Generaloberst Hans-Valentin Hube
|Nickname(s)||"The Humane One"|
29 October 1890|
Naumburg an der Saale
|Died||21 April 1944
|Buried at||Invalidenfriedhof Berlin|
|Allegiance|| German Empire (to 1918)
Weimar Republic (to 1933)
|Years of service||1909–44|
|Commands held||16th Infantry Division, XIV Panzer Corps, Russia/Italy 1st Panzer Army|
|Awards||Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves, Swords and Diamonds|
Hans-Valentin Hube (29 October 1890 – 21 April 1944) was a German general who served in the German Army during the First and Second World Wars. He was one of 27 people to be awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves, Swords and Diamonds (German: Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes mit Eichenlaub, Schwertern und Brillanten). The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross and its higher grade the Oak Leaves, Swords and Diamonds was awarded to recognise extreme battlefield bravery or successful military leadership. At the time of its presentation to Hube it was Germany's highest military decoration.[Note 1] He died in an airplane crash in April 1944. Hube was nicknamed der Mensch ("The Humane One") by his troops during the Second World War.
Early life and World War I
Hube was born on 29 October 1890 in Naumburg an der Saale in the Prussian Province of Saxony within the German Empire. After graduation with his Abitur from the Domgymnasium Naumburg, a secondary school, he volunteered for military service in the German Army on 27 February 1909. As a Fahnenjunker (officer cadet), he was was assigned to Infantry-Regiment Nr. 26 "Fürst Leopold von Anhalt-Dessau", a regiment of the 7. Division (7th Division) based at Magdeburg. After 18 months of service, he was promoted to Leutnant (second lieutenant) on 22 August 1910.
Following the outbreak of World War I on 28 July 1914, which was triggered by the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg on 28 June 1914 in Sarajevo, Hube was sent to the Western Front as a Zugführer (platoon leader) in the 7. Kompanie (7th company) of Infanterie-Regiment 26. On 24 August 1914, he was appointed adjutant of II. Bataillon (2nd battalion) of Infanterie-Regiment 26 and fought in the Race to the Sea. On 20 September 1914, he was severely wounded by artillery in the First Battle of the Aisne near Fontenoy, and as a result had his left arm amputated. In 1915, Hube was awarded the Iron Cross 2nd Class (Eisernes Kreuz zweiter Klasse) and promoted to Oberleutnant (first lieutenant) on 22 February 1915. After a year convalescing, he returned to the front in December later that year. On 29 January 1916, he was appointed company commander of the 7. Kompanie (7th company) of Infanterie-Regiment 26. From 29 February to 3 March 1916, he attended a training course on counter measures against gas warfare.[Tr 1] Hube was appointed leader of Infanterie-Pionier-Kompanie 26 (26th Infantry Pioneer Company) on 1 June 1916.
On 6 July 1916, Hube became an Ordonnanzoffizier (batman) with Abteilung IIa (department 2a responsible for personnel) of the IV. Armee-Korps (4th Army Corps). Later that year, on 3 November, he was appointed adjutant of Infanterie-Regiment 26. Before the year ended, Hube had been awarded the Iron Cross 1st Class (Eisernes Kreuz erster Klasse). On 25 June 1917, he became a deputy battalion leader in Infanterie-Regiment 26. In December 1917, he attended a communication course (3–12 December 1917).[Tr 2] Hube was promoted to Hauptmann (captain) on 27 January 1918 and appointed deputy brigadier adjutant on 20 January 1918. On 24 March 1918, he was acting as a standing General Staff officer with the 7. Division. In 1918, Hube was awarded the Knight's Cross of the House Order of Hohenzollern with Swords (Ritterkreuz des Königlichen Hausordens von Hohenzollern mit Schwertern) and was nominated for the Pour le Mérite. World War I ended before the presentation of the Pour le Mérite was approved.
On 10 April 1918, while commanding the defence against an English tank attack, Hube received severe gas poisoning. He spent the next year convalescing in hospital and saw the end of the war from his hospital bed.
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (December 2015)|
Upon his release from hospital, Hube was given a place in the Reichswehr. He continued his role as company commander in several Reichswehr regiments. In April 1925, he was promoted to Hauptmann and transferred to the Infanterieschule Dresden (Infantry School Dresden), to serve as an instructor to officer candidates. After he spent two years on training young officers, Hube was transferred to a general staff unit, and as a part of this posting was sent on a service trip to the USA. After his return from the US, Hube resumed his position as instructor at Dresden. In 1932, now a major, he was given command of IIIrd Battalion of the (East Prussian) Infantry Regiment 3. In 1933, after completing a heavy weapons training course in Döberitz, Hube was promoted to Oberstleutnant (Lieutenant Colonel) and placed in command of IIIrd Battalion of the Infantry Regiment 3 in Deutsch Eylau.
On 1 January 1935, Hube was transferred to the Infantry Training Staff at Döberitz. During this time he wrote the 2-volume manual Der Infanterist (The Infantryman). (The timeline may be off here, as the 1925 Edition of Der Infanterist shows the book as edited and compiled by Hube. He dates his introduction to the book in the Summer of 1924, giving his title at the time as Captain (Hauptmann) and Chief of the 11th Company of the 12th Infantry-Regiment.) During this period, Hube was promoted to Oberst. On October 19, 1939, Hube was transferred to command the Infantry Regiment 3.
World War II
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (December 2015)|
On 1 June 1940, Hube was promoted to Generalmajor and given command of 16th Infantry Division. In early August, the 16th was split into two divisions, one motorised infantry, one Panzer. Hube oversaw the formation of the 16.Panzer Division, and then led the division as a part of Generalfeldmarschall Gerd von Rundstedt's Army Group South during Operation Barbarossa.
On 7 July, near Starokonstantinov, Hube's 16th halted an enemy counterattack. For this action, Hube got the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross. On 16 January 1942, he was awarded the Oakleaves to the Knight's Cross for his actions near Nikolajew during the Battles around Kiev. Hube then led the 16th during Fall Blau, the attack to capture Stalingrad. The 16th Panzer Division was to form one of the armoured divisions to assault the city itself. In September 1942, Hube was given command of XIV Panzerkorps, the parent formation of the 16th Panzer. Hube commanded the XIVth during the disaster at Stalingrad. He was promoted to Generalleutnant and received the Swords to the Knight's Cross from Adolf Hitler personally on 21 December 1942. During his time at the Führer-Headquarters in Rastenburg, Hube argued strongly, but to no avail, for Hitler to allow 6th Army to attempt a breakout. Hube continued in command of the XIVth during the encirclement. On 18 January, Hitler ordered him to be flown out of the pocket. Despite his protests, Hube was flown out from the snow-covered Gumrak Airfield on the 19th in a Focke-Wulf 200C transport flown by the ace Leutnant Hans Gilbert. Hube was promoted to General der Panzertruppe.
After the destruction of Generalfeldmarschall Friedrich Paulus' Sixth Army, and with it the XIVth Panzerkorps, Hube was given the task of reforming the XIVth from scratch. After the completion of this task, Hube was sent to the Mediterranean front. In Sicily, he was charged with setting up its defence. He created Gruppe Hube, an army-sized formation whose task it was to defend the island. With the advent of Operation Husky on 10 July, Hube commanded the overall German defence. To make this task easier, on 17 July 1943 Hube was given command of all army and Flak troops on the island. Hube commanded the German forces' fighting retreat, and organised the evacuation to the Italian peninsula. Hube had prepared a strong defensive line, the 'Etna Line' around Messina, that would enable Germans to make a progressive retreat while evacuating large parts of his army to the mainland. Patton began his assault on the line at Troina, but it was a linchpin of the defense and stubbornly held. Despite three 'end run' amphibious landings the Germans managed to keep the bulk of their forces beyond reach of capture, and maintain their evacuation plans. Rescuing such a large number of troops from the threat of capture on Sicily represented a major success for the Axis. Hube was later involved in the battles defending Salerno from the Allied invasion.
Hube was moved back to Germany to take command of the Führer-Reserve OKH. On 23 October 1943, Hube was delegated as commander of the 200,000 man 1.Panzer Army, then serving with Army Group South under Generalfeldmarschall Erich von Manstein. In February 1944, Hube was officially confirmed as commander of 1.Panzer Army. Shortly after, III. Panzerkorps, one of Hube's units, was required to assist German forces breaking out of the Korsun-Cherkassy Pocket. Soon after this, Hube's entire force was trapped in a pocket near Kamenets-Podolsky. Hube and Manstein managed to extricate the formation and avoid disaster. The breakout lasted from 27 March 1944 until 15 April 1944, during which time Hube's forces destroyed 350 Russian tanks and 40 assault guns.
On 20 April 1944, Hube returned to Germany where Adolf Hitler personally awarded him the Diamonds to the Knight's Cross and promoted him to Generaloberst for his actions in Sicily, Salerno and in the Kamenets-Podolsky pocket. Hans-Valentin Hube was killed when the Heinkel He 111 that was shuttling him to Berlin crashed shortly after takeoff in Salzburg at Ainring on 21 April 1944. Only his black metal hand was recovered from the wreckage.
Hube was given a state funeral in Berlin on 26 April 1944. His coffin was laid out in the New Reich Chancellery and the eulogy was delivered by Generaloberst Heinz Guderian. The guard of honour consisted of the generals Walther Nehring, Hermann Breith, Heinrich Eberbach and Hans Gollnick. Hube was buried not far from Ernst Udet and Werner Mölders at the Invalidenfriedhof in Berlin.
Summary of career
- Iron Cross (1914)
- Knight's Cross of the House Order of Hohenzollern with Swords (1918)
- Friedrich Cross
- Wound Badge (1918) in Black
- Honour Cross of the World War 1914/1918
- Wehrmacht-Dienstauszeichnung 4th and 1st class
- Clasp to the Iron Cross (1939)
- Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves, Swords and Diamonds
- Knight's Cross on 1 August 1941 as Generalmajor and commander of the 16. Panzer-Division
- 62nd Oak Leaves on 16 January 1942 as Generalmajor and commander of the 16. Panzer-Division
- 22nd Swords on 21 December 1942 as Generalleutnant and commanding general of the XIV. Panzerkorps
- 13th Diamonds on 20 April 1944 as General der Panzertruppe and commander in chief of the 1. Panzer-Armee
- Eastern Front Medal
- Panzerkampfabzeichen in Gold
- Military Order of Savoy, Commander
- Mentioned in the Wehrmachtbericht on 17 August 1943, 31 January 1944 and 9 April 1944
|Date||Original German Wehrmachtbericht wording||Direct English translation|
|17 August 1943||Seit fünf Wochen stehen auf Sizilien deutsche Truppen und Teile einiger italienischer Divisionen gegen eine vier- bis fünffache feindliche Übermacht in hartem, erbittertem Kampf. Durch den heldenhaften Widerstand unserer Truppen, die in schwierigstem Gelände und bei tropischer Hitze Übermenschliches geleistet haben, wurde der Feind gezwungen, immer neue Verbände in den Kampf zu werfen, um seine großen Verluste an Menschen und Material aufzufüllen. Seit 14 Tagen ist die planmäßige Räumung der Insel im Gange. Den nachdrängenden Feind wurden in der Abwehr und durch wuchtige Gegenangriffe schwerste Verluste zugefügt. Alle Versuche des Gegners, durch rollende Luftangriffe gegen den Übersetzverkehr oder durch Vorstöße mit Seestreitkräften in die Messinastraße unsere Truppen auf Sizilien abzuschneiden, scheiterten. Feindliche Landungskräfte im Rücken unserer Front wurden vernichtet. Trotz stärkster feindlicher Luftüberlegenheit gelang es, die gewaltige Übersetzbewegung nach Kalabrien planmäßig durchzuführen, so dass bis 17. August, 6 Uhr früh, alle deutschen und italienischen Truppen, einschließlich ihrer schweren Waffen, Panzer, Geschütze, Kraftfahrzeuge und des Geräts über die Straße von Messina auf das Festland übergeführt waren. Als einer der letzten verließ General der Panzertruppe Hube, der die Kämpfe auf Sizilien geleitet hatte, die Insel.
Diese ungeheure militärische und organisatorische Leistung wurde ermöglicht durch die Tapferkeit der Truppen, die zu Lande jeden Durchbruch verhinderten, durch den unermüdlichen heldenhaften Einsatz der Kriegsmarine, die nur mit Kleinfahrzeugen den Verkehr bewältigte und mit leichten Seestreitkräften in den Flanken schützte, und durch den starken Schirm, den die Luftwaffe mit Jägern und Flakartillerie über der Straße von Messina spannte. Führung und Truppe haben eine Leistung vollbracht, die in die Kriegsgeschichte ebenso eingehen wird wie eine siegreiche Angriffsschlacht.
|Over the past five weeks in Sicily, German troops and elements of some Italian divisions have fought in hard, bitter struggle against an enemy four to five times more powerful. Through the heroic resistance of our troops, who have made a superhuman effort in difficult terrain and in tropical heat, the enemy was forced to commit new additional forces into combat to compensate for the huge losses in men and material. For 14 days the scheduled evacuation of the island is under way. The pursuing enemy suffered heavy losses by our defenses and by massive counterattacks. All enemy attempts, by rolling airstrikes against ferrying traffic or enemy advances with naval forces in the Strait of Messina to cut off our troops in Sicily, failed. Hostile forces which had landed in the back of our front were destroyed. Despite strongest enemy air superiority, the formidable withdrawal movement to Calabria succeeded and was carried out as planned, so that by 17 August, 6 clock in the morning, all German and Italian troops, including their heavy weapons, tanks, guns, motor vehicles and the equipment were transferred over the Straits of Messina to the mainland. As one of the last left General of Panzer Forces Hube, who had led the fighting in Sicily, the island.
This immense military and organizational performance was made possible by the bravery of the troops, who prevented any breakthrough on land, through the tireless heroic efforts of the navy, who handled the traffic only with small vehicles and protected with light naval forces in the flanks, and by the strong shield which the Air Force spanned with fighters and anti-aircraft artillery over the Strait of Messina. Commanders and troops have accomplished a feat that will go down in military history just as if this was a victorious offensive battle.
|22 August 1910:||Leutnant (Second Lieutenant)|
|25 February 1915:||Oberleutnant (First Lieutenant)|
|27 January 1918:||Hauptmann (Captain)|
|1 February 1931:||Major (Major)|
|1 June 1934:||Oberstleutnant (Lieutenant Colonel)|
|1 August 1936:||Oberst (Colonel)|
|1 June 1940:||Generalmajor (Brigadier General)|
|20 April 1942:||Generalleutnant (Major General) effective as of 1 January 1942|
|1 October 1942:||General der Panzertruppe (Lieutenant General)|
|20 April 1944:||Generaloberst (Colonel General) effective as of 1 April 1944|
- training course on counter measures against gas warfare—Gasschutzkurs
- communication course—Lehrgang B an der Nachrichtenschule
- In 1944, the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves, Swords and Diamonds was second only to the Grand Cross of the Iron Cross (Großkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes), which was awarded only to senior commanders for winning a major battle or campaign, in the military order of the Third Reich. The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves, Swords and Diamonds as the highest military order was surpassed on 29 December 1944 by the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Golden Oak Leaves, Swords and Diamonds (Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes mit Goldenem Eichenlaub, Schwertern und Brillanten).
- Williamson & Bujeiro 2004, pp. 3, 7.
- Stockert 2010, p. 54.
- Wegmann 2009, p. 360.
- Wegmann 2009, p. 362.
- Wegmann 2009, pp. 360, 362.
- Stockert 2010, p. 59.
- Thomas 1997, p. 309.
- Scherzer 2007, p. 407.
- Fellgiebel 2000, p. 236.
- Fellgiebel 2000, p. 57.
- Fellgiebel 2000, p. 40.
- Fellgiebel 2000, p. 37.
- Wegmann 2009, p. 363.
- Berger, Florian (1999). Mit Eichenlaub und Schwertern. Die höchstdekorierten Soldaten des Zweiten Weltkrieges [With Oak Leaves and Swords. The Highest Decorated Soldiers of the Second World War] (in German). Vienna, Austria: Selbstverlag Florian Berger. ISBN 978-3-9501307-0-6.
- Fellgiebel, Walther-Peer (2000). Die Träger des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939–1945 — Die Inhaber der höchsten Auszeichnung des Zweiten Weltkrieges aller Wehrmachtteile [The Bearers of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939–1945 — The Owners of the Highest Award of the Second World War of all Wehrmacht Branches] (in German). Friedberg, Germany: Podzun-Pallas. ISBN 978-3-7909-0284-6.
- Fraschka, Günther (1994). Knights of the Reich. Atglen, Pennsylvania: Schiffer Military/Aviation History. ISBN 978-0-88740-580-8.
- McCarthy, Peter; Syron, Mike (2002). Panzerkrieg: The Rise and Fall of Hitler's Tank Divisions. New York: Carol and Graf Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7867-1009-6.
- Schaulen, Fritjof (2003). Eichenlaubträger 1940 – 1945 Zeitgeschichte in Farbe I Abraham – Huppertz [Oak Leaves Bearers 1940 – 1945 Contemporary History in Color I Abraham – Huppertz] (in German). Selent, Germany: Pour le Mérite. ISBN 978-3-932381-20-1.
- Scherzer, Veit (2007). Die Ritterkreuzträger 1939–1945 Die Inhaber des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939 von Heer, Luftwaffe, Kriegsmarine, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm sowie mit Deutschland verbündeter Streitkräfte nach den Unterlagen des Bundesarchives [The Knight's Cross Bearers 1939–1945 The Holders of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939 by Army, Air Force, Navy, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm and Allied Forces with Germany According to the Documents of the Federal Archives] (in German). Jena, Germany: Scherzers Miltaer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-938845-17-2.
- Stockert, Peter (2010). Die Brillantenträger der deutschen Wehrmacht 1941–1945—Zeitgeschichte in Farbe [The Diamonds Leaves Bearers of the German Armed Forces 1941–1945—History in Color] (in German). Selent, Germany: Pour le Mérite. ISBN 978-3-932381-59-1.
- Thomas, Franz (1997). Die Eichenlaubträger 1939–1945 Band 1: A–K [The Oak Leaves Bearers 1939–1945 Volume 1: A–K] (in German). Osnabrück, Germany: Biblio-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-7648-2299-6.
- Wegmann, Günter (2009). Die Ritterkreuzträger der Deutschen Wehrmacht 1939–1945 Teil VIIIa: Panzertruppe Band 2: F–H [The Knight's Cross Bearers of the German Wehrmacht 1939–1945 Part VIIIa: Panzer Force Volume 2: F–H] (in German). Bissendorf, Germany: Biblio-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-7648-2389-4.
- Williamson, Gordon; Bujeiro, Ramiro (2004). Knight's Cross and Oak Leaves Recipients 1939–40. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84176-641-6.
- Williamson, Gordon (2006). Knight's Cross with Diamonds Recipients 1941–45. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84176-644-7.
- Die Wehrmachtberichte 1939–1945 Band 2, 1. Januar 1942 bis 31. Dezember 1943 [The Wehrmacht Reports 1939–1945 Volume 2, 1 January 1942 to 31 December 1943] (in German). München, Germany: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag GmbH & Co. KG. 1985. ISBN 978-3-423-05944-2.
- Die Wehrmachtberichte 1939–1945 Band 3, 1. Januar 1944 bis 9. Mai 1945 [The Wehrmacht Reports 1939–1945 Volume 3, 1 January 1944 to 9 May 1945] (in German). München, Germany: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag GmbH & Co. KG. 1985. ISBN 978-3-423-05944-2.
- Hans-Valentin Hube in the German National Library catalogue
- "Hans-Valentin Hube". Lexikon der Wehrmacht (in German). Retrieved 29 November 2015.
Generalleutnant Heinrich Krampf
|Commander of 16. Infanterie-Division
1 June 1940 – 1 November 1940
General der Infanterie Friedrich-Wilhelm von Chappuis
Generaloberst Eberhard von Mackensen
|Commander of 1. Panzerarmee
29 October 1943 – 21 April 1944
Generaloberst Erhard Raus