Jump to content

Hans Christian Andersen

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hans Christian Andersen
Andersen in 1869
Andersen in 1869
Born(1805-04-02)2 April 1805
Odense, Funen, Denmark–Norway
Died4 August 1875(1875-08-04) (aged 70)
Østerbro, Copenhagen, Denmark
Resting placeAssistens Cemetery, Copenhagen (København)
PeriodDanish Golden Age
GenresChildren's literature, travelogue
Notable works"The Little Mermaid"
"The Ugly Duckling"
"The Snow Queen"
"The Emperor's New Clothes"
Hans Christian Andersen Centre

Hans Christian Andersen (/ˈændərsən/ AN-dər-sən, Danish: [ˈhænˀs ˈkʰʁestjæn ˈɑnɐsn̩] ; 2 April 1805 – 4 August 1875) was a Danish author. Although a prolific writer of plays, travelogues, novels, and poems, he is best remembered for his literary fairy tales.

Andersen's fairy tales, consisting of 156 stories across nine volumes,[1] have been translated into more than 125 languages.[2] They have become embedded in Western collective consciousness, accessible to children as well as presenting lessons of virtue and resilience in the face of adversity for mature readers.[3] His most famous fairy tales include "The Emperor's New Clothes", "The Little Mermaid", "The Nightingale", "The Steadfast Tin Soldier", "The Red Shoes", "The Princess and the Pea", "The Snow Queen", "The Ugly Duckling", "The Little Match Girl", and "Thumbelina." Andersen's stories have inspired ballets, plays, and animated and live-action films.[4]

Early life

Andersen's childhood home in Odense

Andersen was born in Odense, Denmark, on 2 April 1805. He had a stepsister named Karen.[5] Andersen's father, also named Hans, considered himself related to nobility (his paternal grandmother had told his father that their family had belonged to a higher social class,[6] but investigations have disproved these stories).[6][7] Although it has been challenged,[6] speculation suggests that Andersen was an illegitimate son of King Christian VIII. Danish historian Jens Jørgensen supported this idea in his book H.C. Andersen, en sand myte [a true myth].[8]

Andersen was baptised on 15 April 1805 in Saint Hans Church in Odense. According to his birth certificate, which was not drafted until November 1823, six godparents were present at the baptism ceremony: Madam Sille Marie Breineberg, Maiden Friederiche Pommer, shoemaker Peder Waltersdorff, journeyman carpenter Anders Jørgensen, hospital porter Nicolas Gomard, and royal hatter Jens Henrichsen Dorch.[citation needed]

Andersen's father, who had received an elementary school education, introduced his son to literature, reading him Arabian Nights.[9] Andersen's mother, Anne Marie Andersdatter, was an illiterate washerwoman. Following her husband's death in 1816, she remarried in 1818.[9] Andersen was sent to a local school for poor children where he received a basic education and had to support himself, working as an apprentice to a weaver and, later, to a tailor. At 14, Andersen moved to Copenhagen to seek employment as an actor. Having a good soprano voice, he was accepted into the Royal Danish Theatre, but his voice soon changed. A colleague at the theatre told Andersen that he considered Andersen a poet, and taking the suggestion seriously, Andersen began to focus on writing.

Jonas Collin, director of the Royal Danish Theatre, held great affection for Andersen and sent him to a grammar school in Slagelse, persuading King Frederick VI to pay part of Andersen's education.[10] Andersen had by then published his first story, "The Ghost at Palnatoke's Grave" (1822). Though not a stellar pupil, Andersen also attended school at Elsinore until 1827.[11]

Andersen later said that his years at this school were the darkest and most bitter years of his life. At one school, Andersen lived at his schoolmaster's home. There, Andersen was abused and was told that it was done in order "to improve his character." Andersen later said that the faculty had discouraged him from writing, which resulted in a depression.[12]


Early work

It doesn't matter about being born in a duckyard, as long as you are hatched from a swan's egg.

"The Ugly Duckling"

A very early fairy tale by Andersen, "The Tallow Candle" (Danish: Tællelyset), was discovered in a Danish archive in October 2012. The story, written in the 1820s, is about a candle that does not feel appreciated. It was written while Andersen was still in school and dedicated to one of his benefactors. The story remained in that family's possession until it was found among other family papers in a local archive.[13]

In 1829, Andersen enjoyed considerable success with the short story "A Journey on Foot from Holmen's Canal to the East Point of Amager." Its protagonist meets characters ranging from Saint Peter to a talking cat. Andersen followed this success with a theatrical piece, Love on St. Nicholas Church Tower, and a short volume of poems. He made little progress in writing and publishing immediately following these poems, but did receive a small travel grant from the king in 1833. This enabled Andersen to set out on the first of many journeys throughout Europe. At Jura, near Le Locle, Switzerland, Andersen wrote the story "Agnete and the Merman." The same year, he spent an evening in the Italian seaside village of Sestri Levante, which inspired the title of "The Bay of Fables."[14] Andersen arrived in Rome in October 1834. His travels in Italy were reflected in his first novel, a fictionalized autobiography titled The Improvisatore (Improvisatoren), published in 1835 to instant acclaim.[15][16]

Literary fairy tales

A paper chimney sweep cut by Andersen

Fairy Tales Told for Children. First Collection (Danish: Eventyr, fortalt for Børn. Første Samling.) is a collection of nine fairy tales by Andersen. The tales were published in a series of three installments by C. A. Reitzel in Copenhagen between May 1835 and April 1837. They were Andersen's first venture into the fairy tale genre.

The first installment was a volume of sixty-one unbound pages published 8 May 1835 containing "The Tinderbox", "Little Claus and Big Claus", "The Princess and the Pea" and "Little Ida's Flowers". The first three tales were based on folktales Andersen had heard in his childhood. The fourth was Andersen's creation for Ida Thiele, the daughter of folklorist Just Mathias Thiele, Andersen's early benefactor. Reitzel paid Andersen thirty rigsdalers for the manuscript, and the booklet was priced at 24 shillings.[17][18]

The second booklet was published on 16 December 1835 and contained "The Naughty Boy", and "The Traveling Companion", and "Thumbelina." The lattermost was inspired by "Tom Thumb" and other stories of miniature people. "The Naughty Boy" was based on a poem about Eros from the Anacreontea, and "The Traveling Companion" was a ghost story Andersen had experimented with in the year 1830.[17]

Andersen in 1836

The third booklet contained "The Little Mermaid" and "The Emperor's New Clothes", and it was published on 7 April 1837. The former was influenced by Friedrich de la Motte Fouqué's Undine (1811) and legends about mermaids. This tale established Andersen's international reputation.[19] The only other tale in the third booklet was "The Emperor's New Clothes", which was based on a medieval Spanish story with Arab and Jewish origins. On the eve of the third installment's publication, Andersen revised the conclusion (in which the Emperor simply walks in procession) to its now-famous finale of a child calling out, "The Emperor is not wearing any clothes!"[20]

Danish reviews of the first two booklets first appeared in 1836 and were not enthusiastic. The critics disliked the chatty, informal style and apparent immorality, since children's literature was meant to educate rather than to amuse. The critics discouraged Andersen from pursuing this type of style. Andersen believed that he was working against the critics' preconceived notions about fairy tales, and he temporarily returned to novel-writing, waiting a full year before publishing his third installment.[21]

The nine tales from the three booklets were published in one volume and sold for seventy-two shillings. A title page, a table of contents, and a preface by Andersen were published in this volume.[22]

In 1868, Horace Scudder, the editor of Riverside Magazine For Young People, offered Andersen $500 for 12 new stories. Sixteen of Andersen's stories were published in the magazine, and 10 of them appeared there before they were printed in Denmark.[23]


Portrait of Andersen by Franz Hanfstaengl, dated July 1860

In 1851, Andersen published In Sweden, a volume of travel sketches. The publication received wide acclaim. A keen traveler, he published several other long travelogues: Shadow Pictures of a Journey to the Harz, Swiss Saxony, etc. etc. in the Summer of 1831, A Poet's Bazaar, In Spain, and A Visit to Portugal in 1866. (The last one describes his visit with his Portuguese friends Jorge and José O'Neill, whom Andersen knew in the mid-1820s while he was living in Copenhagen.) In his travelogues, Andersen used contemporary conventions related to travel writing but developed the style to make it his own. Each of Andersen's travelogues combines documentary and descriptive accounts of his experiences, adding additional philosophical passages on topics such as authorship, immortality, and fiction in literary travel reports. Some of the travelogues, such as In Sweden, contain fairy tales.

In the 1840s, Andersen's attention returned to the theatre stage, but with little success. He had better luck with the publication of the Picture-Book without Pictures (1840). Andersen started a second series of fairy tales in 1838 and a third series in 1845. At this point, he was celebrated throughout Europe, although Andersen's native Denmark still showed some resistance to his pretensions.

Between 1845 and 1864, Andersen lived at Nyhavn 67, Copenhagen, where a memorial plaque is now placed.[24]

Patrons of Andersen's writings included the monarchy of Denmark, the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg. An unexpected invitation from King Christian IX to the royal palace entrenched Andersen's folklore in Danish royalty as well as making its way to the Romanov dynasty when Christian IX's daughter Maria Feodorovna married Alexander III of Russia.[25]

Personal life

Søren Kierkegaard

In "Andersen as a Novelist", Søren Kierkegaard remarks that Andersen is characterized as "a possibility of a personality, wrapped up in such a web of arbitrary moods and moving through an elegiac duo-decimal scaled of almost echoless, dying tones just as easily roused as subdued, who, in order to become a personality, needs a strong life-development."[26]

Andersen statue at the Rosenborg Castle Gardens, Copenhagen

Meetings with Charles Dickens

In June 1847, Andersen visited England for the first time, enjoying triumphant social success. The Countess of Blessington invited him to her parties where many intellectuals would meet, and at one such party he met Charles Dickens for the first time. They shook hands and walked to the veranda, which Andersen noted in his diary: "We were on the veranda, and I was so happy to see and speak to England's now-living writer whom I do love the most."[27]

The two authors respected each other's work and each other as writers, and had in common their depictions of the underclass, who often led difficult lives affected both by the Industrial Revolution and by abject poverty.

In 1857, Andersen visited England again, primarily to meet Dickens. Andersen extended the planned brief visit to Dickens' home at Gads Hill Place into a five-week stay, much to the distress of Dickens' family. After Andersen was told to leave, Dickens gradually stopped all correspondence between them, to Andersen's great disappointment and confusion; he had enjoyed the visit and never understood why his letters went unanswered.[27]

It is suspected that Dickens modeled the physical appearance and mannerisms of Uriah Heep from David Copperfield after Andersen.[28]

Romantic relationships

In Andersen's early life, his private journal records his refusal to have sexual relations.[29][30]

Andersen experienced homosexual attraction;[31] he wrote to Edvard Collin:[32] "I languish for you as for a pretty Calabrian wench ... my sentiments for you are those of a woman. The femininity of my nature and our friendship must remain a mystery."[33] Collin wrote in his own memoir, "I found myself unable to respond to this love, and this caused the author much suffering." Andersen's infatuation with Karl Alexander, the young hereditary duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach,[34] did result in a relationship:

The Hereditary Grand Duke walked arm in arm with me across the courtyard of the castle to my room, kissed me lovingly, asked me always to love him though he was just an ordinary person, asked me to stay with him this winter ... Fell asleep with the melancholy, happy feeling that I was the guest of this strange prince at his castle and loved by him ... It is like a fairy tale.[31]

There is a sharp division in opinion over Andersen's physical fulfillment in the sexual sphere. Jackie Wullschlager's biography maintains he was possibly lovers with Danish dancer Harald Scharff [da][35] and Andersen's "The Snowman" was inspired by their relationship.[36] Scharff first met Andersen when the latter was in his 50s. Andersen was infatuated and Wullschlager sees his journals as implying that their relationship was sexual.[37] Scharff had various dinners alone with Andersen and gifted a silver toothbrush to Andersen on his 57th birthday.[38] Wullschlager asserts that in the winter of 1861–62, the two men entered an affair that brought Andersen "joy, some kind of sexual fulfillment, and a temporary end to loneliness."[39] He was not discreet in his conduct with Scharff, and displayed his feelings openly. Onlookers regarded the relationship as improper and ridiculous. In his diary in March 1862, Andersen referred to this time in his life as his "erotic period."[40] On 13 November 1863, Andersen wrote, "Scharff has not visited me in eight days; with him it is over."[41] He took this calmly and the two thereafter met in overlapping social circles without bitterness, though Andersen attempted to rekindle their relationship many times without success.[42][note 1][note 2][43] According to Wullschlager, "Andersen's diaries leave no doubt that he was attracted to both sexes; that at times he longed for a physical relationship with a woman and that at other times he was involved in physical liaisons with men."[3] For example, Wullschlager quotes from Andersen's diaries:

"Scharff bounded up to me; threw himself round my neck and kissed me! .... Nervous in the evening" Five days later he received "a visit from Scharff, who was very intimate and nice". In the following weeks, there was "dinner at Scharff's, who was ardent and loving"[3]

The claim that Andersen entertained "physical liaisons" with men has been contested by Klara Bom and Anya Aarenstrup from the H. C. Andersen Centre of University of Southern Denmark. They state

"it is correct to point to the very ambivalent (and also very traumatic) elements in Andersen's emotional life concerning the sexual sphere, but it is decidedly just as wrong to describe him as homosexual and maintain that he had physical relationships with men. He did not. Indeed, that would have been entirely contrary to his moral and religious ideas, aspects that are quite outside the field of vision of Wullschlager and her like."[44]

Wullschlager, in fact, argued that, because of moral and religious ideas of his time, Andersen could not be open about his homosexual relationships.

Andersen also fell in love with unattainable women, and many interpret references to them in his stories.[45] At one point, Andersen wrote in his diary: "Almighty God, thee only have I; thou steerest my fate, I must give myself up to thee! Give me a livelihood! Give me a bride! My blood wants love, as my heart does!"[46] A girl named Riborg Voigt was the unrequited love of Andersen's youth. A small pouch containing a long letter from Voigt was found on Andersen's chest when he died, several decades after Andersen first fell in love with her. Other disappointments in love included Sophie Ørsted,[citation needed] the daughter of the physicist Hans Christian Ørsted; and Louise Collin,[citation needed] the youngest daughter of his benefactor Jonas Collin. One of Andersen's stories, "The Nightingale", was written as an expression of his passion for Jenny Lind and was the inspiration for her nickname, the "Swedish Nightingale."[47] Andersen was shy around women and had extreme difficulty proposing to Lind. When Lind was boarding a train to go to an opera concert, Andersen gave Lind a letter of proposal. Her feelings towards him were not the same; she saw Andersen as a brother, writing to him in 1844: "farewell ... God bless and protect my brother is the sincere wish of his affectionate sister, Jenny."[48] It is suggested that Andersen expressed his disappointment by portraying Lind as the eponymous antihero of "The Snow Queen."[49]


Andersen at Rolighed: Israel Melchior (c. 1867)

In early 1872, at the age of 67, Andersen fell out of his bed and was severely hurt; Andersen never fully recovered from the resultant injuries. Soon afterward, he started to show signs of liver cancer.[50]

Andersen died on 4 August 1875 at the age of 70 in a country house called Rolighed (literally: calmness) near Copenhagen, the home of his close friends, the banker Moritz G. Melchior and his wife.[50] Shortly before his death, Andersen consulted a composer about the music for his funeral, saying: "Most of the people who will walk after me will be children, so make the beat keep time with little steps."[50]

Andersen's body was interred in the Assistens Kirkegård in the Nørrebro area of Copenhagen, in the Collin family plot. In 1914, the headstone was moved to another cemetery (today known as "Frederiksbergs ældre kirkegaard"), where younger Collin family members were buried. For a period, his, Edvard Collin's, and Henriette Collin's graves were unmarked. A second stone has been erected, marking Andersen's grave, now without any mention of the Collin couple, but all three still share the same plot.[51]

At the time of his death, Andersen was internationally revered, and the Danish government paid him an annual stipend for being a "national treasure."[52]


Archives, collections and museums

  • The Hans Christian Andersen Museum or H.C. Andersens Hus, is a set of museums/buildings dedicated to Hans Christian Andersen in Odense, Denmark, some of which, at various times in history, have functioned as the main Odense-based museum for the author.
  • The Hans Christian Andersen Museum in Solvang, California, a city founded by Danes, is devoted to presenting the author's life and works. Displays include models of Andersen's childhood home and of "The Princess and the Pea". The museum also contains hundreds of volumes of Andersen's works, including many illustrated first editions and correspondence with Danish composer Asger Hamerik.[53]
  • The Library of Congress Rare Book and Special Collections Division was bequeathed an extensive collection of Andersen materials by the Danish-American actor Jean Hersholt.[54][55]

Arts and entertainment

Postage stamp, Kazakhstan, 2005

Film and television


Andersen's stories laid the groundwork for other children's classics, such as The Wind in the Willows (1908) by Kenneth Grahame and Winnie-the-Pooh (1926) by A. A. Milne. The trope of inanimate objects, such as toys, coming to life (as in "Little Ida's Flowers") would later also be used by Lewis Carroll and Beatrix Potter.[64][65]


Stage productions

For opera and ballet see List of The Little Mermaid Adaptations


Events and holidays

Andersen's refreshed gravestone at Assistens Cemetery in the Nørrebro district, Copenhagen
  • Andersen's birthday, 2 April, is celebrated as International Children's Book Day.[73]
  • The year 2005, designated "Andersen Year" in Denmark,[74] was the bicentenary of Andersen's birth, and his life and work were celebrated around the world.
  • In Denmark, a well-attended show was staged in Copenhagen's Parken Stadium during "Andersen Year" to celebrate the writer and his stories.[74]
  • The annual H.C. Andersen Marathon, established in 2000, is held in Odense, Denmark.

Monuments and sculptures

  • Seated bronze (1965) was erected in Copenhagen City Hall Square (Rådhuspladsen), facing H. C. Andersens Boulevard, Copenhagen, Denmark, made by Henry Luckow-Nielsen.[78]
  • Bronze bust (2004), a replica of the 1865 bust by Herman Wilhelm Bissen (1798–1868), at Observatory Hill, Millers Point, Sydney, Australia,[79] was officially unveiled by HRH Crown Prince Frederik and HRH Crown Princess Mary of Denmark in March 2005, on Andersen's bicentenary.[80] It was to replace the 1955 bust erected in Phillip Park, Sydney; although found missing by 1984.[80]

Places named after Andersen

Theme parks

  • In Japan, the city of Funabashi has a children's theme park named after Andersen.[84] Funabashi is a sister city to Odense, the city of Andersen's birth.
  • In China, a US$32 million theme park based on Andersen's tales and life opened in Shanghai's Yangpu district in 2017.[85][86] Construction on the project began in 2005.[87]

Other honours


Andersen's fairy tales include:

The Hans Christian Andersen Museum in Odense has a large digital collection of Hans Christian Andersen papercuts,[88] drawings,[89] and portraits.[90]

See also

Explanatory notes

  1. ^ While on holiday, for example, Andersen and Scharff were forced to spend the night in Helsingør. Andersen reserved a double room for them both but Scharff insisted upon having his own.
  2. ^ Andersen continued to follow Scharff's career with interest, but in 1871, an injury during rehearsal forced Scharff permanently from the ballet stage. Scharff tried acting without success, married a ballerina in 1874, and died in the St. Hans asylum in 1912.


  1. ^ "Fairy tales". H.C. Andersen Centret.
  2. ^ Wenande, Christian (13 December 2012). "Unknown Hans Christian Andersen fairy tale discovered". The Copenhagen Post. Archived from the original on 14 December 2012. Retrieved 15 December 2012.
  3. ^ a b c Wullschläger 2000, p. 388
  4. ^ a b Bredsdorff 1975
  5. ^ "Life". SDU Hans Christian Andersen Centret. Retrieved 10 June 2021.
  6. ^ a b c Rossel 1996, p. 6
  7. ^ Askgaard, Ejnar Stig. "The Lineage of Hans Christian Andersen". Odense City Museums. Archived from the original on 4 May 2012.
  8. ^ Jørgensen 1987
  9. ^ a b Rossel 1996, p. 7
  10. ^ "Hans Christian Andersen – Childhood and Education". Danishnet.com. Retrieved 17 November 2023.
  11. ^ "H.C. Andersens skolegang i Helsingør Latinskole". H.C. Andersen Information (in Danish). Retrieved 2 April 2010.
  12. ^ Wullschläger 2000, p. 56.
  13. ^ Stockmann, Camilla (12 December 2012). "Local historian finds Hans Christian Andersen's first fairy tale". Politiken.dk. Retrieved 17 November 2023.
  14. ^ "Premio e Festival Andersen di Sestri Levante". Andersen Premio e Festival (in Italian). Retrieved 17 November 2023.
  15. ^ Murray, Christopher John (2013). Encyclopedia of the Romantic Era, 1760–1850. Routledge. p. 20. ISBN 978-1-135-45579-8.
  16. ^ Sjåvik, Jan (2006). Historical Dictionary of Scandinavian Literature and Theater. Scarecrow Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-8108-6501-3.
  17. ^ a b Wullschläger 2000, p. 150
  18. ^ Frank & Frank 2004, p. 13
  19. ^ Wullschläger 2000, p. 174
  20. ^ Wullschläger 2000, p. 176
  21. ^ Wullschläger 2000, pp. 150, 165
  22. ^ Wullschläger 2000, p. 178
  23. ^ Rossel, Sven Hakon, Hans Christian Anderson, Writer and Citizen of the World, Rodopi, 1996
  24. ^ "In the footsteps of Andersen". Visitcopenhagen.com. Archived from the original on 25 July 2008. Retrieved 2 April 2010.
  25. ^ Кудряшов, Константин (25 November 2017). "Дагмар – принцесса на русской горошине. Как Андерсен вошёл у нас в моду". aif.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  26. ^ Kierkegaard, SørenHG (5 October 2009), Andersen as a Novelist: with Continual Reference to His Latest Work: Only a Fiddler, Princeton University Press, pp. 61–102, doi:10.1515/9781400832309-008, ISBN 978-1-4008-3230-9, retrieved 18 November 2023
  27. ^ a b "H.C. Andersen og Charles Dickens 1857". H.C. Andersen Information. 31 March 2012. Retrieved 17 November 2023.
  28. ^ Alexander, Doris (1991). Creating characters with Charles Dickens. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press. pp. 78–81. ISBN 978-0-271-00725-0.
  29. ^ Lepage, Robert (18 January 2006). "Bedtime stories". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 19 July 2006.
  30. ^ Garfield, Patricia (21 June 2004). "The Dreams of Hans Christian Andersen" (PDF). p. 24. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 March 2012. Retrieved 19 August 2020.
  31. ^ a b Booth, Michael (2005). Just As Well I'm Leaving: To the Orient With Hans Christian Andersen. London: Vintage. pp. Pos. 2226. ISBN 978-1-44648-579-8.
  32. ^ Crawford, Frederick, ed. (1891). Hans Christian Andersen's Correspondence with the Late Grand-Duke of Saxe-Weimar, Charles Dickens, Etc., Etc. Dean & Son.
  33. ^ Hurley, Nat (2014), Reimer, Mavis; Ali, Nyala; England, Deanna; Unrau, Melanie Dennis (eds.), "The Little Transgender Mermaid: A Shape-Shifting Tale", Seriality and Texts for Young People, Critical Approaches to Children's Literature, London: Palgrave Macmillan, p. 270, doi:10.1057/9781137356000_14, ISBN 978-1-137-35600-0, retrieved 18 November 2023
  34. ^ Pritchard, Claudia (27 March 2005). "His dark materials". The Independent. Archived from the original on 14 March 2007. Retrieved 18 November 2023.
  35. ^ "The Timetable Year by Year". H.C. Andersen Centret. Retrieved 22 July 2006.
  36. ^ Wullschläger 2000, pp. 373, 379
  37. ^ "Hans Christian Andersen: The Life of a Storyteller". Gay & Lesbian Review Worldwide. 1 November 2001. Archived from the original on 2 September 2019. Retrieved 10 June 2009.
  38. ^ "Andersen's Fairy Tales". The Advocate. 26 April 2005. Archived from the original on 2 September 2019. Retrieved 10 June 2009.
  39. ^ Wullschläger 2000, pp. 387–389
  40. ^ Andersen 2005, pp. 475–476
  41. ^ Andersen 2005, p. 477
  42. ^ Wullschläger 2000, pp. 392–393
  43. ^ Andersen 2005, pp. 477–479
  44. ^ Bom, Anne Klara; Aarenstrup, Anya. "Homosexuality". H.C. Andersen Centret. Retrieved 18 November 2023.
  45. ^ Hastings, Waller (4 April 2003). "Hans Christian Andersen". Northern State University. Archived from the original on 23 November 2007. Retrieved 15 December 2012.
  46. ^ Sørensen, Lise. "The Tales of Hans Christian Andersen". Scandinavian.wisc.edu. Archived from the original on 12 March 2012. Retrieved 2 April 2010.
  47. ^ Oldrup, Thomas (2 July 2014). "H.C. Andersen og Jenny Lind". Altomhistorie.dk. Archived from the original on 25 August 2016.
  48. ^ "Sangerinden Jenny Lind 1820 – 1867". H.C. Andersen Information. Retrieved 2 April 2010.
  49. ^ Connelly, Charlie (27 October 2021). "Jenny Lind: The very modern career of a 19th century superstar". The New European. Retrieved 18 November 2023.
  50. ^ a b c Bryant, Mark (1997). Private lives : curious facts about the famous and infamous. London: Cassell. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-304-34923-4.
  51. ^ "Historien om H.C. Andersens gravsted på Assistens Kirkegård i København". H.C. Andersen Information (in Danish). Retrieved 18 November 2023.
  52. ^ "Hans Christian Andersen". Biography. A&E Networks. 2 April 2014. Retrieved 18 November 2023.
  53. ^ "HANS CHRISTIAN ANDERSEN MUSEUM". SolvangCA.com. Archived from the original on 29 November 2010. Retrieved 18 November 2023.
  54. ^ "Jean Hersholt Collections". Library of Congress. 15 April 2009. Retrieved 2 April 2010.
  55. ^ "Billedbog til Jonas Drewsen". American Memory: Remaining Collections. 15 April 2009. Retrieved 18 November 2023.
  56. ^ "Today's Tops in TV". The San Francisco Examiner. 26 December 1955. p. 23. Retrieved 5 June 2024. See also:
  57. ^ Crowther, Bosley (14 April 1960). "Screen: Disney ala Soviet: The Snow Queen' at Neighborhood Houses". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 22 November 2020.
  58. ^ Weiler, A. H. (7 June 1959). "BY WAY OF REPORT; Soviet 'Snow Queen,' Other Animated Features Due – 'Snowman's' Story". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 22 November 2020.
  59. ^ "PINE TREE, the". Moving Image Archive. National Library of Scotland.
  60. ^ Moore, Frazier (6 September 2002). "Upcoming TV schedules focus on events of 9/11". Chillicothe Gazette. p. 13.
  61. ^ Greenhill, Pauline (2015). "'The Snow Queen': Queer Coding in Male Directors' Films". Marvels & Tales. Vol. 29, no. 1. pp. 110–134. ISSN 1521-4281.
  62. ^ Milligan, Mercedes (2 June 2012). "Russian Animation on Ice". Animation Magazine. Retrieved 22 November 2020.
  63. ^ Abate, Antonio Maria (22 June 2020). "Annecy 2020, Ginger's Tale, recensione, un principe da salvare". Cineblog (in Italian). Retrieved 22 November 2020.
  64. ^ Sherry, Clifford J. (2009). Animal Rights: A Reference Handbook (Illustrated reprint ed.). Bloomsbury Academic. ISBN 978-1-59884-191-6.
  65. ^ "Ledger Legends: J. M. Barrie, Beatrix Potter and Lewis Carroll". Barclays. 23 November 2018. Retrieved 30 May 2020.
  66. ^ Smart Dad Living (22 August 2020), It Is What It Isn't, Too!, retrieved 18 November 2023
  67. ^ H. Colin Slim Stravinsky Collection (2002). Annotated catalogue of the H. Colin Slim Stravinsky collection : donated by him to the University of British Columbia Library. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Library. ISBN 978-0-88865-221-8.
  68. ^ Ludwig, Jon. "Sam the Lovesick Snowman'". Center for Puppetry Arts. Archived from the original on 3 February 2009. Retrieved 2 April 2010.
  69. ^ Blankenship, Mark (13 November 2006). "Striking 12". Variety. Retrieved 18 November 2023.
  70. ^ Ross Griffel, Margaret (2013). Operas in English: A Dictionary (Revised ed.). Scarecrow Press. p. 393. ISBN 978-0-8108-8325-3.
  71. ^ "Hans Christian Andersen Award". International Board on Books for Young People. Retrieved 18 November 2023.
  72. ^ "Prometheus Awards". Libertarian Futurist Society. Retrieved 18 November 2023.
  73. ^ "International Children's Book Day". International Board on Books for Young People. Retrieved 17 December 2012. Since 1967, on or around Hans Christian Andersen's birthday, 2 April, International Children's Book Day (ICBD) is celebrated to inspire a love of reading and to call attention to children's books.
  74. ^ a b Brabant, Malcolm (1 April 2005). "Enduring Legacy of Author Andersen". BBC News. Retrieved 17 December 2012.
  75. ^ "The Hans Christian Andersen Statue". Skandinaven. 17 September 1896. Archived from the original on 4 September 2014. Retrieved 29 June 2015.
  76. ^ a b "Hans Christian Andersen". CentralPark.com. Retrieved 6 February 2024.
  77. ^ "Hans Christian Andersen". Central Park Conservancy. Retrieved 6 February 2024.
  78. ^ "The statue of H. C. Andersen at the City Hall Square". VisitCopenhagen. Retrieved 6 February 2024.
  79. ^ "Foreigners: Hans Christian Andersen". Monument Australia. Retrieved 6 February 2024.
  80. ^ a b "Hans Christian Andersen". City of Sydney. Retrieved 6 February 2024.
  81. ^ "Hans Christian Andersen Statue". Atlas Obscura. 22 September 2022. Retrieved 6 February 2024.
  82. ^ "H. C. Andersens Blvd. · Copenhagen, Denmark". Google Maps. Retrieved 18 November 2023.
  83. ^ "Centro". Colegio Andersen. Archived from the original on 1 August 2020. Retrieved 18 November 2023.
  84. ^ "H.C. Andersen Park". Tourist Site "FUNABASHI Style". Retrieved 12 April 2017.
  85. ^ Fan, Yanping (11 November 2016). "安徒生童话乐园明年开园设七大主题区" [Andersen fairy tales opening next year to set up seven theme areas]. Sina Corp. Archived from the original on 13 April 2017. Retrieved 12 April 2017.
  86. ^ Short, Morgan (15 December 2017). "Grim Fairy Tales: A Trip to Andersen Park". SmartShanghai. Retrieved 18 November 2023.
  87. ^ Zhu, Shenshen (16 July 2013). "Fairy-tale park takes shape in city". Shanghai Daily. Retrieved 12 April 2017.
  88. ^ "Papercuts by Hans Christian Andersen". Odense City Museums. Archived from the original on 8 March 2014. Retrieved 23 May 2023.
  89. ^ "Drawings by Hans Christian Andersen". Odense City Museums. Archived from the original on 25 May 2015. Retrieved 23 May 2023.
  90. ^ "Portraits of Hans Christian Andersen". Odense City Museums. Archived from the original on 8 March 2014. Retrieved 23 May 2023.

General bibliography