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Hans-Hermann Hoppe
Hoppe in 2017
Born (1949-09-02) 2 September 1949 (age 74)
Cultural conservatism
Spouse(s)Gülçin Imre Hoppe[3]
Margaret Rudelich (div.)[4]
Academic career
InstitutionsBusiness school of University of Nevada, Las Vegas
Mises Institute
Property and Freedom Society
School or
Austrian School
Continental philosophy
Alma materGoethe University Frankfurt
ContributionsArgumentation ethics
Capitalist critique of democracy
AwardsThe Gary G. Schlarbaum Prize (2006)[1]
Franz Cuhel Memorial Prize (Prague Conference on Political Economy 2009)[2][third-party source needed]

Hans-Hermann Hoppe (/ˈhɒpə/;[5] German: [ˈhɔpə]; born 2 September 1949) is a German-American academic associated with Austrian School economics, anarcho-capitalism, right-wing libertarianism, and opposition to democracy.[6][7][8][9][10] He is professor emeritus of economics at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), senior fellow of the Mises Institute think tank, and the founder and president of the Property and Freedom Society.[11][12]

Hoppe has written extensively in opposition to democracy, notably in his 2001 book Democracy: The God That Failed.[13][14][10] The book favors exclusionary "covenant communities" that are "founded for the purpose of protecting family and kin".[15][16] A section of the book favoring exclusion of democrats and homosexuals from society helped popularize Hoppe on the far-right.[13][17][18]

Hoppe was a protégé of Murray Rothbard, who established him at UNLV, where Hoppe taught from 1986 to 2008.[19][7][6] In 2004, a student's complaint about Hoppe's lecture comments regarding homosexuals and time preference led to an investigation and non-disciplinary letter to Hoppe by UNLV, which was subsequently withdrawn after a controversy over academic freedom.[18]

Hoppe founded the Property and Freedom Society in 2006; among the speakers at the organization's conferences in Turkey, some have been white nationalists.[20][21][22][13]

Life and work

Murray Rothbard, whom Hoppe called his mentor and master

Hoppe was born in Peine, West Germany. He completed his undergraduate studies at Saarland University[23] and received his MA and PhD degrees from Goethe University Frankfurt.[12] He studied under Jürgen Habermas, a leading German intellectual of the post-WWII era, but came to reject Habermas's ideas and European leftism generally.[24]

He was a post-doctoral fellow at the University of Michigan, in Ann Arbor, from 1976 to 1978 and earned his habilitation in Foundations of Sociology and Economics from the University of Frankfurt in 1981. Afterward he taught in West Germany and Italy.[6] From 1986[13] until his retirement in 2008,[6] Hoppe was a professor in the School of Business at University of Nevada, Las Vegas. He is a Distinguished Fellow of the Mises Institute, a libertarian think tank that is publisher of much of his work, and was editor of various Mises Institute periodicals.[25]

Hoppe has said that Murray Rothbard was his "principal teacher, mentor and master".[26] Hoppe came to the United States through Rothbard on a scholarship from the Center for Libertarian Studies, and Rothbard also established Hoppe at UNLV.[19] Hoppe said he was "working and living side-by-side with him, in constant and immediate personal contact," and said that from 1985 until Rothbard's 1995 death, he considered Rothbard his "dearest fatherly friend".[27]

Ludwig von Mises, Hoppe's intimate friend whom he called his hero

Hoppe was also intimate friends with the Austrian–American economist Ludwig von Mises, whom he called "his hero".[28] The Intercept describes this as Hoppe's primary "claim to fame".[28]

Hoppe resides in Turkey with his wife Gülçin Imre Hoppe, an Austrian school economist and hotelier.[11][29][13]

Mises Institute and John Randolph Club

The Mises Institute was founded in 1982 by Lew Rockwell, Burton Blumert, and Murray Rothbard,[30] following a split between the Cato Institute and Rothbard, who had been one of the founders of the Cato Institute.[31][non-primary source needed] After Rothbard's death in 1996, Hoppe was a leading anarcho-capitalist figure at the Mises Institute.[7]

Hoppe was active in the John Randolph Club, a far-right alliance of paleolibertarians and paleoconservatives that was organized by Rothbard and associated with the Rockford Institute.[13] The club was known for promoting secessionist and neo-Confederate views in the 1990s.[13]

Property and Freedom Society

In 2006, Hoppe founded The Property and Freedom Society (PFS), with annual conferences in Bodrum, Turkey. It and the Mises Institute represent a paleolibertarian challenge to the Mont Pelerin Society and Atlas Network of think tanks.[8][32][10] Figures of the European New Right and the American alt-right have attended PFS conferences.[10] Quinn Slobodian and Dieter Plehwe describe Hoppe as a "racialist right-wing libertarian", and Slobodian writes that the conferences have included members of the former John Randolph Club along with "new advocates of stateless libertarianism and racial secession".[8][13]

On the fifth anniversary of PFS, Hoppe reflected on its goals: "On the one hand, positively, it was to explain and elucidate the legal, economic, cognitive and cultural requirements and features of a free, state-less natural order. On the other hand, negatively, it was to unmask the State and showcase it for what it really is: an institution run by gangs of murderers, plunderers and thieves, surrounded by willing executioners, propagandists, sycophants, crooks, liars, clowns, charlatans, dupes and useful idiots – an institution that dirties and taints everything it touches."[33]

Hoppe was criticized for inviting white nationalist speakers such as Jared Taylor and neo-Nazi Richard B. Spencer to speak at the PFS.[34][35][22] Describing the PFS, the Southern Poverty Law Center said in 2016 that "in Hoppe one can see the connection between the ultra-Libertarians and white nationalists".[22] Intelligencer in 2017 described the annual PFS meeting as "Davos, but for racists".[21] Slobodian wrote in 2023 that "prophets of racial and social breakdown share the stage with investment advisors and financial consultants" at the conferences.[13]

Views on democracy

Hoppe's book Democracy: The God That Failed, published in 2001, argues that democracy is a cause of civilizational decline.[36] Passages in the book oppose universal suffrage and favor "natural elites".[13] In the book, Hoppe blames democratic forms of government for various social and economic problems, and attributes democracy's failures to pressure groups which seek to increase government expenditures and regulations. Hoppe proposes alternatives and remedies, including secession, decentralization of government, and "complete freedom of contract, occupation, trade and migration".[37] Hoppe argues that monarchy would preserve individual liberty more effectively than democracy.[14] The book helped popularize Hoppe in the far-right, particularly a section of the book that called for the exclusion of political rivals.[13][17]

Janek Wasserman writes that Hoppe "reimagined the Austrian legacy as one of authoritarianism, conservatism, antidemocracy, and anti-Enlightenment".[10] Steven Horwitz called the approaches of Hoppe and his Mises Institute colleague Joseph Salerno "a fascist fist in a libertarian glove".[10] The political scientist George Hawley writes that Hoppe "may be the most important bridge between libertarianism and the Alt-Right".[38] In Hoppe's view, Wasserman writes, "the successes of the fin-de-siecle age—and the Austrian school—were not the product of liberal predominance or cosmopolitan virtues but of the ancien régime and its restrictive social order".[10]

Regarding democracy and the arts, Hoppe argued in 2013 that "democracy leads to the subversion and ultimately disappearance of the notion of beauty and universal standards of beauty. Beauty is swamped and submerged by so-called 'modern art'."[39]

Reviewing Democracy: The God That Failed, Walter Block, a colleague of Hoppe's at the Mises Institute, wrote that Hoppe's arguments shed light "on historical occurrences, from wars to poverty to inflation to interest rates to crime". While Hoppe concedes that 21st-century democracies are more prosperous than the monarchies of old, Hoppe argues that if nobles and kings replaced today's political leaders, their ability to take a long-term view of a country's well-being would "improve matters", Block wrote. Block shared what he called minor criticisms of Hoppe's theses regarding time preferences, immigration and the gap between libertarianism and conservatism.[40]

Alberto Benegas-Lynch Jr. criticized Hoppe's thesis that monarchy is preferable to democracy.[41][third-party source needed] A professor of economics at the University of Buenos Aires who is associated with the libertarian Cato Institute,[42] Benegas-Lynch provided empirical evidence demonstrating that modern monarchies tend to be far poorer than modern democracies. In response, Hoppe argued that those monarchies were poorer than democracies not because of intrinsic features of these political systems, but because the monarchies used on the study, mostly African countries, compared to the democracies, mostly European countries, led to a distortion in the study.[43] The degree of time preference of a democracy in the present will be lower than a democracy of the past, and even lower in a democracy in the future. In order for a study to be consistent comparing both types of government, one needs to eliminate as much variables as possible, like cultural differences, sex differences, time differences, so on.[41] Hoppe argues that this lack of proper elimination of variables led to distortions in B-L's study when comparing democracies in Europe and monarchies in Africa.[third-party source needed]

Asked by The Intercept in 2021 about his incorporation into far-right internet memes celebrating political murder, Hoppe responded that the question was ignorant, writing, "I have been an intellectual champion of private property right, free markets, freedom of contract and association, and peace", and, "What do I know? There are lots of crazy people out there!"[17]

Exclusion of homosexuals and dissidents

Hoppe's belief in the right of property owners to establish communities that engage in racial discrimination, and his assertion that communities could establish exclusive criteria for admission and acceptance, have proven particularly divisive.[44][45]

In Democracy: The God That Failed, Hoppe describes a society of "covenant communities" made up of residents who have signed an agreement defining the nature of that community. He writes that "There would be little or no 'tolerance' and 'openmindedness' so dear to left-libertarians. Instead, one would be on the right path toward restoring the freedom of association and exclusion implied in the institution of private property". He argues that towns and villages could have warning signs saying, "no beggars, bums, or homeless, but also no homosexuals, drug users, Jews, Muslims, Germans, or Zulus".[46][16]

Hoppe also makes plain that he believes that practicing certain forms of discrimination, including the physical separation of people whose lifestyle is deemed incompatible with the purpose of establishing certain communities, is completely compatible with his system.[citation needed]

Hoppe writes: "In a covenant concluded among proprietor and community tenants for the purpose of protecting their private property, no such thing as a right to free (unlimited) speech exists, . . . naturally no one is permitted to advocate ideas contrary to the very purpose of the covenant of preserving and protecting private property, such as democracy and communism. There can be no tolerance toward democrats and communists in a libertarian social order. They will have to be physically separated and expelled from society. Likewise, in a covenant founded for the purpose of protecting family and kin, there can be no tolerance toward those habitually promoting lifestyles incompatible with this goal. They – the advocates of alternative, non-family and kin-centered lifestyles such as, for instance, individual hedonism, parasitism, nature-environment worship, homosexuality, or communism – will have to be physically removed from society, too, if one is to maintain a libertarian order."[44][18]

Commenting on this passage, Martin Snyder of the American Association of University Professors said Hoppe's words will disturb "[t]hose with a better memory than Hoppe for segregation, apartheid, internment facilities and concentration camps, for yellow stars and pink triangles".[18] Hoppe also provoked controversy by calling homosexuality a "perversity or abnormality" analogous to pedophilia, drug use, pornography, polygamy and obscenity.[47]

Walter Block wrote that Hoppe's statement calling for the physical removal of homosexuals from a libertarian political community was "exceedingly difficult to reconcile with libertarianism."[48]

Support for immigration restrictions

Although a self-described anarcho-capitalist who favors abolishing the nation-state, Hoppe also garners controversy due to his support for governmental enforcement of immigration laws, which critics argue is at odds with libertarianism and anarcho-capitalism.[49][35] Hoppe argues that as long as states exist, they should impose some restrictions on immigration. He has equated free immigration to "forced integration" which violates the rights of native peoples, since if land were privately owned, immigration would not be unhindered but would only occur with the consent of private property owners.[50]

Hoppe's Mises Institute colleague Walter Block has characterized Hoppe as an "anti-open immigration activist" who argues that, though all public property is "stolen" by the state from taxpayers, "the state compounds the injustice when it allows immigrants to use [public] property, thus further "invading" the private property rights of the original owners".[51] However, Block rejects Hoppe's views as incompatible with libertarianism. He argues that Hoppe's logic implies that flagrantly unlibertarian laws such as regulations on prostitution and drug use "could be defended on the basis that many tax-paying property owners would not want such behavior on their own private property".[52] Another libertarian author, Simon Guenzl, writing for Libertarian Papers, argues that: "supporting a legitimate role for the state as an immigration gatekeeper is inconsistent with Rothbardian and Hoppean libertarian anarchism, as well as with the associated strategy of advocating always and in every instance reductions in the state's role in society."[49]

In terms of specific immigration restrictions, Hoppe argued that an appropriate policy will require immigrants to the United States to display proficiency in English in addition to "superior (above-average) intellectual performance and character structure as well as a compatible system of values".[53] He suggested that these criteria would lead to a "systematic pro-European immigration bias". Jacob Hornberger of the Future of Freedom Foundation argued that the immigration test Hoppe advocated would probably be prejudiced against Latin American immigrants to the United States.[54][third-party source needed]

Remarks about homosexuals and academic investigation

Hoppe's statements and ideas concerning race and homosexuality have repeatedly provoked controversy among his libertarian peers and his colleagues at UNLV. Following a 4 March 2004, lecture on time preference at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), a student complained that Hoppe created a hostile classroom environment by asserting that homosexuals tend to be more shortsighted than heterosexuals in their ability to save money and plan economically, in part because they tend not to have children.[55] Hoppe also suggested that John Maynard Keynes's homosexuality might explain his economic views, with which Hoppe disagreed.[56] Hoppe also stated that very young and very old people, and couples without children, were less likely to plan for the future. Hoppe told a reporter that the comments lasted only 90 seconds of a 75-minute class, no students questioned the comments, and that in 18 years of giving the lecture he had not received a complaint about them. At the request of university officials, Hoppe apologized to the class. He said, "Italians tend to eat more spaghetti than Germans, and Germans tend to eat more sauerkraut than Italians" and said that he was speaking in generalities. Thereafter, Hoppe told the reporter, the student alleged that Hoppe did not take the complaint seriously and filed a formal complaint. Hoppe told the reporter that he felt as if he was the victim in the incident and that the student should have been told to "grow up".[57]

An investigation was conducted, and the university's provost, Raymond W. Alden III, issued Hoppe a non-disciplinary letter of instruction on 9 February 2005, with a finding that he had "created a hostile or intimidating educational environment in violation of the University's policies regarding discrimination as to sexual orientation". Alden also instructed Hoppe to "... cease mischaracterizing opinion as objective fact" and said that Hoppe's opinion was not supported by peer-reviewed academic literature.[58][third-party source needed]

Hoppe appealed the decision, saying the university had "blatantly violated its contractual obligations" toward him, and described the action as "frivolous interference with my right to academic freedom".[59] He was represented by the American Civil Liberties Union, which threatened legal action.[60][57] The Nevada ACLU executive director said, "We don't subscribe to Hans' theories and certainly understand why some students find them offensive ... But academic freedom means nothing if it doesn't protect the right of professors to present scholarly ideas that are relevant to their curricula".[57] Alden's decision was picked up by Fox News and several blogs and libertarians organized a campaign to contact the university.[60] The university received two weeks of bad publicity and the Interim Chancellor (Nevada System of Higher Education) Jim Rogers expressed concerns about "any attempts to thwart free speech".[61]

Jim Rogers rejected Hoppe's request for a one-year paid sabbatical.[62] UNLV President Carol Harter acted upon Hoppe's appeal on 18 February 2005, deciding that Hoppe's views, even if non-mainstream or controversial, should not be cause for reprimanding him. She dismissed the discrimination complaint against Hoppe, and the non-disciplinary letter was withdrawn from Hoppe's personnel file.[18] She wrote, "In the balance between freedoms and responsibilities, and where there may be ambiguity between the two, academic freedom must, in the end, be foremost."[63][third-party source needed]

Hoppe later wrote about the incident and the UNLV investigation in an article entitled "My Battle With the Thought Police".[64] Martin Snyder of the American Association of University Professors wrote that he should not be "punished for freely expressing his opinions".[18]

Various controversies about academic freedom, including the Hoppe matter and remarks made by Harvard University President Lawrence Summers, prompted the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, to hold a conference on academic freedom in October 2005.[65] In 2009 UNLV proposed a new policy that included the encouragement of reporting by people who felt that they had encountered bias.[66] The proposed policy was criticized by the Nevada ACLU and some faculty members who remembered the Hoppe incident as adverse to academic freedom.[66][67]

Argumentation ethics

Hoppe in 2005

In the September 1988 issue of Liberty,[68] Hoppe attempted to establish an a priori and value-neutral justification for libertarian ethics by devising a new theory which he named argumentation ethics.[69] Hoppe asserted that any argument which in any respect purports to contradict libertarian principles is logically incoherent.[70]

Hoppe argued that, in the course of having an argument about politics (or indeed any subject), people assume certain norms of argumentation, including a prohibition on initiating violence. Hoppe then extrapolated this argument to political life in general, arguing that the norms governing argumentation should apply in all political contexts. Hoppe claimed that, of all political philosophies, only anarcho-capitalist libertarianism prohibits the initiation of aggressive violence (the non-aggression principle); therefore, any argument for any political philosophy other than anarcho-capitalist libertarianism is logically incoherent.[third-party source needed]

In the following issue, Liberty published comments by ten libertarians,[71] followed by a rejoinder from Hoppe.[69] In his comment for Liberty, Hoppe's friend and Mises Institute supervisor Murray Rothbard wrote that Hoppe's theory was "a dazzling breakthrough for political philosophy in general and for libertarianism in particular" and that Hoppe "has managed to transcend the famous is/ought, fact/value dichotomy that has plagued philosophy since the days of the Scholastics, and that had brought modern libertarianism into a tiresome deadlock".[69] However, the majority of Hoppe's colleagues surveyed by Liberty rejected his theory. In his response, Hoppe derided his critics as "utilitarians".[69][third-party source needed]

Mises Institute Senior Fellow Roderick T. Long stated that Hoppe's a priori formulation of libertarianism denied the fundamental principle of Misesean praxeology. On the issue of utilitarianism, Long wrote, "Hoppe's argument, if it worked, would commit us to recognizing and respecting libertarian rights regardless of what our goals are – but as a praxeologist, I have trouble seeing how any practical requirement can be justified apart from a means-end structure."[72] Libertarian philosopher Jason Brennan rejected Hoppe's argument, saying, "Hoppe's argument illicitly conflates a liberty right with a claim right, and so fails."[73][third-party source needed]

Another critic[who?] argued that Hoppe had not provided any non-circular reasons why we "have to regard moral values as something that must be regarded as being established through (consensual) argument instead of 'mere' subjective preferences for situations turning out in certain ways". In other words, the theory relies "on the existence [of] certain intuitions, the acceptance of which cannot itself be the result of 'value-free' reasoning."[74][third-party source needed]


Hoppe was an influence on the neoreactionary monarchist blogger Curtis Yarvin, also known as Mencius Moldbug.[75][76]

Selected works

Books (authored)


  • Handeln und Erkennen [Action and Cognition] (in German). Bern (1976). ISBN 978-3261019004. OCLC 2544452.
  • Kritik der kausalwissenschaftlichen Sozialforschung [Critique of Causal Scientific Social Research] (in German). Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag (1983). ISBN 978-3531116242. OCLC 10432202.
  • Eigentum, Anarchie und Staat Property, Anarchy, and the State (in German). Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag (1987). ISBN 978-3531118116. OCLC 18226538.


Books (edited)

Book contributions


Book reviews

Collected works

See also


  1. ^ Kanopiadmin (18 August 2014). "The Gary G. Schlarbaum Prize". Mises Institute Awards. Ludwig von Mises Institute.
  2. ^ History of PCPE Archived 25 May 2015 at the Wayback Machine, CEVRO Institute, Prague
  3. ^ Deist, Jeff (March–April 2020). "Vol 6, No 2" (PDF). The Austrian. Auburn, AL: Mises Institute. p. 12. Retrieved 18 January 2022.
  4. ^ Block, Walter E.; Futerman, Alan G. (May 2024). "Rejoined to Hoppe on Israel Versus Hamas" (PDF). MEST Journal: 1–57. Retrieved 8 May 2024. Hoppe is himself divorced. This, presumably, renders him 'abnormal and perverse.' Also, this is hypocrisy.
  5. ^ "Hans-Hermann Hoppe: Why Democracy Fails"
  6. ^ a b c d Dieterle, David A. (2013). Economic Thinkers: A Biographical Encyclopedia. Greenwood. p. 145. ISBN 978-0313397462.
  7. ^ a b c Olsen, Niklas; Slobodian, Quinn (April 2022). "Locating Ludwig von Mises: Introduction". Journal of the History of Ideas. 83 (2): 257–267. doi:10.1353/jhi.2022.0012. ISSN 1086-3222. PMID 35603613. S2CID 248987154.
  8. ^ a b c Plehwe, Dieter; Slobodian, Quinn (2020). Nine Lives of Neoliberalism. London: Verso. p. 16. ISBN 9781788732550.
  9. ^ Hawley, George (2017). Right-Wing Critics of American Conservatism. United States: University Press of Kansas. ISBN 9780700625796.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g Wasserman, Janek (24 September 2019). The Marginal Revolutionaries. Yale University Press. p. 281. doi:10.2307/j.ctvnwbxwf. ISBN 978-0-300-24917-0. S2CID 203312066.
  11. ^ a b "Hans-Hermann Hoppe". Ludwig von Mises Institute. 20 June 2014.
  12. ^ a b "UNLV Catalog" (PDF). p. 47. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Slobodian, Quinn (2023). Crack-Up Capitalism: Market Radicals and the Dream of a World Without Democracy (First ed.). New York: Metropolitan Books, Henry Holt and Company. ISBN 978-1-250-75390-8.
  14. ^ a b David Gordon, Review of Hans-Hermann Hoppe, Democracy: The God that Failed, "The Mises Review" of Ludwig von Mises Institute, Volume 8, Number 1, Spring 2002; Volume 8, Number 1.
  15. ^ Jensen, Jacob (April 2022). "Repurposing Mises: Murray Rothbard and the Birth of Anarchocapitalism". Journal of the History of Ideas. 83 (2): 332. doi:10.1353/jhi.2022.0015. ISSN 1086-3222. PMID 35603616. S2CID 248985277. Archived from the original on 12 July 2022. Retrieved 17 April 2023.
  16. ^ a b Block, Walter (2007). "Plumb-Line Libertarianism: A Critique of Hoppe". Reason Papers.
  17. ^ a b c Ketcham, Christopher (4 February 2021). "What the Far-Right Fascination With Pinochet's Death Squads Should Tell Us". The Intercept. Retrieved 13 August 2023.
  18. ^ a b c d e f Snyder, Martin D. (1 March 2005). "Birds of a Feather?". Academe. American Association of University Professors. doi:10.2307/40253419. JSTOR 40253419. Retrieved 17 April 2013.[permanent dead link]
  19. ^ a b Slobodian, Quinn; Plehwe, Dieter (2019). "Neoliberals Against Europe". In William Callison, Zachary Manfredi (ed.). Mutant Neoliberalism: Market Rule and Political Rupture. United Kingdom: Fordham University Press. p. 2019. ISBN 9780823285730.
  20. ^ Mower, Lawrence (May 11, 2007). "Researchers tied to hate groups get invitations." Las Vegas Review-Journal
  21. ^ a b Read, Simon Van Zuylen-Wood, Noreen Malone, Max (30 April 2017). "Beyond Alt: Understanding the New Far Right". Intelligencer. Retrieved 28 August 2023.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  22. ^ a b c Piggott, Stephen (9 June 2016). "PayPal Co-Founder Peter Thiel to Address White Nationalist-Friendly "Property and Freedom Society" Conference in September". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved 30 August 2023.
  23. ^ Jeff Tucker interviews Hans-Hermann Hoppe Archived 3 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine (1 October 2011)
  24. ^ Lew Rockwell, introduction to Hoppe's A Short History of Man (2015), Auburn, Mississippi: Mises Institute, p. 9
  25. ^ Hans Herman Hoppe, The Economics and Ethics of Private Property, Second Edition, Mises Institute, p. xii, ISBN 978-0945466406.
  26. ^ Wile, Anthony (27 March 2011). "Dr. Hans-Hermann Hoppe on the Impracticality of One-World Government and the Failure of Western-style Democracy". The Daily Bell.
  27. ^ Hoppe, Hans-Hermann (1995). L. Rockwell (Ed.), from Murray Rothbard, In Memoriam. Auburn, AL: Ludwig von Mises Institute. pp. 33–37
  28. ^ a b Ketcham, Christopher (4 February 2021). "What the Far-Right Fascination With Pinochet's Death Squads Should Tell Us". The Intercept. The Intercept. Hoppe's claim to fame in the small world of libertarian economics was as second-stringer and all-around gopher to his hero and intimate friend, Ludwig von Mises
  29. ^ Salihovic, Elnur (2015). Major Players in the Muslim Business World. Universal Publishers.
  30. ^ "The Story of the Mises Institute". Ludwig von Mises Institute. 19 September 2018.
  31. ^ "Think Tanks and Liberty". Ludwig von Mises Institute. 27 April 2012.
  32. ^ Slobodian, Quinn; Plehwe, Dieter, eds. (24 May 2022). Market Civilizations. Zone Books. doi:10.2307/j.ctv1vbd2mv. ISBN 978-1-942130-68-0. S2CID 249073465.
  33. ^ Hoppe, Hans Hermann. "The Property And Freedom Society – Reflections After Five Years". lewrockwell.com. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
  34. ^ Mower, Lawrence (May 11, 2007). "Researchers tied to hate groups get invitations." Las Vegas Review-Journal
  35. ^ a b Ganz, John (19 September 2017). "Perspective – Libertarians have more in common with the alt-right than they want you to think". The Washington Post. Retrieved 16 October 2017.
  36. ^ Sedgwick, Mark, ed. (2019). "Mencius Moldbug and Neoreaction". Key Thinkers of the Radical Right: Behind the New Threat to Liberal Democracy. United States: Oxford University Press. p. 191. ISBN 9780190877606.
  37. ^ R.M. Pearce, Book Review: Democracy: the God That Failed, The National Observer (Australia), No. 56, Autumn 2003.
  38. ^ Hawley, George (2017). Making Sense of the Alt-Right. United States: Columbia University Press.
  39. ^ Fonseca, Joel (1 August 2013). "The Brazilian Philosophy Magazine Dicta & Contradicta Interviews Hans-Hermann Hoppe" Archived 4 July 2022 at the Wayback Machine. Mises Institute Brazil
  40. ^ Walter Block, Review of Democracy: The God that Failed: The Economics and Politics of Monarchy, Democracy, and Natural Order, The American Journal of Economics and Sociology, Vol. 61, No. 3, July 2002.
  41. ^ a b Hoppe, Hans-Hermann (1997). "On Theory and History. Reply to Benegas-Lynch Jr.". Published in Gerard Radnitzky, ed., Values and the Social Order, Vol. 3 (Aldershot: Avebury, 1997).
  42. ^ "Alberto Benegas Lynch." Cato.org
  43. ^ Hoppe, Hans-Hermann (1997). "On Theory and History. Reply to Benegas-Lynch Jr" (PDF). Values and the Social Order. 3: 1–8 – via HansHoppe.com.
  44. ^ a b Hoppe, Democracy: The God That Failed, pp. 216–218
  45. ^ kanopiadmin (11 April 2005). "My Battle With The Thought Police". Mises Institute. Retrieved 16 October 2017.
  46. ^ Hoppe, Hans-Hermann (2001). Democracy: The God That Failed: The Economics and Politics of Monarchy, Democracy and Natural Order, Transaction Publishers, p. 211. ISBN 1412815290
  47. ^ Hoppe, Hans-Hermann (2011). Democracy: The God That Failed: The Economics and Politics of Monarchy, Democracy and Natural Order. Transaction Publishers. p. 206. ISBN 978-1412815291. Did this not imply that vulgarity, obscenity, profanity, drug use, promiscuity, pornography, prostitution, homosexuality, polygamy, pediphilia or any other conceivable perversity or abnormality, insofar as they were victimless crimes, were no offenses at all but perfectly normal and legitimate activities and lifestyles?
  48. ^ Walter Block (Loyola University New Orleans), "Libertarianism is unique; it belongs neither to the right nor the left: a critique of the views of Long, Holcombe, and Baden on the left, Hoppe, Feser and Paul on the right", undated, published at Ludwig von Mises Institute website, pp. 22–23.
  49. ^ a b Guenzl, Simon (23 June 2016). "Public Property and the Libertarian Immigration Debate". Libertarian Papers. 8. I conclude that supporting a legitimate role for the state as an immigration gatekeeper is inconsistent with Rothbardian and Hoppean libertarian anarchism, as well as with the associated strategy of advocating always and in every instance reductions in the state's role in society.
  50. ^ Hans Hoppe, On Free Immigration and Forced Integration, LewRockwell.com, 1999.
  51. ^ Anthony Gregory and Walter Block On Immigration: Reply to Hoppe, Journal of Libertarian Studies, Volume 21, No. 3, Fall 2007, pp. 25–42.
  52. ^ Block, Walter (2008). Labor Economics From A Free Market Perspective: Employing The Unemployable. World Scientific. p. 225. ISBN 978-9814475860. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
  53. ^ Walter Block and Gene Callahan, Is There a Right to Immigration?: A Libertarian Perspective, Human Rights Review, October–December 2003.
  54. ^ Jacob Hornberger, Let's Stick with Traditional American Values!, The Future of Freedom Foundation, 1 February 2000.
  55. ^ Snyder, Martin. "Birds of a Feather?". Academe. Vol. 91, no. 2. p. 127. ISSN 0190-2946. So what ignited the controversy in Nevada? In March 2004, a student formally accused Hoppe of creating a hostile classroom environment during a lecture on time preference, a notion in economics identifying individuals' varying degrees of willingness to defer the immediate consumption of goods in favor of saving and investment. Hoppe opined that certain demographic groups, for instance homosexuals, tend to be more shortsighted in their economic outlook than those who have children.
  56. ^ Snyder, Martin. "Birds of a Feather?". Academe. Vol. 91, no. 2. p. 127. ISSN 0190-2946. He also suggested that the economic theories of John Maynard Keynes might be explained by Keynes's reputed homosexuality.
  57. ^ a b c Richard Lake, "UNLV accused of limiting free speech". Archived from the original on 9 February 2005. Retrieved 15 May 2013.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link) Las Vegas Review-Journal, 5 February 2005.
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  66. ^ a b The proposed policy defined "bias incidents" as "'verbal, written, or physical acts of intimidation, coercion, interference, frivolous claims, discrimination, and sexual or other harassment motivated, in whole or in part, by bias" based on characteristics including actual or perceived race, religion, sex (including gender identity or gender expression or a pregnancy-related condition), physical appearance and political affiliation.' Hsu, Charlotte (25 April 2009). "ACLU airs free speech concerns on bias policy: Faculty express concern; UNLV official says proposal would encourage expression". Las Vegas Sun. Retrieved 23 May 2013.
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