Hanumatodi, more popularly known as Todi, (pronounced hanumatōdi and tōdi) is a rāgam in Carnatic music (musical scale of South Indian classical music). It is the 8th melakarta rāgam (parent scale) in the 72 melakarta rāgam system. This is sung very often in concerts. It is known to be a difficult rāgam to perform in owing to its complexity in prayoga (phrases of notes and intonation). It is called Janatodi in Muthuswami Dikshitar school of Carnatic music.
Todi in Carnatic music, is different from Todi (thaat) of Hindustani music (North Indian classical music). The equivalent of the Hindustani raga Todi in Carnatic music is Shubhapantuvarali (which is the 45th melakarta). The equivalent of Carnatic Todi in Hindustani is Bhairavi thaat.
Structure and Lakshana
It is the 2nd rāgam in the 2nd chakra Netra. The mnemonic name is Netra-Sri. The mnemonic phrase is sa ra gi ma pa dha ni. Its ārohaṇa-avarohaṇa structure is as follows (see swaras in Carnatic music page for details on below notation and terms):
This scale uses the notes shuddha rishabham, sadharana gandharam, shuddha madhyamam, shuddha dhaivatham and kaisiki nishadham. It is a sampoorna rāgam - rāgam having all 7 swarams. It is the shuddha madhyamam equivalent of Bhavapriya, which is the 44th melakarta scale. A peculiarity of this raga is that it is sung in all lower notes.
Hanumatodi has a quite a few janya rāgams (derived scales) associated with it, of which Asaveri, Bhupalam, Dhanyasi, Punnagavarali and Shuddha Seemandhini are popular. See List of janya rāgams for all of Todi's janyas.
Most composers have composed songs in Todi. Thyagaraja alone has composed about 32 compositions in this raga with each composition starting at every single note of the three octaves. Thāye Yashoda, composed by Oottukkadu Venkata Kavi, is a very well known composition, in the Tamil language. This popular kriti is sung frequently in concerts. A popular varnam in the Todi rāgam is Erā Nāpai by Patnam Subramania Iyer, one of the famous composers of Carnatic music.
Other popular compositions are:
- Kādhanu vāriki, Dācu kovalena, Proddupoyenu, Dasarathi nee runamu, Aragimpave, Raju Vedale, Endu daginado, Chesinadella, Koluvamaregada, Nee vanti daivamu sadanana and Gati Neevani by Thyagaraja s
- Shri Krishnam Bhajamaanasa,Daakshayani and Kamalambike by Muthuswami Dikshitar
- Raave Himagiri Kumari,Karunanidhi Ilalo by Syama Sastri
- Enu dhanyalo lakumi by Purandara Dasa
- Kārthikeya Gangeya and Thamatham aen swami by Papanasam Sivan
- Bharathi mamava,sarasijanabha by Swathi Thirunal
- varnam miinakshi niidu by gnanananda teertha(ogirala veera raghava sarma)
- kriti kamakshi sada by gnanananda teertha(ogirala veera raghava sarma)
This section covers the theoretical and scientific aspect of this rāgam.
Todi's notes when shifted using Graha bhedam, yields 5 other major melakarta rāgams, namely, Kalyani, Shankarabharanam, Natabhairavi, Kharaharapriya and Harikambhoji. For further details and an illustration of graha bhedam of this rāgam refer related rāgams section in Shankarabharanam page.
- Sri Muthuswami Dikshitar Keertanaigal by Vidwan A Sundaram Iyer, Pub. 1989, Music Book Publishers, Mylapore, Chennai
- Ragas in Carnatic music by Dr. S. Bhagyalekshmy, Pub. 1990, CBH Publications
- Raganidhi by P. Subba Rao, Pub. 1964, The Music Academy of Madras