246°N 2.1729°W / 53.0246; -2.1729

Hanley, in Staffordshire, England, is one of the six major towns that joined together to form the city of Stoke-on-Trent in 1910. Hanley was the only one of the six towns to be a county borough before the merger; its status was transferred to the enlarged borough. Hanley was incorporated as a municipal borough in 1857 and became a county borough with the passage of the Local Government Act 1888.

It is now Stoke-on-Trents city centre, the Potteries Shopping Centre containing many high street chain stores.

History[edit]

Etymology[edit]

The name Hanley comes from either "haer lea", meaning "high meadow”, or "heah lea" meaning "rock meadow".[citation needed]

Coal mining[edit]

At one time, there were many coal mines in North Staffordshire. Hanley Deep Pit was opened in 1854. It was the deepest pit in the North Staffordshire coalfield, reaching a depth of 1500 feet. At its peak in the 1930s it employed some 2000 men and boys often producing 9000 tons of coal a week. The pit was closed in 1962 but much of the headgear and spoilheaps were left in situ. Then, in the 1980s, the original site was cleared, landscaped and converted into Hanley Forest Park.[1][2] Coal miners in the Hanley and Longton area ignited the 1842 General Strike and associated Pottery Riots. The College Road drill hall was completed in 1903.[3]

Garden Festival[edit]

The 1986 Stoke-on-Trent Garden Festival led to the reclamation of large areas of land west of the city centre area – including the former Shelton steelworks, which had been derelict since 1978. Ironically, when the Garden Festival closed, the land remained derelict for some time, before being re-developed partly into public parkland and partly for retail and leisure.

Public transport[edit]

In 2013, a brand new and modern bus station opened in Hanley. This replaced the former bus station, on Lichfield Street. The new bus station is the first stage in the regeneration project which will see the previous bus station demolished, and replaced with a new centre consisting of shops, restaurants and a cinema. The new bus station is smaller than its predecessor, and has seen various routes in and out of the city changed to accommodate the location of the new bus station. The bus station features a sheltered waiting area, Spar shop, cafe and toilets, is covered by CCTV, and has digital timetables showing information on travel times for the day, as well as Now/Next above the entrance to each bay. Access to the station is controlled by automatic doors, at both the pedestrian entrance and coach bays.

The new bus station links Hanley with towns in North Staffordshire, as well as Buxton, Crewe and Stafford. Most services are run by First Potteries, though there are a number of smaller independent operators, such as Wardle Transport, D&G Bus, and Arriva Midlands. In addition, National Express Coaches connect Hanley with destinations including London, Birmingham, Liverpool and Manchester, with additional seasonal services to holiday destinations. As part of the redevelopment of the town and wider city, a new bus interchange will be built on John Street, allowing the current station to be demolished to make room for further redevelopment of the town.

Hanley no longer has a railway station but there was once one located on Trinity Street, on the Potteries Loop Line, which was opened by the North Staffordshire Railway for passengers on 13 July 1864.[4] The station survived for 100 years – it was closed in 1964, as part of the Beeching Axe, and the land is now a car park.

Hanley is also connected to the waterways network; it meets the Trent and Mersey Canal at Festival Park, it is also connected to the east of the country via the Cauldon Canal.

Attempt to change the name[edit]

On 1 April 1910, the town was federated into the county borough of Stoke-on-Trent. By 1925 the area was granted city status.

In recent years, there has been a notable decline in the use of the name of Hanley by officialdom, owing to the town's increasing role as a city centre. Road signs on major roads into and around the city now refer to the area as 'City centre', although Hanley's name still appears on local road signs. Many documents published by local and national government also refer to the area as the city centre, as does public transport in the region.

In 2009,[5] the City Centre Partnership (a body promoting the development and re-generation of the city centre) proposed officially renaming the town centre (specifically, the area within the ring road) to Stoke-on-Trent City Centre, while keeping the Hanley name for the surrounding area. The Partnership is actively encouraging businesses in the area to remove the name of Hanley from their addresses, and have asked the city council to ask the Ordnance Survey to refer to the area on their maps as the city centre, instead of Hanley.

The reasoning behind these proposals is that while Stoke-on-Trent has been federated for over 100 years, it is still polycentric. In other words, it has the characteristics of (at least) six coalesced towns, instead of a single city. The current situation can also be confusing for visitors to the city, who regularly end up in the town of Stoke-upon-Trent (which has renaming proposals of its own), thinking it is the city centre.

These trends and proposals have been met with general opposition from the people of the city. Residents of Hanley see them as a loss of the town's heritage,[6] while residents of the other towns in the city see them as promoting Hanley over their respective towns. However, Hanley still remains the main name in usage for this town; particularly in popular parlance, where the phrase "Up 'Anley, duck" is a common local phrase describing going either shopping or for a night out; Hanley being the most common place people go to for these things.

Cultural sites[edit]

Map of Hanley in 1800, showing over 20 potteries, including Ridgway Potteries.

Hanley also offers several cultural facilities such as the Potteries Museum & Art Gallery (a large ceramics collection, and restored Spitfire), the Victoria Hall, the Regent Theatre, BBC Radio Stoke's Open Centre and studios, while Piccadilly hosts the annual Sanity Fair and French Market events. Hanley is also the location of Stoke Pride, an annual pride event for LGBT people of the city.

Religion[edit]

Christian Churches and Chapels in Hanley include: Bethel Evangelical Free Church (Newhall Street), Bethesda Town Mission (Jasper Street), Congregational Independent Tabernacle Church (High Street), Elim Church (Bucknall Old Road corner of Mynors Street, Northwood), Etruria Wesleyan Chapel (Etruria Old Road, Etruria), Holy Trinity C of E (Lower Mayer Street, Northwood), Providence Methodist Church (Junction of Town Road, and Hulton Street), St. John's C of E (Town Road, Hanley), St. Luke's C of E (Wellington Terrace), St. Mark's C of E (Broad Street, Shelton), St. Matthew's C of E (Birches Head), Sacred Heart RC (Jasper Street), Trinity Methodist (Keelings Road, Northwood), and St Simon and St Jude (Seaford Street, College (was Victoria) Road, Shelton).

Hanley in old Trade Journals[edit]

"HANLEY a large modern town and chapelry, in the parish of Stoke, is about two miles east by north of Newcastle [under-Lyme], and ranks next to Burslem in size, extent and opulence. The town is in an elevated situation, and the streets forming which are irregular, but many of the houses are well built. The chapelry contained, in 1821, 5,622 inhabitants."

1828 journal

"Hanley, the most populous town in North Staffordshire, is generally described as the capital of the Potteries, a title to which it has certainly the greatest pretensions; ........ it has during the present century made such strides in the art, as to overtake and pass all competitors. At the census of 1891, the population of the municipal borough reached the total of 54,846; and such is the prosperity of the district, that at the present time this number has been very largely increased.

1893 journal

Notable people[edit]

Statue of Arnold Bennett outside the Potteries Museum & Art Gallery in Hanley
Sir Stanley Matthews statue in the town centre

sport[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pictures of Hanley Deep Pit Archived 24 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
  2. ^ History of Hanley Deep Pit from local newspaper extracts Archived 24 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
  3. ^ "Hanley". The Drill Hall Project. Retrieved 29 September 2017.
  4. ^ The North Staffordshire Railway Rex Christiansen & R. W. Miller. David & Charles Newton Abbot 1971 p. 79
  5. ^ Stoke-on-Trent City Centre Partnership Business Plan 2009–2010[permanent dead link]
  6. ^ Pits n Pots: Bid to get rid of Hanley
  7. ^ Edward Smith, Find a Grave retrieved 19 February 2018
  8. ^ "No. 32178", The London Gazette (Supplement), 1 January 1921, p.2 retrieved 19 February 2018
  9. ^ Arnold Bennett: The Edwardian David Bowie?, BBC News, Entertainment & Arts, 23 June 2014 retrieved 19 February 2018
  10. ^ Frederick Hurten Rhead, www.pottery-english.com website retrieved 19 February 2018
  11. ^ Painting(s) by or after Raymond Coxon, at the Art UK site retrieved 19 February 2018
  12. ^ International Society of Phthirapterists (ISoP), Hopkins, G.H.E retrieved 19 February 2018
  13. ^ UK Parliament website, John Forrester, MP, 31 March 1966 - 11 June 1987 retrieved 19 February 2018
  14. ^ Institute of Historical Research, University of London, Perkin, Harold (1926–2004) retrieved 19 February 2018
  15. ^ The Stone and Eccleshall Gazette, 9th October 2015, A man in high places retrieved 19 February 2018
  16. ^ Bill Rowley at Englandstats.com retrieved 19 February 2018
  17. ^ Stoke City managers at stokecityfc.com retrieved 19 February 2018
  18. ^ Underwood, Alf, National Football Teams retrieved 19 February 2018
  19. ^ SoccerBase Database retrieved 19 February 2018
  20. ^ SoccerBase Database retrieved 19 February 2018
  21. ^ The Telegraph, 30 Aug 2004, West still hooked on adrenalin retrieved 19 February 2018
  22. ^ Portland Timbers, USA, stats retrieved 19 February 2018

External links[edit]