|Native name||Đường sắt đô thị Hà Nội|
|Transit type||Rapid transit|
|Number of lines||1 (in operation) |
1 (under construction)
|Number of stations||12 (in operation) |
12 (under construction)
|Began operation||6 November 2021|
|Operator(s)||Hanoi Metro Company and Tokyo Metro|
|Number of vehicles||13|
|System length||13.1 km (in operation) |
12 km (under construction)
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8+1⁄2 in) standard gauge|
|Top speed||80 km/h (50 mph)|
It is operated by Hanoi Metro Company (HMC). The first line (Line 2A - Cat Linh Line) opened to service on 6 November 2021.
The system includes elevated and underground sections. Another line (Line 3 - Van Mieu Line) is under construction, expected to commence operations at the end of 2022.
The system will eventually consist of 8 lines with a total length of 318 kilometres (198 mi), and is initially expected to carry 200,000 passengers per day. Upon opening, daily ridership was at 12,000.
As the capital city of Vietnam, Hanoi's population is growing rapidly. As of 2010 (the year construction started on the first line), Hanoi's population was around 6,910,000. Hoàn Kiếm District and Ba Đình District are the districts with the highest population density. The government expects the population of Hanoi to increase to 8,000,000 by 2030. The growing population would affect the city's operation and development. To solve this issue, the Vietnamese government and the Hanoi People's Committee proposed to build an urban rail transit system, first proposed in the late 1990s.
In 1998, the Vietnamese government revised and agreed the “Hanoi Capital to 2020 Master Plan” which suggested that Hanoi prioritise the building of a rail transit system, with a target to build 5 lines. The "Overall Plan for the Development of Vietnam's Railway Transportation Industry to 2020", released in 2002, and the "2005-2010 Economic and Social Development Plan for 2006-2010", released in 2006, both suggested the same and aimed to finish the metro system by 2010.
The start of construction was delayed continually as the government first required the consultant companies from China, France and Japan, such as SYSTRA and Japan International Cooperation Agency, to finish feasibility studies which ran from 2004 to 2007. These three companies suggested the Hanoi government build a network consisting of 6 lines. Finally, in 2008, the Vietnamese government approved the construction of the suggested lines, which they divided into several phases.
The Phase 1 includes Line 2A and Line 3 construction. Line 2A was started the construction on 2011, and Line 3 was started on 2010.
According to the Prime Minister's decision approving the transport development of Hanoi by 2030 and vision to 2050 (519/QD-TTg dated 31 March 2016), the Hanoi Metro system will consist of 8 lines, including elevated and underground sections. The Ministry of Transport (MoT) and the Hanoi People's Committee (HPC) will both be investors in the project. Phase 1 includes Line 2A and Line 3, Line 2A is on the service, and Line 3 is currently under construction.
|Line Symbol and number||Line name||Terminus||Length (km)||Stations||Depots||Operational date|
|Line 2A||Cát Linh Line (C)||Cat Linh ↔ Yen Nghia||13.1||12||Yên Nghĩa||6 November 2021|
|Line Symbol and number||Line name||Terminus||Length (km)||Stations||Depots||Operational date|
|Line 3||Văn Miếu Line (V)||Nhon ↔ Hanoi Station||12.5 (under construction)
|12 (under construction)
|Nhổn||2022 (First Phase)|
Line 2A (Cat Linh Line): Cat Linh - Ha Dong
The 13.1 km line, consisting of 12 stations (all elevated), and connecting the districts Dong Da, Thanh Xuan and Ha Dong, will be the first operational line in the metro system. This line is constructed using Official Development Assistance (ODA) from China with a total investment of US$868 million. The China Railway Sixth Group is the EPC (Engineering, Procurement and Construction) contractor for the project, and the Ministry of Transport (Vietnam) is an investor.
The construction was started on 10 October 2011 and was initially targeted to begin operations in 2016. In 2016, it was announced that the completion date was to be pushed back to early 2018. However, due to funding and land acquisition issues, construction wasn't completed until September 2018. Following completion, the pilot run and testing was conducted from September to December 2018. Line 2A was scheduled to commence operations in February 2019, before the holidays of Lunar New Year, but was postponed for the sixth time as some station construction works remained incomplete. Transport Minister Nguyen Van The had hopes that operations would begin in April 2019.
On 30 April 2019, a representative from the Railway Project Management Board informed the press that the line was not yet operational, the reason stated being that the system had not yet been issued with a safety certificate and it had not been accepted by the State Acceptance Council. By the deadline of 30 April 2019, the General Chinese Contractor had not completed some stations, depot areas, escalator roofs for stations, drainage connections for Ring Road Station 3, landscaping, trees, electricity and ticketing systems.
After multiple delays, the trial run was restarted on 28 October 2019, to last for 20 days. Beginning in December 2020, Line 2A underwent a full-scale test run in order to check its safety before approval for commercial service. Line 2A opened to the public on 6 Nov 2021.
Line 3 (Van Mieu Line): Nhon - Hanoi Station Section
The Hanoi Metro Rail System Project (Line 3: Nhon - Hanoi Station section) is in line with the Prime Minister's decision approving the transport development of Hanoi by 2030 and vision to 2050 (519/QD-TTg dated 31 March 2016). The project has the Hanoi Metropolitan Railway Management Board, French government, Asian Development Bank, and European Investment Bank as the investors, and will be built in two phases. Phase 1 is 12.5 km long in total and consists of 12 stations, with 8.5 km elevated and 4 km underground, and will serve residents from districts such as Nam Tu Liem, Bac Tu Liem, Cau Giay, Ba Dinh, Dong Da, and Hoan Kiem.
Construction for Line 3 began in 2010 and was initially targeted to commence service in 2018. However, in 2017, it was announced that the construction would not be complete until 2021, and that the operation start was deferred to 2022. In July 2018, the Hanoi Metropolitan Railway Management Board (MRB) announced that only 43% of the work for Line 3 had been completed and that the launch date would most likely be delayed until early 2023.
|Planning and Future lines|
|Line color||Symbol||Line number||Line name||Route||Length (km)||Status||Number of stations||Depots|
|velvet||Line 1||Long Biên Line (L)||Yên Viên/Dương Xá - Long Biên - Hanoi railway station - Ngọc Hồi||36||final planning||23||Yên Viên, Dương Xá, Ngọc Hồi|
|ocean||Line 2||Hoàn Kiếm Line (H)||Noi Bai Airport - Nhat Tan Bridge - Hoang Hoa Tham - Hoan Kiem lake - Hang Bai - Dai Co Viet - Thuong Dinh||42||pending budget approval||32||Xuân Đỉnh, Phủ Lỗ|
|orange||Line 4||Thăng Long Line (T)||(circular line) Mê Linh - Đông Anh - Sài Đồng - Vĩnh Tuy - Ring road 2.5 - Cổ Nhuế - Liên Hà||54||initial planning||41||Liên Hà, Đại Mạch|
|gold||Line 5||Kim Mã Line (K)||South Tây Hồ - Ngọc Khánh - Thăng Long Boulevard Expressway - An Khánh - Ring road 4 - Hoà Lạc||39||initial planning||17||Sơn Đồng, Hoà Lạc|
|silver||Line 6||Nội Bài Line (N)||Noi Bai Airport - Phú Diễn - Hà Đông - Ngọc Hồi||43||initial planning||29||Ngọc Hồi, Kim Mỗ|
|rose||Line 7||Hà Đông Line (A)||Mê Linh - Nhổn - Vân Canh - Dương Nội - Hà Đông||28||initial planning||23||Mê Linh|
|violet||Line 8||Mỹ Đình Line (M)||Sơn Đồng - Mai Dịch - Ring road 3 - Lĩnh Nam - Dương Xá||37||initial planning||26||Sơn Đồng, Cổ Bì|
|brown||Line 9||Sơn Tây Line (S)||Sơn Tây - Hoà Lạc - Xuân Mai||initial planning||Sơn Tây, Xuân Mai|
Line 1 (Long Bien line - L): Ngoc Hoi - Gia Lam (Phase I)
The Ngoc Hoi - Gia Lam section of Metro Line 1 is 15.4 km long and elevated (including 8.9 km elevated, 1.7 km bridge and 4.8 km on surface). The line has the Railway Project Management Unit (RPMU) as its investor and Ministry of Transport as project owner. Its budget is from Japanese ODA. Currently it is in the detailed design phase.
The line will be completed in 3 phases:
- Phase 1: Ngoc Hoi - Gia Lam (15.4 km)
- Phase 2: Gia Lam - Yen Vien
- Phase 3: Gia Lam - Duong Xa
Line 2 (Hoan Kiem line - H): Noi Bai Airport - Nam Thang Long - Tran Hung Dao - Thuong Dinh - Hoang Quoc Viet
This section is 42 km in length, connecting Noi Bai Airport with the city center. There will be 32 stations and 2 depots. The 4 phases of the project are:
- Phase 1: Nam Thang Long - Tran Hung Dao: 11.5 km long, of which 8.9 km underground and 2.6 km on surface. It consists of 10 stations including 7 underground, 3 elevated and 1 depot. The project owner is Hanoi Metropolitan Railway Management Board. The project will be funded by Japanese ODA. At present cost estimate is pending to be approved.
- Phase 2: Tran Hung Dao - Thuong Dinh: 5.9 km long, totally underground and now is at feasibility study phase.
- Phase 3: Thuong Dinh - Ring road 2.5 - Hoang Quoc Viet
- Phase 4: Noi Bai Airport - Nam Thang Long: 12.5 km long
Line 4 (Thang Long line - T): Me Linh - Dong Anh - Hoang Mai - Ring road 2.5 - Co Nhue - Lien Ha
Metro line 4 is the longest out of 8 lines, with 41 stations and 2 depots. It will work as a loop line that takes into account connections with lines 1, 2A, 3, 5, 6 and 7.
Line 5 (Kim Ma line - K): South West Lake - Hoa Lac - Ba Vi
In 2012, the project was expected to start in 2017 but the commencement date has now been postponed. It will be 38.4 km long with 17 stations and 2 depots. Right now feasibility study is carried out by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). Its project owner is the Hanoi Metropolitan Railway Management Board. 2 phases are:
- Phase 1: South West Lake - An Khanh: 14.1 km with 10 stations
- Phase 2: An Khanh - Ba Vi: 24.1 km with 7 stations
Line 6 (Noi Bai line - N): Noi Bai Airport - Phu Dien - Ha Dong - Ngoc Hoi
Metro line 6's total length is 43 km with 29 stations and 2 depots. The route runs mainly on the current national track system, connecting the southern districts to the northern ones and Noi Bai airport (T2 terminal).
Line 7 (Ha Dong line - A): Me Linh - Nhon - Van Canh - Duong Noi
Metro line 7 is 27.6 km long with 23 stations and 1 depot at Me Linh. The route runs in the north to the south, connecting Me Linh urban area to urban area series in the midst of ring roads 3 and 4 and downtown in the west of Hanoi.
Line 8 (My Dinh line - M): Son Dong - Mai Dich - Linh Nam - Duong Xa
Metro line 8 is 37.4 km long with 26 stations and 2 depots. The underground section is from Mai Dich to Linh Nam, and elevated sections are 2 parts: Son Dong to Mai Dich and Linh Nam to Duong Xa.
Line 2A: CRRC trains
On 20 October 2015, the Railway Project Management Unit (RPMU) organized the Cat Linh - Ha Dong sample train exhibition at Giang Vo Exhibition Center, Ba Dinh District. The decision was made to use Chinese rolling stock manufacturer CRRC Corporation Limited (CRRC) trains, made by Beijing Subway Rolling Stock Equipment, to supply the rolling stock for Line 2A.
Each train will consist of 4 carriages, with capacity for over 1,200 passengers. Each carriage weighs around 35 tons, is 19 meters long, 3.8 meters high, and 2.8 meters wide. The first train arrived in Hanoi in March 2017 via the port of Hai Phong. The CRRC supplied a total of 13 four-car train-sets in 2018, which are all currently stabled at a depot at Phu Luong, east of Yen Nghia.
The trains' exteriors are painted green, and the seal of the Hanoi Temple of Literature, which is the symbol Khue Van of Hanoi, is shown on the front of the train, and the line name “Cat Linh - Ha Dong” is displayed along the bottom in white. A small LED screen is place at the left top corner to show the name of the line.
Line 3: Alstom trains
On 17 January 2017, Hanoi Metro Company signed a contract with French locomotive manufacturer Alstom to supply the rolling stock for Line 3, which will come from its Alstom Metropolis series. The current order is for 10 train sets, costing around US$128 million. The trains features an air-conditioning system, speakers, automatic LED lights. The interior is wheelchair accessible, and also includes dedicated space and seating for senior citizens. Each train can carry 950 passengers. First four-car trains were shipped from the port of Dunkirk, on 9 September 2020.
The cyan, pink and grey of the exterior design symbolises rice seeding leaves and dragon fruit, some of the main products in Vietnam. Additionally, like Line 2A, the seal of the Hanoi Temple of Literature is displayed on the front of the train.
Fares and ticketing
The ticket system will allow for connection between all routes and will be usable with other public transportation such as bus, taxi, etc. The tickets will be available for purchase at the terminal (ticket office or vending machine), using a modern, compact form of ticket (similar to an ATM card). Tickets will use modern technology, with value retention and high security.
There will be many types of tickets for passengers to choose from: Tickets take turns, Ticket by day, week, month, Group ticket and Electronic ticket (IC Card) combines many other gadgets.
Line 2A Fares and ticketing
The price of the tickets for the Cat Linh-Ha Dong metro, with the lowest one being VND 8,000 (USD 0.35) for a short trip, VND 15,000 (USD 0.66) for a longest trip, and VND 30,000 (USD 1.32) for a day pass.
A monthly pass for a common passenger is priced at VND 200,000 (USD 8.78).
- "Vietnam's First Metro, in Hanoi, Hobbled by Lack of Riders". voanews.com. 13 December 2021. Retrieved 4 January 2022.
- "Vietnam Tokyo Metro set up to run Hanoi's urban railway".
- Trung Hiếu (10 December 2010). "Dân số Hà Nội: 6.913.161 người". Báo An ninh Thủ đô (in Vietnamese). Retrieved 24 August 2017.
- "Hanoi Metro, Vietnam" (PDF). Systra. Retrieved 24 August 2017.
- "Ex-ante Project Evaluation" (PDF). Japan International Cooperation Agency. 2008. Retrieved 24 August 2017.
- Phan Văn Khải (20 June 1998). "Quyết định 108/1998/QĐ-TTg phê duyệt điều chỉnh quy hoạch chung Thủ đô Hà Nội đến năm 2020". Hệ thống văn bản quy phạm pháp luật (in Vietnamese). Hà Nội: Bộ Tư pháp. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
- "Hoàn thành báo cáo khả thi tuyến đường sắt trên cao Hà Nội - Hà Đông". Hà Nội Mới (in Vietnamese). Việt Báo. 23 October 2004. Retrieved 26 December 2017.
- "The Comprehensive Urban Development Programme in Hanoi Capital City: Final Report" (PDF) (in Vietnamese). Japan International Cooperation Agency; ALMEC Corp; Nippon Koei; Yachiyo Engineering. March 2007. p. 8-64~8-72. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
- "Masterplan of 8 metro lines in Hanoi in 2030 and vision to 2050".
- "Khai thác thương mại đường sắt Cát Linh - Hà Đông vào quý III/2021". Báo điện tử Tiền Phong (in Vietnamese). 10 June 2021. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
- Lâm Hoài (25 September 2010). "Khởi công tuyến đường sắt đô thị đầu tiên tại Hà Nội". Tuổi Trẻ (in Vietnamese). Đoàn Thanh niên Cộng sản Hồ Chí Minh Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh. Retrieved 5 September 2017.
- 赵青 (10 October 2011). "中铁六局承建河内城市轨道建设项目开工". 中国经济网. 河内: 经济日报社. Retrieved 5 September 2017.
- "Test ride of metro line 2A Cat Linh - Ha Dong".
- Đoàn Loan (11 December 2017). "Đường sắt Cát Linh - Hà Đông có thể chậm tiến độ thêm 11 tháng". VnExpress.net (in Vietnamese). Hà Nội: Bộ Khoa học Công nghệ. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
- "Đường sắt Cát Linh – Hà Đông lùi tiến độ lần thứ 10". Radio Free Asia (in Vietnamese). Retrieved 4 June 2019.
- "Hanoi metro receives safety clearance from French consultant". 30 April 2021.
Hanoi’s first metro has been awarded a safety certificate by a French consultant and is set to begin commercial operations next month.
- "Ha Noi Metro Rail System Project (Line 3: Nhon-Ha Noi Station Section)". 10 December 2015.
- Tuắn Phùng (19 February 2017). "Hình ảnh đoàn tàu đầu tiên tuyến đường sắt Cát Linh - Hà Đông". Tuổi Trẻ (in Vietnamese). Đoàn Thanh niên Cộng sản Hồ Chí Minh Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh. Retrieved 3 August 2017.
- Việt Hùng; Trọng Đảng (18 January 2017). "Năm 2021, Hà Nội có tàu điện ngầm". Tiền Phong (in Vietnamese). Đoàn Thanh niên Cộng sản Hồ Chí Minh. Retrieved 3 August 2017.
- "Alstom ships first train for Hanoi metro". 14 September 2020.
- "Hanoi Reveals Train Designs for Metro Line 3, Seeks Public Feedback". Urbanist Hanoi. 8 September 2018. Retrieved 9 December 2018.