Hans Georg Calmeyer
Hans Georg Calmeyer (June 23, 1903 – 3 September 1972) was a German lawyer from Osnabrück who saved thousands of Jews from certain death during the German occupation of the Netherlands from 1941 until 1945.
Calmeyer studied Law in Freiburg, Marburg and Munich. In 1923, as a member of the Reichswehr, he took part in Hitler’s attempted Putsch. Later, he opened his law practice in Osnabrück where he enjoyed an excellent reputation as a lawyer.
In 1933, his license to practice law was revoked because of his activity and leaning towards Communist lines of thought. Ten months later, his license was reinstated. He was a member of the Federation of the National Socialist German Lawyers, but not the Nazi party.
In 1940, Calmeyer, serving as a soldier and a member of an aerial defense intelligence unit, took part in the invasion of the Netherlands by the German Army. In 1941, he was active in the Reichs Commissioner's Office (Reichskommissariat), which was in charge of all occupied districts in the Netherlands. While there, Calmeyer was appointed Director for the Interior Administration, which also handled 'Jewish affairs', thus enabling Calmeyer, as an administrative lawyer, to clear "racially ambiguous" Jewish cases for the German occupational administration in The Hague.
Unlike policy in Germany, people of Jewish descent could rebut being registered as "full blooded Jews" by documenting and proving ancestry through word of mouth and birth certificates to qualify as "half-Jewish", "quarter-Jewish", or of Aryan descent. Calmeyer described in his own words, how he used his position: "To build a lifeboat." He accepted falsified papers of ancestry which documented the subject person as Aryan or "half-Jewish". He also managed to offer hints and advice on various stratagems and excuses. Despite warnings from the Nazi regime, he persisted in his work.
Approximately 5,660 individuals submitted a request and were designated as doubtful cases through Calmeyer’s office. Of them at least 3,700 were spared deportation and certain death. Yet the decisions on "dubious cases" concerning the remaining about 1,960 individuals were the equivalent of a death sentence: they shared the fate of 107,000 out of the 140,000 Jews living in the Netherlands, who were transported by the Germans to various concentration camps for extermination, most notably Auschwitz-Birkenau and Sobibor. Only approximately 5,200 people survived the deportation to these camps.
According to a description of Calmeyer by the German Bundespresident Johannes Rau: "Calmeyer joined the ranks of human beings who helped, but who were also guilty of being caught up in the unjustifiable wrongdoings of the regime". His work was almost forgotten until a movement to honor him came about during the 1980s. On March 4, 1992, Yad Vashem honored Hans Calmeyer posthumously with the title "A Righteous Man Among Nations". On January 2, 1995 the town of Osnabrück awarded Calmeyer its highest award posthumously: "The Moesermedaille". Present at the ceremony were his son, Dr. Peter Calmeyer, and the Ambassador of Israel, Avi Primor.
- Shedding Our Stars: The Story of Hans Calmeyer and How He Saved Thousands of Families Like Mine by Laureen Nussbaum and Karen Kirtley, 2019
- Joachim Castan/Thomas (Hg): Hans Calmeyer and the Rescue of the Jews in the Netherlands;
- Frijtag Drabbe Künzel, Geraldien G. von (2008). Het geval Calmeyer (The case Calmeyer) (in Dutch). Amsterdam: Mets & Schilt. ISBN 978-90-5330-627-7.
- Niebaum, Peter; Rolf Düsterberg; Siegfried Hummel; Tilman Westphalen (2001). Ein Gerechter unter den Völkern : Hans Calmeyer in seiner Zeit (1903-1972) (A Righteous Man Among Nations: Hans Calmeyer in His Time (1903-1972)) (in German). Osnabrück: Edition Rasch. ISBN 3-934005-95-0.
- van Galen-Herrmann, Ruth (2009). Calmeyer, dader of mensenredder? Visies op Calmeyers rol in de jodenvervolging (Calmeyer, perpetrator or human rescuer?) (in Dutch). Aspekt. ISBN 9789059118850.