Hanoi Metro

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Hanoi Metro
Native nameĐường sắt đô thị Hà Nội
OwnerVietnam Railways
LocaleHanoi, Vietnam
Transit typeRapid transit
Number of lines2 (under construction)
8 (planned)
Number of stations24 (under construction)
Operation will startUnknown
Operator(s)Hanoi Metro Company (HMC)
Number of vehicles13
Headway3-5 minutes
System length13.1 km (under construction)
318 (planned)
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge
ElectrificationThird rail
Top speed80 km/h (50 mph)
System map (Lines under construction)

Hanoi metro Plan - geo.png

The Hanoi Metro (Vietnamese: Đường sắt đô thị Hà Nội, lit. 'Hanoi urban railway') is a rapid transit system, including elevated and underground sections, serves in and around Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam, operating by Hanoi Metro Company (HMC). It will be the first rapid transit system of Vietnam.

The first phase of the system, Line 2A Cat Linh - Ha Dong (Cát Linh Line) and Line 3: Nhon - Hanoi Station (Văn Miếu Line) is under-construction. Line 2A is expected to commence operations later in late 2019 but it is unlikely to be, while Line 3 is projected to begin operations in 2023. The construction period has been beset with financial difficulties, slow construction progress and industrial accidents.[1]

The system will eventually consist of 8 lines with a total length of 318 km. Initially, the operator is expected to carry 200,000 passengers per day.



As a capital city of Vietnam, Hanoi is facing with the rapid growth of population. As of 2010 (the year of first line started construct), the population in Hanoi was about 6,910,000. Hoàn Kiếm District and Ba Đình District are the districts with the highest population density in the city.[2] To 2030, the government is expected that the population of Hanoi will increase to 8,000,000.[3] The increasing numbers of population would affect the city's operation and development.[4] To solve this issue, the Vietnamese government and the Hanoi People's Committee were proposed to build an urban rail transit system advocated at the end of 1990s and the beginning of 2000s.

Later, the Vietnamese government revised and agreed the “Hanoi Capital to 2020 Master Plan” in 1998, suggested that Hanoi has a priority to build a rail transit system, target to build 5 lines.[5] The "Overall Plan for the Development of Vietnam's Railway Transportation Industry to 2020" promulgated in 2002, and the "2005-2010 Economic and Social Development Plan for 2006-2010" promulgated in 2006 were suggested the same plan, and aimed to finish the metro system by 2010.

However, the starting day of construction were delayed continually as the government required the consultant companies from China, France and Japan, such as SYSTRA and Japan International Cooperation Agency to finish some feasibility studies between the years of 2004-2007. These three companies suggested Hanoi government to build 6 lines network. Finally, in 2008, the Vietnamese government approved the construction of suggested lines, and divided into few phases to finish.[6][7]


According to the Prime Minister's Decision approving the transport development of Hanoi by 2030 and vision to 2050 (519/QD-TTg dated 31 March 2016),[8] the Hanoi Metro system consists of 8 lines, including elevated and underground sections. The metro lines are assigned for Ministry of Transport (MoT) and the Hanoi People's Committee (HPC) to be investors. The phase 1 includes Line 2A and Line 3, both are under -construction.

Under Construction lines
Line Symbol and number Line name Terminus Length (km) Stations Depots Estimated operation date
 C  Line 2A Cát Linh Line (C) Cat LinhYen Nghia 13.1 12 Yên Nghĩa 2019
 V  Line 3 Văn Miếu Line (V) NhonHanoi Station 12.5 (under construction)
13.5 (planned)
12 (under construction)
14 (planned)
Nhổn 2023
Line 2A bridge

Construction progress[edit]

 C  Line 2A (Cat Linh Line): Cat Linh - Ha Dong[edit]

Under-construction station of Line 2A, August 2017

The 13.1 km line, consists of 12 stations (all elevated) connecting the districts Dong Da, Thanh Xuan and Ha Dong, is the first line to be used in the whole metro system. This line is constructed using Official Development Assistance (ODA) from China with a total investment of 868 million USD. The China Railway Sixth Group is the EPC (Engineering, Procurement and Construction) contractor for the project, Ministry of Transport (Vietnam) as an investor.[9][10]

The construction was started on 10 October 2011 and was initially targeted to begin operations in 2016. In 2016, it was announced that the completion date will be pushed back to early 2018. However, due to funding and land acquisition issues, construction was only completed in September 2018,[11] and then the pilot run and testing was conducted from September to December. Line 2A was scheduled to commence operations in February 2019, before the holidays of Lunar New Year, [12] however it was postponed for the sixth time as some station works have yet to be complete. Transport Minister Nguyen Van The had hopes that operations would begin in April 2019.

On the 30th of April 2019 a representative from the Railway Project Management Board informed the press that the line would not yet be able to be put into operation. The reason stated for this slow progress is that the system has not been issued with a safety certificate and it has not been accepted by the State Acceptance Council. By the deadline of the 30th of April the General Chinese Contractor had not completed some stations, Depot areas, escalator roofs for stations, drainage connections for Ring Road Station 3, landscaping, trees, electricity and ticketing systems. [13]

 V  Line 3 (Van Mieu Line): Nhon - Hanoi Station Section[edit]

Line 3 is under-construction, 2016

The Hanoi Metro Rail System Project (Line 3: Nhon - Hanoi Station section) is in line with the Prime Minister's Decision approving the transport development of Hanoi by 2030 and vision to 2050 (519/QD-TTg dated 31/03/2016). The project has the Hanoi Metropolitan Railway Management Board, French government, Asian Development Bank and European Investment Bank as the investors and build in two phases. The phase 1 is 12.5 km long in total and consists of 12 stations,[14] with 8.5 km elevated and 4 km underground, will serve residents from districts like Nam Tu Liem, Bac Tu Liem, Cau Giay, Ba Dinh, Dong Da and Hoan Kiem.

Construction for Line 3 began in 2010 and it was initially targeted to commence service in 2018. However, in 2017, it was announced that the construction will only complete in 2021, and the operational date will be pushed back to 2022. In July 2018, the Hanoi Metropolitan Railway Management Board (MRB) announced that only 43% of the work for Line 3 has been completed and the launch date will most likely be delayed to early 2023.

Future plans[edit]

Hanoi metro Future - geo.png
Planning and Future lines
Line color Symbol Line number Line name Route Length (km) Status Number of stations Depots
velvet  L  Line 1 Long Biên Line (L) Yên Viên/Dương Xá - Long Biên - Hanoi Central Station - Ngọc Hồi 36 final planning 23 Yên Viên, Dương Xá, Ngọc Hồi
ocean  H  Line 2 Hoàn Kiếm Line (H) Noi Bai Airport - Nhat Tan Bridge - Hoang Hoa Tham - Hoan Kiem lake - Hang Bai - Dai Co Viet - Thuong Dinh 42 pending budget approval 32 Xuân Đỉnh, Phủ Lỗ
orange  T  Line 4 Thăng Long Line (T) (circular line) Mê Linh - Đông Anh - Sài Đồng - Vĩnh Tuy - Ring road 2.5 - Cổ Nhuế - Liên Hà 54 initial planning 41 Liên Hà, Đại Mạch
gold  K  Line 5 Kim Mã Line (K) South Tây Hồ - Ngọc Khánh - Thăng Long Boulevard Expressway - An Khánh - Ring road 4 - Hoà Lạc 39 initial planning 17 Sơn Đồng, Hoà Lạc
silver  N  Line 6 Nội Bài Line (N) Noi Bai Airport - Phú Diễn - Hà Đông - Ngọc Hồi 43 initial planning 29 Ngọc Hồi, Kim Mỗ
rose  Đ  Line 7 Hà Đông Line (Đ) Mê Linh - Nhổn - Vân Canh - Dương Nội - Hà Đông 28 initial planning 23 Mê Linh
violet  M  Line 8 Mỹ Đình Line (M) Sơn Đồng - Mai Dịch - Ring road 3 - Lĩnh Nam - Dương Xá 37 initial planning 26 Sơn Đồng, Cổ Bì
brown  S  Line 9 Sơn Tây Line (S) Sơn Tây - Hoà Lạc - Xuân Mai initial planning Sơn Tây, Xuân Mai


Line 1 (Long Bien line - L): Ngoc Hoi - Gia Lam (Phase I)

Metro line 1, Ngoc Hoi - Gia Lam section is 15.4 km long and elevated (including 8.9 km elevated, 1.7 km bridge and 4.8 km on surface). The line has Railway Project Management Unit (RPMU) as its investor and Ministry of Transport as project owner. Its budget is from Japanese ODA. Currently it is in detailed design phase.

The whole line will be done in 3 phases:

  • Phase 1: Ngoc Hoi - Gia Lam (15.4 km)
  • Phase 2: Gia Lam - Yen Vien
  • Phase 3: Gia Lam - Duong Xa

Line 2 (Hoan Kiem line - H): Noi Bai Airport - Nam Thang Long - Tran Hung Dao - Thuong Dinh - Hoang Quoc Viet

This is 42 km in total length, connecting Noi Bai Airport with the city center. There will be 32 stations and 2 depots. The 4 phases of the project are:

  • Phase 1: Nam Thang Long - Tran Hung Dao: 11.5 km long, of which 8.9 km underground and 2.6 km on surface. It consists of 10 stations including 7 underground, 3 elevated and 1 depot. The project owner is Hanoi Metropolitan Railway Management Board. The project will be funded by Japanese ODA. At present cost estimate is pending to be approved.
  • Phase 2: Tran Hung Dao - Thuong Dinh: 5.9 km long, totally underground and now is at feasibility study phase.
  • Phase 2: Thuong Dinh - Ring road 2.5 - Hoang Quoc Viet
  • Phase 3: Noi Bai Airport - Nam Thang Long: 12.5 km long

Line 4 (Thang Long line - T): Me Linh - Dong Anh - Hoang Mai - Ring road 2.5 - Co Nhue - Lien Ha

Metro line 4 is the longest out of 8 lines, with 41 stations and 2 depots. It will work as a loop line that takes into account connections with lines 1, 2A, 3, 5, 6 and 7.

Line 5 (Kim Ma line - K): South West Lake - Hoa Lac - Ba Vi

In 2012, the project was expected to start in 2017 but the commencement date has now been postponed. It will be 38.4 km long with 17 stations and 2 depots. Right now feasibility study is carried out by JICA. Its project owner is the Hanoi Metropolitan Railway Management Board. 2 phases are:

  • Phase 1: South West Lake - An Khanh: 14.1 km with 10 stations
  • Phase 2: An Khanh - Ba Vi: 24.1 km with 7 stations

Line 6 (Noi Bai line - N): Noi Bai Airport - Phu Dien - Ha Dong - Ngoc Hoi

Metro line 6's total length is 43 km with 29 stations and 2 depots. The route runs mainly on the current national track system, connecting the southern districts to the northern ones and Noi Bai airport (T2 terminal).

Line 7 (Ha Dong line - D): Me Linh - Nhon - Van Canh - Duong Noi

Metro line 7 is 27.6 km long with 23 stations and 1 depot at Me Linh. The route runs in the north to the south, connecting Me Linh urban area to urban area series in the midst of ring roads 3 and 4 and downtown in the west of Hanoi.

Line 8 (My Dinh line - M): Son Dong - Mai Dich - Linh Nam - Duong Xa

Metro line 8 is 37.4 km long with 26 stations and 2 depots. The underground section is from Mai Dich to Linh Nam, and elevated sections are 2 parts: Son Dong to Mai Dich and Linh Nam to Duong Xa.

Rolling stock[edit]

Line 2A: CRRC trains[edit]

On 20 October 2015, the Railway Project Management Unit (RPMU) organized the Cat Linh - Ha Dong sample train exhibition at Giang Vo Exhibition Center, Ba Dinh District. Finally decided to use Chinese rolling stock manufacturer CRRC Corporation Limited (CRRC) trains which are made by Beijing Subway Rolling Stock Equipment to supply the trains for Line 2A.

The train will consist of 4 carriages, carrying over 1,200 passengers. In particular, the car cabin weighs about 35 tons, is 19 meters long, 3.8 meters high, and 2.8 meters wide. The passenger compartment weighs 32 tons, the other parameters are similar to the cab. The first train arrived in Hanoi in March 2017 via the port of Hai Phong. The CRRC has supplied a total of 13 four-car train-sets in 2018, the trains are stabled at a depot at Phu Luong, east of Yen Nghia.[15]

The outside of the trains are painted with green, the seal of Hanoi - Temple of Literature is showed on the front of the train, which is the symbol Khue Van of Hanoi, and the line name “Cat Linh - Ha Dong” is displayed on the bottom in white colour.

Line 3: Alstom trains[edit]

On 17 January 2017, Hanoi Metro Company signed a contract with French locomotive manufacturer Alstom to supply the rolling stocks for Line 3, uses its Alstom Metropolis series. The current order amount is 10, costs about USD $128 million. The trains features an air-conditioning system, speakers, automatic LED lights and more. The interior is wheelchair accessible, and also includes dedicated space and seating for senior citizens, each train can carry 950 passengers.[16] The first train is expected to deliver to Hanoi in 2020.

The exterior design of the trains features cyan, pink and grey symbolizing rice seeding leaves and dragon fruit which are some of the main products in Vietnam.[17] Also, same as Line 2A, the seal of Hanoi - Temple of Literature is showed in the front of the train.

Fares and ticketing[edit]

According to the Hanoi People’s Committee, the ticket system will ensure the connection between all routes and can be used for other public transportation such as bus, taxi, etc. The tickets are available for purchase at the terminal (ticket office or vending machine), using modern, compact form of ticket (similar to ATM card). Tickets are used modern technology, with value retention and high security.

There are many types of tickets for passengers to choose from: Tickets take turns, Ticket by day, week, month, Group ticket and Electronic ticket (IC Card) combines many other gadgets.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Mạnh Hưng; Vũ Dung (2017-11-10). "Bài 3: Cần được ưu tiên số 1 về hạ tầng" [Lesson 3: Priority No.1 for infrastructure] (in Vietnamese).
  2. ^ Trung Hiếu (2010-12-10). "Dân số Hà Nội: 6.913.161 người". Báo An ninh Thủ đô (in Vietnamese). Retrieved 2017-08-24.
  3. ^ "Hanoi Metro, Vietnam" (PDF). Systra. Retrieved 2017-08-24.
  4. ^ "Ex-ante Project Evaluation" (PDF). Japan International Cooperation Agency. 2008. Retrieved 2017-08-24.
  5. ^ Phan Văn Khải (1998-06-20). "Quyết định 108/1998/QĐ-TTg phê duyệt điều chỉnh quy hoạch chung Thủ đô Hà Nội đến năm 2020". Hệ thống văn bản quy phạm pháp luật (in Vietnamese). Hà Nội: Bộ Tư pháp. Retrieved 2017-09-12.
  6. ^ "Hoàn thành báo cáo khả thi tuyến đường sắt trên cao Hà Nội - Hà Đông". Hà Nội Mới (in Vietnamese). Việt Báo. 2004-10-23. Retrieved 2017-12-26.
  7. ^ "The Comprehensive Urban Development Programme in Hanoi Capital City: Final Report" (PDF) (in Vietnamese). Japan International Cooperation Agency; ALMEC Corp; Nippon Koei; Yachiyo Engineering. March 2007. p. 8-64~8-72. Retrieved 2017-09-12.
  8. ^ "Masterplan of 8 metro lines in Hanoi in 2030 and vision to 2050".
  9. ^ Lâm Hoài (2010-09-25). "Khởi công tuyến đường sắt đô thị đầu tiên tại Hà Nội". Tuổi Trẻ (in Vietnamese). Đoàn Thanh niên Cộng sản Hồ Chí Minh Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh. Retrieved 2017-09-05.
  10. ^ 赵青 (2011-10-10). "中铁六局承建河内城市轨道建设项目开工". 中国经济网. 河内: 经济日报社. Retrieved 2017-09-05.
  11. ^ "Test ride of metro line 2A Cat Linh - Ha Dong".
  12. ^ Đoàn Loan (2017-12-11). "Đường sắt Cát Linh - Hà Đông có thể chậm tiến độ thêm 11 tháng". VnExpress.net (in Vietnamese). Hà Nội: Bộ Khoa học Công nghệ. Retrieved 2018-01-07.
  13. ^ "Đường sắt Cát Linh – Hà Đông lùi tiến độ lần thứ 10". Radio Free Asia (in Vietnamese). Retrieved 2019-06-04.
  14. ^ "Ha Noi Metro Rail System Project (Line 3: Nhon-Ha Noi Station Section)".
  15. ^ Tuắn Phùng (2017-02-19). "Hình ảnh đoàn tàu đầu tiên tuyến đường sắt Cát Linh - Hà Đông". Tuổi Trẻ (in Vietnamese). Đoàn Thanh niên Cộng sản Hồ Chí Minh Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh. Retrieved 2017-08-03.
  16. ^ Việt Hùng; Trọng Đảng (2017-01-18). "Năm 2021, Hà Nội có tàu điện ngầm". Tiền Phong (in Vietnamese). Đoàn Thanh niên Cộng sản Hồ Chí Minh. Retrieved 2017-08-03.
  17. ^ "Hanoi Reveals Train Designs for Metro Line 3, Seeks Public Feedback". Urbanist Hanoi. 2018-09-08. Retrieved 2018-12-09.

External links[edit]