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Hanyu Shuiping Kaoshi

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Hanyu Shuiping Kaoshi
Hanyu Shuiping Kaoshi Logo.png
HSK Logo
Simplified Chinese 汉语水平考试
Traditional Chinese 漢語水平考試

The Hànyǔ Shuǐpíng Kǎoshì (HSK) (Chinese: 汉语水平考试), translated as the Chinese Proficiency Test[1] or the Chinese Standard Exam, is China's only standardized test of Standard Chinese language proficiency for non-native speakers such as foreign students and overseas Chinese.

It is not uncommon to refer to a standard or level of proficiency by the HSK level number, or score. For example, a job description might ask for foreign applicants with "HSK5 or better."

The test is administered by Hanban, an agency of the Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China.

Background, purpose and use[edit]

Development began in 1984 at Beijing Language and Culture University and in 1992 the HSK was officially made a national standardized test. By 2005, over 120 countries had participated as regular host sites and the tests had been taken around 100 million times (domestic ethnic minority candidates included).[2] The general count of candidates from outside of China is stated as being around 1.9 million.[3] In 2011, Beijing International Chinese College became the first HSK testing center to conduct the HSK test online.

The HSK test approximates the English TOEFL, and an HSK certificate is valid without any limitation in China. The test aims to be a certificate of language proficiency for higher educational and professional purposes.

The HSK is administered solely in Mandarin and in simplified Chinese characters; however, if the exam is paper-based, the test-taker can choose to write the writing assignments in simplified or in traditional characters, to his discretion.[4]

The test can be either paper-based or internet-based, depending on what the specific test center offer. With an internet based test the writing part with characters (from HSK 3 on) is slightly easier, since it's only needed to write the pinyin and pick the right character from the keyboard (while in the paper based you have to remember all strokes and write them down).

Test takers with outstanding results can win a scholarship for short-term language study in China.

Current structure (since 2010)[edit]

The current format was introduced in 2010, with a philosophy of testing "comprehensive language and communication ability".[1] Most notable is the inclusion of written segments at all levels (not just Advanced, as in the pre-2010 test), reformation of the ranking system, and use of new question structures. Complete vocabulary lists, previous tests, and simulated tests are available as preparation materials. A minor update of the vocabulary lists was made in 2012.

The HSK consists of a written test and an oral test, which are taken separately. This oral test is also known as the HSKK or 汉语水平口语考试.[5] [6]

Written test[edit]

Level Vocabulary Written test Description[7][8]
Words[9]
(cumulative / new)
Characters[10]
(cumulative / new)
Listening Reading Writing
1 150 150 174 174 20 questions, 15 min 20 questions, 17 min Not tested Designed for learners who can understand and use some simple Chinese characters and sentences to communicate, and prepares them for continuing their Chinese studies. In HSK 1 all characters are provided along with Pinyin.
2 300 150 347 173 35 questions, 25 min 25 questions, 22 min Designed for learners who can use Chinese in a simple and direct manner, applying it in a basic fashion to their daily lives. In HSK 2 all characters are provided along with Pinyin.
3 600 300 617 270 40 questions 30 questions 10 items Designed for learners who can use Chinese to serve the demands of their personal lives, studies and work, and are capable of completing most of the communicative tasks they experience during their Chinese tour.
4 1200 600 1064 447 45 questions 40 questions 15 items Designed for learners who can discuss a relatively wide range of topics in Chinese and are capable of communicating with Chinese speakers at a high standard.
5 2500 1300 1685 621 45 questions 45 questions 10 items Designed for learners who can read Chinese newspapers and magazines, watch Chinese films and are capable of writing and delivering a lengthy speech in Chinese.
6 5000 2500 2663 978 50 questions 50 questions 1 composition Designed for learners who can easily understand any information communicated in Chinese and are capable of smoothly expressing themselves in written or oral form.

The Listening, Reading and Writing tests each have a maximum score of 100. HSK 1 and 2 therefore have a maximum score of 200 with 120 points required to pass.[11][12] The higher levels have a maximum of 300 points with 180 points required to pass.[13][14][15][16] There is no minimum amount of points required for each of the sections as long as the sum is over 120 or 180 points respectively.

Hanban provides examples of the exam for the different levels together with a list of words that need to be known for each level.[17] These examples are also available (together with the audio for the Listening Test) on the websites of the Confucius Institute at QUT[18] and HSK Academy.[19]

Estimates of equivalent CEFR levels[edit]

In 2010, Hanban stated that the HSK's six levels correspond directly to the six levels of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR)[8][20] However, this statement has been rejected by both the German[21]:1,3,5 and French[22] associations of Chinese language teachers, which argue that HSK level 6 is equivalent to CEFR level B2 or C1.

HSK Estimated CEFR level according to...
Level Words (sum) Characters (sum) Hanban France[22] Germany[21]:2,4,6 Italy[citation needed]
6 5000 2663 C2[23] B2-C1 B2 from B1+ to B2
5 2500 1685 C1[24] B1-B2 B1 from A2+ to B1
4 1200 1064 B2[25] A2 A2 from A1+ to A2
3 600 617 B1[26] A1-A2 A1 from A1.1 to A1.2
2 300 347 A2[27] A1.1 A1.1 (without writing[28]) none
1 150 174 A1[29] Below A1 none none

Oral test[edit]

The HSKK test is a separate test. However, the three HSKK levels correspond with the six HSK levels of the written test.

HSK level HSKK level ECR Words Questions Minutes
1 Beginner A 200 27 17
2
3 Intermediate B 900 14 21
4
5 Advanced C 3000 6 24
6

Former structure (before 2010)[edit]

Test Rank (等第) Vocabulary
(cumulative)
Score (级别) Certificate
HSK

Advanced

Characters: 2865
Words: 8840
11 Advanced A
10 Advanced B
9 Advanced C*
- none
HSK

Elementary/

Intermediate

Characters: 2194
Words: 5257
8 Intermediate A
7 Intermediate B
6 Intermediate C
Characters: 1603
Words: 3052
5 Elementary A
4 Elementary B
3 Elementary C**
- none
HSK

Basic

Characters: 800
Words: 1033
3 Basic A
2 Basic B
1 Basic C
- none
*Generally signifies a professional level.
**Generally required for non-language academic programs.

Ranking[edit]

Formerly, there were 11 possible ranks (1-11) and 3 test formats (Basic, Elementary/Intermediate, and Advanced). A rank of between 3 and 8 was needed to enroll in a Chinese university, depending on the subject being studied. A score of 9 or higher was a common business standard[citation needed].

A student taking the Basic test (基础HSK) could attain a rank of 1 through 3 (1-3), or fail to meet requirements and thus not receive a rank. The Elementary/Intermediate test (初中等HSK) covered ranks 3-8 (3-8), with ranks below 3 not considered. Likewise, the Advanced test (高等HSK) covered ranks 9-11 (9-11), with scores below 9 not considered.

Content[edit]

The previous format for both Basic and Elementary/Intermediate HSK included four sections: listening comprehension, grammar structures, reading comprehension, and written expressions. Aside from the written expressions portion (which requires writing of Chinese characters), these two tests were completely multiple-choice. The Advanced HSK however, added an additional two portions: spoken and written.

Test dates and locations[edit]

The HSK is held at designated test centers in China and abroad.[30] A list of test centers can be found at the HSK website.[31] Test dates are published annually and written tests are more frequently held than spoken ones, generally around once a month, depending on the test center. Test registration is usually open until 30 days prior to the actual test date for the paper-based test or around 10 days prior the actual test date for the computer-based test. Results are generally available around 30 days after completion (but no definite date is given for results).[32]

The test cannot be taken on Taiwan, Kinmen, or any of the territories controlled by the Republic of China. In these areas, only the TOCFL exam can be taken. Conversely, TOCFL is not available in Mainland China, Hong Kong or Macau.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b 汉语水平考试2007年起将增加口语写作, 2006-12-26 www.eol.cn, "The 2007 HSK Revision Will Add Spoken and Writing Portions."
  2. ^ Official HSK Center Introduction, HSK Center
  3. ^ [1], China Education center
  4. ^ [2]
  5. ^ "汉语水平口语考试(HSKK) - Confucius Institute at Western Michigan University - 西密歇根大学孔子学院". Retrieved 2 May 2015. 
  6. ^ "Chinese Character Lists by New HSK Level". Archived from the original on 12 May 2015. Retrieved 2 May 2015. 
  7. ^ Introduction on New HSK Test
  8. ^ a b "Chinese Tests_HSK". Retrieved 2 May 2015. 
  9. ^ "资源中心--汉语考试服务网". Retrieved 2 May 2015. 
  10. ^ Character lists are not published separately, but can be derived from the published word lists.
    Character lists

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    Level 2: 吧白百帮助报纸比别宾馆长唱歌穿次从错篮球到得等弟第懂房间非常务员告诉哥给公共汽司贵过还孩黑红火站场鸡蛋件教室介绍进近就咖啡始考试可以课快乐累离两零路旅游卖慢忙每妹门条男您牛奶旁边跑步便宜票妻床千铅笔晴让日班身体病事情手表送虽然但它踢足题跳舞外完玩晚往为问瓜希望洗笑新姓休息雪颜色眼睛羊肉药要也已经意思因所阴泳右鱼远运动早丈夫找着真正知道准备走最左

    Level 3: 阿姨啊矮安静把搬办法半包饱方被鼻较赛记必须变化冰箱而且单参加草层差超市衬衫成绩城迟除船春词典聪扫算带担心糕当地灯铁图梯邮冬物短段锻炼饿耳朵发烧放附复干净感冒趣刚才根据跟更斤园故刮风于害怕板护照花画坏迎环境换黄河答议或者乎极季节检查简健康讲角脚接街目结婚束解决借理久旧句定渴刻空调口哭裤筷蓝礼历史脸练辆聊邻居留楼绿马满帽拿南难级轻鸟努力爬山盘胖皮鞋啤酒瓶其实奇怪骑清楚假秋裙容易如伞网声音世界瘦叔舒树数刷牙双平阳特疼提育甜头突腿碗万忘位文惯澡夏相信香蕉向像闻鲜用卡行李熊需选择求爷般直银饮料应该响戏又遇元愿越张急顾片只终种重周末主注自己总嘴业

    Level 4: 排全按之棒保证抱歉倍笨毕遍标格示演扬饼并博士管仅部擦猜材观餐厅厕江尝功诚乘惊抽烟厨传窗户粗存误案扮扰印招呼折针概使约戴刀导处底倒登牌低址掉丢堵肚童展律翻译烦恼反弃暑松份丰富否则符合父亲付款负责杂改赶敢速胳膊各资购够估计鼓励挂键众光广播逛规籍际汁程海洋羞寒汗航码适盒悔厚互联怀疑忆活泼获积基础激及即划技术既继续寄油具价坚持减肥建将奖金降落交流通郊区骄傲饺授受释尽紧禁止剧济验精彩景警察竞争竟镜究举拒绝距聚虑烤鸭科棵咳嗽怜惜肯恐苦矿泉困垃圾桶拉辣懒浪费漫虎拜貌厉例俩连凉另利乱麻毛巾美丽梦迷密免秒民族母耐内龄弄暖偶尔队列判断陪批评肤脾篇骗乒乓破葡萄普签敲桥巧克戚况穷取缺却确闹任何扔仍入散森林沙伤量稍微勺社申深甚至命省剩失败傅纪收拾首售货输熟悉帅顺序硕死度塑袋酸随孙台抬态谈弹钢琴汤糖躺趟讨论厌供醒填停挺推脱袜危险卫味温章污染无柿吸引咸羡慕详细橡消伙效辛封奋幸福性修许压呀膏亚洲严研盐养邀钥匙叶页切艺此象赢聘永勇优秀幽默尤由局谊愉与羽言预原谅阅云允志咱暂脏增占线整式支值职植指质围祝贺著专转赚仔尊座

    Level 5: 哎唉慰装岸暗熬夜握摆傍裹含括薄宝贝怨背悲领彼避编辑鞭炮辩达凌毒玻璃脖补充布骤财产采访虹踩惭愧操册测曾叉插拆品途抄朝潮湿吵架炒库厢彻沉趁称赞立恳承亏池塘尺翅膀冲器宠屉丑臭版席初夕统帘闯创造吹汇辞刺匆糙促醋催措施喷嚏厦型呆代替贷待纯独耽胆鬼淡挡致岛屿霉德滴敌毯震递钓顶冻洞豆腐逗堆兑吨蹲顿余躲藏恶劣愁抖挥罚繁荣映范妨碍仿佛皂废配析纷斗俗疯狂讽扶幅辅妇制革善盖念脆燥档搞隔壁厂寓恭贡献沟构姑娘古股骨掌固乖拐弯闭官冠军滑临泛归纳矩模柜滚锅庆王敏哈喊豪华核恨猴忽胡壶蝴蝶糊涂裔孕缓幻慌灰尘恢率姻跃柴伴肌烈诊集录寂寞夹庭乡嘉甲设驾驶嫁强肩艰巨兼捡剪筑酱浇胶狡猾训阶触账戒届属谨慎营神救舅桔俱捐均匀幕砍靠颗闲控夸宽昆虫扩椒拦烂朗劳婆鼠姥雷类厘梨润益恋良粮食灵铃域浏览泪龙漏陆轮逻骂麦馒矛盾贸眉媒煤炭魅秘蜜蜂苗描胜迹显令摸摩托陌某木嫩源嗯宁农村浓欧拍派盼培赔偿佩盆碰披疲匹飘拼频衡凭迫企启氛谦虚浅欠枪墙抢悄瞧妙勤青绪趋势娶圈权劝乏群燃绕币忍软弱洒嗓杀漠滩傻晒删闪扇蛇舍射击摄伸升绳略眠诗狮石髦尚践劲兵似卷套寿梳蔬摔甩税丝绸毫私撕搜索宿碎损缩锁拳坦烫逃桃淘殊征倡纲贴挑战痛偷投透土吐兔团荐退歪络返威胁违唯维伟尾巴委屈未置胃柔吻稳卧屋奈谓武勿雾瞎载吓艳县限肠享项链棋销孝歇斜血欣赏形状兄胸叙述宣寻询迅押齿延肃宴痒腰摇咬辈旦依移遗憾乙亿义素英俊雄硬拥挤惠悠犹豫炸幼娱玉订防圆晕灾糟摘窄粘涨召哲珍阵振睁齐政府治挣执疗秩智慧旬猪竹逐渐煮抓饰撞追咨姿紫综裁阻组织醉敬遵守

    Level 6: 挨癌症暧昧昂凹凸奥扒疤拔罢霸掰颁斑侣绑榜磅庇袱沧桑姆障仇酬暴露曝爆卑鄙哀惨壳叛诵奔波驰拙崩溃甭迸蹦逼涕喻塞弊端臂疆缘策贬扁迁辨辫彰憋墅扭濒雹丙拨涛剥削伯搏捕捉哺乳堪屑伐署缝谋残疾酷灿仓苍舱纵嘈侧岔刹诧异搀馋缠阐颤昌盛敞畅钞巢穴嘲撤淀闷陈呈挚诺堡惩澄橙秤钝赤沛叠崇稠筹储蓄犯川舶喘串捧炊垂锤粹洁慈祥磁雌伺丛凑鲁窜摧搓磋挫搭猎仗臣肆歹徒怠逮怯诞辰党捣盗窃稻谷罪笼蹬瞪堤坝抵抗颠簸缀垫惦奠叼雕吊跌丁叮嘱盯董荡脉栋兜陡峭督赌杜伍哆嗦堕额遏恩氧碳誓炎番凡殖驳馈滥畴贩御纺禽兽翔沃诽谤肺寝墟沸腾寸裂泌歧吩咐坟墓粉愤怒锋逢奉敷衍俘虏辐抚俯蚀朽副赋予裕腹泻覆钙旱涉尴尬慨岗港湾杠杆峰稿诫疙瘩鸽搁割颂阂抒蒂踪耕攻宫殿巩鸣勾钩孤辜雇佣杖辖贯灌溉罐辉芒阔轨跪棍渡滤瘾嗨滨暄罕捍迈耗呵蔼睦谐嘿痕狠横哼轰烘宏洪哄喉咙吼忧唤啸吁湖泊瓣蕾侨妆添筒患荒谬唐皇帝昏恍悟晃霍煌毁灭晤贿赂荤浑混淆浊箭焰讥饥械吉躁嫉妒忌讳佳肴晓尖锐韧监狱煎拣陋谍剑舰艇踏溅鉴僵桨娇焦侥搅拌缴皆揭奏杰晶截竭剖融津锦晋浸泡茎纬讶兢井颈椎惕纠拘鞠躬咀嚼沮丧瞩倔君辟拓刊勘探侃慷扛拢磕啃坑孔怖惧隙腔扣枯萎泣甘涩挎跨筐旷框捆喇叭蜡烛啦栏惰狼狈吞咽捞牢骚唠叨愣黎碑睬壮粒盟廉晾辽淋吝啬伶俐魂晨袖溜氓聋哑隆垄罩搂炉灶屡履掠夺廓胎坛啰唆绎痹蚂蚁嘛埋伏葬蔓碌盲茫茂枚萌芽猛眯弥惑谜棉疫勉绘瞄渺藐亡蔑捷誉膜磨魔抹莫墨睹沐浴辕辙涵拟逆捏凝拧纽奴隶虐挪哦殴呕趴斥徘徊遣攀旋畔庞抛沫烹饪劈惫倦屁譬偏僻浮撇贫庸屏坡颇魄扑铺朴瀑凄欺协旗袍帜乞丐岂蒙迄掐洽恰徙牵扯逊潜谴劫梁窍翘锲钦侵俭倾澈晰柬帖丘陵曲驱渠缔赴犬陷瘸嚷饶恕惹祸盈眶仁溶揉儒若撒谎嫂啥筛烁擅筋捎梢哨奢侈舌氏呻吟绅圣仙审渗疏肖锈牲畜尸野逝缚竖耍衰涮胞爽泥瞬斯肢寺庙饲惮耸艘苏讼隧塌塔泰贪婪摊瘫痪叹倘掏滔陶瓷汰伦堂田径舔剔剂衅亭滞膨胀缉讯铜掷秃壤拖妥椭唾挖掘哇娃瓦丸顽挽惋妄伪畏蔚雅窝乌诬耻衷赖侠侮辱蹈昔牺溪熄膝袭媳悦菌峡狭隘霞纤掀贤弦衔嫌宪阱馅镇镶嵌巷潇翼携泄郎颖薪仰旺腥刑勃凶汹涌膛绣嗅牧酗喧哗悬崖炫耀霜熏觅巡循抑榨鸦雀淹峻岩沿掩谣遥蛮液帆苟裳仪亦毅擎隐蔽瞒婴恒踊郁腻漆紊稚诱渔愚蠢舆宇宙绒兆欲愈冤枉宵谱岳酝酿蕴熨砸咋栽宰攒遭殃蹋噪贼赠扎渣眨诈债券沾瞻斩钉崭役帐篷蓬沼泽遮侦稀珠斟酌枕撼蒸宗郑撑援柱枝脂肪侄央忠肿瘤舟州粥昼皱纹株诸拄宅驻铸拽砖庄稼卸幢悼坠卓琢滋旨棕廊揍赁挠祖钻唇铭

  11. ^ "HSK Test - HSK 1 (English)". Retrieved 2 May 2015. 
  12. ^ "HSK Test - HSK 2 (English)". Retrieved 2 May 2015. 
  13. ^ "HSK Test - HSK 3 (English)". Retrieved 2 May 2015. 
  14. ^ "HSK Test - HSK 4 (English)". Retrieved 2 May 2015. 
  15. ^ "HSK Test - HSK 5 (English)". Retrieved 2 May 2015. 
  16. ^ "HSK Test - HSK 6 (English)". Retrieved 2 May 2015. 
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  28. ^ ohne Schriftzeichenkenntnisse
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