Hans Jakob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen
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|Hans Jakob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen|
Grimmelshausen in a 1641 portrait
Gelnhausen, Holy Roman Empire
17 August 1676|
Renchen, Holy Roman Empire
|Notable works||Simplicius Simplicissimus|
Hans Jakob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen (1621 – 17 August 1676) was a German author.
Grimmelshausen was born at Gelnhausen. At the age of ten he was kidnapped by Hessian soldiery, and in their midst tasted the adventures of military life in the Thirty Years' War. At the close of the war, Grimmelshausen entered the service of Franz Egon von Fürstenberg, bishop of Strassburg (Strasbourg). In 1665, he was made Schultheiss (magistrate) at Renchen in Baden. On obtaining this appointment, he devoted himself to literary pursuits.
Grimmelshausen's work is greatly influenced by previous utopian and travel literature, and the Simplicissimus series attained a readership larger than any other seventeenth-century novel. Formerly, he was credited with Der fliegende Wandersmann nach dem Mond, a translation from Jean Baudoin's L'Homme dans la Lune, itself a translation of Francis Godwin's The Man in the Moone, but recent scholars have denied this; he did, however, write an appendix to a 1667 edition of that translation, the basis for that association. Der fliegende Wandersman was included in his collected works, though without the appendix.
In 1668, Grimmelshausen published Der abenteuerliche Simplicissimus Teutsch, d.h. die Beschreibung des Lebens eines seltsamen Vaganten, genannt Melchior Sternfels von Fuchsheim, which has been called the greatest German novel of the 17th century. For this work he took as his model the picaresque romances of Spain, already to some extent known in Germany. Simplicissimus has been interpreted as its author's autobiography; he begins with the childhood of his hero, and describes the latter's adventures amid the stirring scenes of the Thirty Years' War. The rustic detail with which these pictures are presented makes the book a valuable document of its time. For some, however, the later parts of the book overindulge in allegory, and finally become a Robinson Crusoe story.
The historian Robert Ergang draws upon Gustav Könnecke's Quellen und Forschungen zur Lebensgeschichte Grimmelshausens to assert that "the events related in the novel Simplicissimus could hardly have been autobiographical since [Grimmelshausen] lived a peaceful existence in quiet towns and villages on the fringe of the Black Forest and that the material he incorporated in his work was not taken from actual experience, but was either borrowed from the past, collected from hearsay, or created by a vivid imagination."
Among Grimmelshausen's other works, are the so-called Simplicianische Schriften:
- Die Ertzbetrügerin and Landstörtzerin Courasche (1669)
- Der seltsame Springinsfeld (1670)
- Das wunderbarliche Vogelnest (1672)
He also published satires, such as Der teutsche Michel (1670), and gallant novels, like Dietwald und Amelinde (1670).
Death and legacy
He died in Renchen, where a monument was erected to him in 1679.
Der abenteuerliche Simplicissimus inspired Simplicissimus, a satirical German weekly. Simplicissimus is also a name used to refer to Grimmelshausen's novel or its protagonist.
- Hennig, John (1945). "Simplicius Simplicissimus's British Relations". Modern Language Review. 40 (1): 37–45. JSTOR 3717748. doi:10.2307/3717748.
- Bürger, Thomas; Schmidt-Glintzer, Helwig (1993), Der Fliegende Wandersmann nach dem Mond: Faksimiledruck der deutschen Übersetzung (in German), Wolfenbüttel: Herzog August Bibliothek, ISBN 978-3-88373-074-5
- Moore, Steven (2013). Novel: An Alternative History, 1600–1800. New York: Bloomsbury. p. 61. ISBN 144118869X.
- Robert Ergang, The Myth of the All-Destructive Fury of the Thirty Years' War (Pocono Pines: The Craftsmen, 1956), 7.
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Grimmelshausen, Hans Jakob Christoffel von". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- F. Antoine, Étude sur le Simplicissimus de Grimmelshausen (1882)
- Erich Schmidt, Charakteristiken, vol. i. (1886)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hans Jakob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen.|
- Works by Hans Jakob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen at Project Gutenberg
- Works by or about Hans Jakob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen at Internet Archive
- Works by Hans Jakob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
- Projekt Gutenberg-DE author page for Hans von Grimmelshausen
- Online Projekt Gutenberg-DE text of Der abenteuerliche Simplicissimus Teutsch
- English translations of Simplicius Simplicissimus, Courage, the Vindictive Tramp, The Elusive Springinsfeld
- Arthur F. J. Remy (1913). "Johann Jacob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
- "Grimmelshausen, Hans Jakob Kristoffel von". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920.