Hans Asperger with a young patient, University Pediatric Clinic, Vienna c. 1940.
|Died||21 October 1980 (aged 74)|
|Education||University of Vienna|
|Known for||Writing on “autistic psychopathy”|
Eponym of Asperger syndrome
|Institutions||University Children's Hospital, Vienna|
Johann "Hans" Friedrich Karl Asperger (//, German: [hans ˈʔaspɛɐ̯ɡɐ]; 18 February 1906 – 21 October 1980) was an Austrian pediatrician, eugenicist, medical theorist, and medical professor. He is best known for his early studies on mental disorders, specifically in children. His work was largely unnoticed during his lifetime except for a few accolades in Vienna, and his studies on psychological disorders acquired world renown only posthumously. He wrote over 300 publications, mostly concerning a condition he termed autistic psychopathy (AP).
There was a resurgence of interest in his work beginning in the 1980s, and due to his earlier work on autism spectrum disorders, Asperger syndrome (AS), was named after him. Both Asperger's original pediatric diagnosis of AP and the eponymous diagnosis of AS that was named after him several decades later have been controversial. The controversy has intensified since revelations that, during the Nazi years, Asperger sent at least two disabled children to the Am Spiegelgrund clinic, knowing they would be the subject of cruel experiments and likely euthanised under the Nazi programme named, post-bellum, "Aktion T4".
Hans Asperger was born in Vienna, Austria, and raised on a farm not far from the city. The eldest of three sons, Asperger had difficulty finding friends and was considered a lonely, remote child. He was talented in language; in particular, he was interested in the Austrian poet Franz Grillparzer, whose poetry he would frequently quote to his uninterested classmates. He also liked to quote himself and often referred to himself from a third-person perspective.
As a youth, he joined the Wandering Scholars of the Bund Neuland, a conservative Catholic organization within the German Youth Movement. He considered this a formative experience, later stating: "I was molded by the spirit of the German youth movement, which was one of the noblest blossoms of the German spirit."
Asperger studied medicine at the University of Vienna under Franz Hamburger and practiced at the University Children's Hospital in Vienna. He earned his medical degree in 1931 and became director of the special education section at the university children's clinic in Vienna in 1932. He joined the Austrofascist Fatherland Front on May 10, 1934, nine days after Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss passed a new constitution making himself dictator. Asperger married in 1935 and had five children.
During World War II, he was a medical officer, serving in the Axis occupation of Yugoslavia; his younger brother died at Stalingrad. Near the end of the war, Asperger opened a school for children with Sister Viktorine Zak. The school was bombed and destroyed, Viktorine was killed, and much of Asperger's early work was lost.
Asperger published a definition of autistic psychopathy in 1944 that resembled the definition published earlier by a Russian neurologist named Grunya Sukhareva in 1926. Asperger identified in four boys a pattern of behavior and abilities that included “a lack of empathy, little ability to form friendships, one-sided conversations, intense absorption in a special interest, and clumsy movements”. Asperger noticed that some of the children he identified as being autistic used their special talents in adulthood and had successful careers. One of them became a professor of astronomy and solved an error in Newton's work he had originally noticed as a student.:89 Another one of Asperger's patients was the Austrian writer and Nobel Prize in Literature laureate, Elfriede Jelinek.
In 1944, after the publication of his landmark paper describing autistic symptoms, Hans Asperger found a permanent tenured post at the University of Vienna. Shortly after the war ended, he became director of a children's clinic in the city. It was there that he was appointed chair of pediatrics at the University of Vienna, a post he held for twenty years. He later held a post at Innsbruck. Beginning in 1964, he headed the SOS-Kinderdorf in Hinterbrühl. He became professor emeritus in 1977, and died three years later. AS was named after Hans Asperger and officially recognized in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) in 1994; it was removed from DSM-5 in 2013.
Asperger syndrome diagnosis
Asperger died before his identification of this pattern of behaviour became widely recognised. This was in part due to his work being exclusively in German and as such it was little-translated; medical academics, then as now, also disregarded Asperger's work based on its merits or lack thereof. English researcher Lorna Wing proposed the condition Asperger's syndrome in a 1981 paper, Asperger's syndrome: a clinical account, that challenged the previously accepted model of autism presented by Leo Kanner in 1943. It was not until 1991 that an authoritative translation of Asperger's work was made by Uta Frith; before this AS had still been “virtually unknown”. Frith said that fundamental questions regarding the diagnosis had not been answered, and the necessary scientific data to address this did not exist. Unlike Kanner, who overshadowed Asperger, the latter's findings were ignored and disregarded in the English-speaking world in his lifetime.
In the early 1990s, Asperger's work gained some notice due to Wing's research on the subject and Frith's recent translation, leading to the inclusion of the eponymous condition in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th revision (ICD-10) in 1993, and the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th revision (DSM-IV) in 1994, some half a century after Asperger's original research.
Despite this brief resurgence of interest in his work in the 1990s, AS remains a controversial and contentious diagnosis due to its unclear relationship to the autism spectrum. In 2010 there was a majority consensus to subsume AS into the diagnosis "Autistic Spectrum Disorder" in the 2013 DSM-5 diagnostic manual. The World Health Organization's ICD-10 Version 2015 describes AS as “a disorder of uncertain nosological validity”.
In his 1944 paper, as Uta Frith translated from the German in 1991, Asperger wrote, “We are convinced, then, that autistic people have their place in the organism of the social community. They fulfill their role well, perhaps better than anyone else could, and we are talking of people who as children had the greatest difficulties and caused untold worries to their care-givers.” Based on Frith's translation, however, Asperger initially stated: “Unfortunately, in the majority of cases the positive aspects of autism do not outweigh the negative ones.” Psychologist Eric Schopler wrote in 1998:
Asperger's own publications did not inspire research, replication, or scientific interest prior to 1980. Instead, he laid the fertile groundwork for the diagnostic confusion that has grown since 1980.
Since 2009, Asperger's birthday, 18 February, has been declared International Asperger's Day by various governments.
Edith Scheffer, a modern European history scholar, wrote in 2018 that Asperger cooperated with the Nazi regime, including sending children to the Spiegelgrund clinic which participated in the euthanasia program. Scheffer wrote a book further elaborating on her research called Asperger's Children: The Origins of Autism in Nazi Vienna (2018).
Asperger managed to accommodate himself to the Nazi regime and was rewarded for his affirmations of loyalty with career opportunities. He joined several organizations affiliated with the NSDAP (although not the Nazi party itself), publicly legitimized race hygiene policies including forced sterilizations and, on several occasions, actively cooperated with the child ‘euthanasia' program.
Dean Falk, American anthropologist from Florida State University, questioned Herwig Czech's allegations against Hans Asperger in two papers in Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. Czech's reply was published in the same journal.
In May 2019, Ketil Slagstad, a Norwegian doctor and historical scholar, added his interpretation of both Scheffer's and Czech's work, in his article "Asperger, the Nazis and the children - the history of the birth of a diagnosis", in which he describes the nuances of the situation. He offers an alternative explanation of Asperger's involvement: citing the challenges of war, a desire to protect his career, and protection of the children for whom he was caring. Slagstad concludes:
The story of Hans Asperger, Nazism, murdered children, post-war oblivion, the birth of the diagnosis in the 1980s, the gradual expansion of the diagnostic criteria and the huge recent interest in autism spectrum disorders exemplify the historical and volatile nature of diagnoses: they are historic constructs that reflect the times and societies where they exert their effect.
Critically, though, Slagstad noted "Historical research has now shown that he [Asperger] was...a well-adapted cog in the machine of a deadly regime. He deliberately referred disabled children to the clinic Am Spiegelgrund, where he knew that they were at risk of being killed. The eponym Asperger’s syndrome ought to be used with awareness of its historical origin."
- Connolly K (19 April 2018). "Hans Asperger aided and supported Nazi programme, study says". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 24 May 2019.
- Baron-Cohen S (8 May 2018). "The truth about Hans Asperger's Nazi collusion". Nature. 557 (7705): 305–306. Bibcode:2018Natur.557..305B. doi:10.1038/d41586-018-05112-1.
- "Hans Asperger". Whonamedit?: A dictionary of medical eponyms. Ole Daniel Enersen. Retrieved January 1, 2016.
- Lyons V, Fitzgerald M (November 2007). "Did Hans Asperger (1906-1980) have Asperger syndrome?". Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 37 (10): 2020–1. doi:10.1007/s10803-007-0382-4. PMID 17917805.
- Feinstein A (July 2010). A History of Autism: Conversations with the Pioneers (First ed.). Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 15. ISBN 978-1-4051-8653-7.
- Edith S (2018). Asperger's children: the origins of autism in Nazi Vienna (First ed.). New York. pp. 26–27. ISBN 9780393609646. OCLC 1005104504.
- Just MA, Pelphrey KA, eds. (2013). Development and Brain Systems in Autism. New York: Psychology Press. p. 15. ISBN 978-1-84872-866-0.
- Edith S (2018). Asperger's children : the origins of autism in Nazi Vienna (First ed.). New York. p. 46. ISBN 9780393609646. OCLC 1005104504.
- Attwood T (1997-10-01). Asperger's Syndrome: A Guide for Parents and Professionals. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. p. 11. ISBN 978-1-85302-577-8. Retrieved 2016-01-01.
- Silberman S (2015). NeuroTribes: The Legacy of Autism and the Future of Neurodiversity. Avery Publishing. p. 168. ISBN 978-1-58333-467-6.
- Nieminen-von Wendt T (2004). On the origins and diagnosis of Asperger syndrome: a clinical, neuroimaging and genetic study. Helsinki, Finland: University of Helsinki. p. 10. ISBN 978-952-10-2079-7.
- Ssucharewa GE (1926). "Die schizoiden Psychopathien im Kindesalter (Part 2 of 2)". Monatsschrift für Psychiatrie und Neurologie. 60 (3–4): 248–261. doi:10.1159/000316609.
- Asperger H (1944). "Die "Autistischen Psychopathen" im Kindesalter". Archiv für Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten. 117 (1): 132–135. doi:10.1007/bf01837709.
- Asperger H (1991). "'Autistic psychopathy' in childhood" (PDF). In Frith U (ed.). Autism and Asperger syndrome. Translated by Frith U. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 37–92. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2018-10-27.
- Mayer V, Koberg R (2006-01-31). Elfriede Jelinek: Ein Porträt (in German) (First ed.). Berlin: Rowohlt Verlag GmbH. p. 32. ISBN 978-3498035297.
- Grandin T, Panek R (April 30, 2013). The Autistic Brain: Thinking Across the Spectrum (First ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ISBN 978-0547636450. Archived from the original on March 5, 2016. Retrieved January 1, 2016.
- "DSM-5 Development: 299.80 Asperger's Disorder". American Psychiatric Association. December 25, 2010. Archived from the original on December 25, 2010. Retrieved January 1, 2016.
- Wing L (February 1981). "Asperger's syndrome: a clinical account". Psychological Medicine. 11 (1): 115–29. doi:10.1017/S0033291700053332. PMID 7208735. Retrieved January 1, 2016.
- Frith U (January 1992). Autism and Asperger syndrome (First ed.). NewYork: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521386081.
- Baron-Cohen S, Klin A (June 2006). "What's so special about Asperger Syndrome?" (PDF). Brain and Cognition. 61 (1): 1–4. doi:10.1016/j.bandc.2006.02.002. PMID 16563588.
- Frith U (January 1992). Autism and Asperger syndrome (First ed.). NewYork: Cambridge University Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-0521386081.
- "F84.5 Asperger syndrome". ICD-10 Version 2015. World Health Organization. 2015. Retrieved January 1, 2016.
- Frith U (January 1992). "'Autistic psychopathy' in childhood". Autism and Asperger syndrome (First ed.). NewYork: Cambridge University Press. pp. 37–92. ISBN 978-0521386081.
- Schopler E, Mesibov GB, Kunce LJ, eds. (1998). Asperger Syndrome or High-Functioning Autism?. Current Issues in Autism (First ed.). Berlin: Plenum Press. p. 388. doi:10.1007/978-1-4615-5369-4. ISBN 978-0-306-45746-3.
- "International Asperger's Day" (Press release). Commonwealth of Australia Parliamentary Secretary for Disabilities and Carers Senator the Hon Jan McLucas. February 19, 2013. Retrieved January 1, 2016.
- Scheffer E (March 31, 2018). "The Nazi History behind "Asperger"". The New York Times.
- Scheffer E (2018). Asperger's Children: The Origins of Autism in Nazi Vienna. W.W. Norton and Company. ISBN 978-0-393-60964-6.
- Skull A (December 13, 2018). "De-Nazifying the "DSM": On "Asperger's Children: The Origins of Autism in Nazi Vienna"". Los Angeles Review of Books.
- Czech H (19 April 2018). "Hans Asperger, National Socialism, and "race hygiene" in Nazi-era Vienna". Molecular Autism. 9: 29. doi:10.1186/s13229-018-0208-6. PMC 5907291. PMID 29713442.
- Falk D (September 2019). "More on Asperger's Career: A Reply to Czech". Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 49 (9): 3877–3882. doi:10.1007/s10803-019-04099-6. PMID 31183665.
- Falk D (March 2019). "Non-complicit: Revisiting Hans Asperger's Career in Nazi-era Vienna". Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. doi:10.1007/s10803-019-03981-7. PMID 30887409.
- Czech H (September 2019). "Response to 'Non-complicit: Revisiting Hans Asperger's Career in Nazi-era Vienna'". Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 49 (9): 3883–3887. doi:10.1007/s10803-019-04106-w. PMC 6667397. PMID 31197636.
- Slagstad, Ketil (2019-05-28). "Asperger, the Nazis and the children - the history of the birth of a diagnosis". Tidsskrift for den Norske Laegeforening: Tidsskrift for Praktisk Medicin, NY Raekke. 139 (9). doi:10.4045/tidsskr.18.0932. ISSN 0807-7096. PMID 31140263.
- Hippler K, Klicpera C (February 2003). "A retrospective analysis of the clinical case records of 'autistic psychopaths' diagnosed by Hans Asperger and his team at the University Children's Hospital, Vienna" (PDF). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences. 358 (1430): 291–301. doi:10.1098/rstb.2002.1197. JSTOR 3558142. PMC 1693115. PMID 12639327. Retrieved 2016-01-01.[permanent dead link]
- Asperger H (1938). "Das psychisch abnorme Kind [The psychically abnormal child]". Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift (in German). 51: 1314–1317.
- Asperger H (June 1944). "Die "Autistischen Psychopathen" im Kindesalter [Autistic psychopaths in childhood]". Archiv für Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten (in German). 117: 76–136. doi:10.1007/BF01837709.
- Asperger H (1968). "[On the differential diagnosis of early infantile autism]". Acta Paedopsychiatrica (in German). 35 (4): 136–45. PMID 4880461.
- Asperger H (December 1974). "[Early infantile autism]". Medizinische Klinik (in German). 69 (49): 2024–7. PMID 4444665.
- Asperger H (1977). "[The lived life. 50 years of pediatrics]". Padiatrie und Padologie (in German). 12 (3): 214–23. PMID 331197.
- "Was this autism pioneer also a Nazi?". PBS. 2016-01-20. Retrieved 2018-03-17.